Finale 1: Zidine Helios (2024)

Finale 1: Zidine Helios (1)

Zidine’s mother, Helena, the once Queen and now Grand Princess stood coldly in her throne room, sitting in the throne that once belonged to her beloved husband… and that which should have belonged to her true bloodline. “Why isn’t my beloved son, George, not the true King?! If Zidine wasn’t Helios’ favourite child, none of this would have happened! Getting rid of him will never work even with him knowing since he will inevitably come and return with an iron fist! Just because Helios loved him with true care and empathy gave him the inevitable reign of King whereas his despising of me forced nothing more than hatred and vitriol on both sides. If only George was older… then maybe he would have become King.” She thought to herself with rage and sadness clashing in her hardened and rock-hard eyes and heart only to see a passenger pigeon flying into her castle with a letter in its talons, dropping it in her cold-blooded hands and then flying away faster than she could react as the seal had a familiar crest of two smaller snakes and one big snake behind them, resembling the staff of Asclepius. Opening the letter frantically, she saw its contents where it read: “The Great Serpents have authorised your request of Zidine falling in the shortest of time. George shall be King of Hesperia soon, and in return, Hesperia will meet every desire of the Great Serpents.' and upon reading this, tears dripped down her face and cheeks, warming her cold-blooded heart briefly as she smiled calmly, finally realising that her dreams of seeing Zidine falling and grovelling to her knees would be real. “Your Majesty, what is the news concerning?” Hadeil, her favourite general who bore a Roman-esque helmet, asked as she smiled. “Nothing more than a confirmation of George’s inevitable ascendance. What must I do to speed this up?” She asked to which Hadeil scratched his chin. “Write the boy a letter of confidence and confirmation henceforth to make George the Minister of Defence, that way, the army will swear loyalty to George due to a loophole in the law which cannot be reprimanded or changed and upon even stepping foot into Hesperia… he will find himself murdered or castrated by the way of our spears.” He casually suggested, knowing that she would willingly agree to do so, sacrificing her “son” for her “first-born”. 1 hour later, Zidine found himself sitting at his table, witnessing a letter that said: “Dear Zidine, please may you make a suggestion of the highest order? Make George, your beloved brother, the Minister of Defence henceforth and give him the rightful rank he is verily willing to deserve and adapt to his mind of growing temperament?” to which he read and smiled, responding with a simple “Yes”, sending this back to her to which she smiled peacefully upon hearing this. “It is done.” She spoke to a voice on the other side which had no visible caller ID and was simply listed as Unknown Number with a mystical snake with purple eyes as its profile picture.

“Ok. I need to go now.” Zidine said bluntly, walking out of the room for the briefest of moments, only to see a letter outside the room which was written by Helena: “Please, can our beloved George become the Lord of the Realm as Minister of Defence and thus Controller of the National Bank? It will be a great opportunity for him to gather kingly wisdom as your beloved Father did want.

Yours faithfully,

Helena, Grand Princess of Hesperia” to which Zidine signed back with “Yes, under the condition that he gains the highest tutelage”, with him now being on guard.

Helena watched from her kingdom, letting George sit on his father’s throne with a golden sceptre in his hand. “This here staff will allow you to control the ways of the Sun [in its warmth and heat]! You resemble your father in every way!” Helena said, doting cheerfully on her son as she heard a thunderbolt grace the kingdom. “Remember, this is not my last.” It spoke to her, and to her alone as her terror was covered by her love for her son.

Now in the morning, Zidine’s mother, Helena, the once Queen and now Grand Princess stood coldly in her throne room, watching greedily as George, her beloved son, was going to become King. She thought she was going to win everything. As she was about to land the crown on her son… a red thunderbolt could be seen in the distance. She knew her worst nightmare was coming. This was Fate itself coming and giving a huge middle finger. “RELEASE ALL OF THE ARMY!” Helena screamed as Hadeil was himself disheartened, questioning just how bad things were going to become. If only he knew…

Zidine had appeared in the form of a thunderbolt as dark shadows surrounded his vision. “Is this the thanks you give for me being so kind?” Zidine asked to which the shadows were silent, unnervingly so as they had their spears out with some even having revolvers ready for this threat. “You will die, Zidine, son of Helios!” Many soldiers as he released two blades from his hands which moved on the ground, causing a huge sound, the clanging doing some slight damage. “I warn you… this will be your undoing.” Zidine said coldly as each of the soldiers were absolutely terrified of even going near him but they had no choice. Their loyalty to the Queen and their lives were at stake as they had no choice but to attack. “DIE!” One soldier screamed as Zidine quickly used the Blades of Demphaus to grab his arms and forcibly pull him towards himself as the soldier couldn’t even scream. Upon getting near Zidine’s presence, he saw the demon that was; that demon Zidine became because of the woman that was Helena. “Look into my eyes.” Zidine asked as his glowing red eye stared into the soldier’s soul, to which the soldier screamed, ultimately having his arms snapped and crushed into the ground allowing him to then fight without mercy as every single soldier knew that they had to summon what appeared to be shields in order to protect themselves. “How regrettable.” Zidine said as he knew this wouldn’t end well whatsoever with her then spinning around using the Blades, causing numerous shields to be sent flying upwards as all the soldiers a glowing red spark of lightning. Screams devoured their ranks as Zidine smiled menacingly; laughter boomed through the entire area with him using the Blades of Demphaus to grab soldiers’ legs, dodging a few of their attacks, using his elbows, legs and hands to do far more damage than anyone was expecting with the soldiers continuing to attack. “Chaotic Spin.” Zidine said, using the Blades to damage the ground and attacking several soldiers simultaneously as one of the soldiers had one of the blades within their mouths with this being used against them, being sent flying towards Zidine as his other blade was used to send another flying away, combining that with red lightning being used to utterly incinerate other soldiers. As their own comrades observed their fellow soldiers being utterly erased, they were themselves too late to prevent their own demise since they had their necks snapped, suffering from being choked by way of the chains. “Leaving you alive will be good but… sending a message to our beloved Mother is needed.” Zidine said to them all with them all continuing to attack him only for Zidine to summon a red orb above him. “Second Form of the Lightning Of Elding: Vortex of Death.” Zidine said, causing wind to slowly erupt like a volcano from underground as the soldiers slowly felt their lives whisk away; causing some of the soldiers who weren't affected to look horrified. “This is the Queen's boy? Why is he a demon?!” One of the soldiers asked, seeing just how terrifying this being was. Zidine's eyes continued to glow. “I often find that death… is not often the best recourse.” Zidine thought to himself as the red orb exploded, causing lightning to devour every single soldier in the nearest vicinity as their eyes were beginning to fire out of their faces; nerves and neurons simply began no longer firing. Death became the norm here… with Zidine simply moving forward. Having no empathy for anyone who supported his mother. He knew that she would inevitably rue the day she would make his younger brother queen over his kindness. He knew that he had no choice but to allow blood to devour the countryside of Hesperia as he continued to use his Blades as a means of attack and defence. “FIRE THE REVOLVERS!” A burlesque soldier spoke as though he came from the American Civil War as multiple soldiers now began to ensnare and surround him. “Forgive me…” Zidine said as he immediately began to go ballistic and start to ionise the very air, touching it with his fingers, causing many a soldier’s head to explode as their eye sockets were visible, allowing him to wrap the Blades of Demphaus around one; ensnare a second with his godlike grip and then elbow a third whilst pulling them all in, flying them about and then crushing them into the floor. “You children are weak.” Zidine then said, catching a bullet in his hand from some of the soldiers, electrocuting it, twisting it around his hands and sending it back to the soldier that initially fired it, allowing him to run through the rest of the soldiers like butter, firing thunder at all of them. “RUN! RETREAT! REPORT BACK TO LORD HADEIL!” The soldier Hadrian screamed, causing the remaining few hundred who weren’t yet targeted by Zidine’s demonic eyes to begin. “Let’s-!” One of the surviving soldiers screamed who was crawling in absolute fear only to be grabbed from the scruff of his neck. “Run? No… I think its time we send Helena a message. Don’t you? ” Zidine said, retracting his blades and summoning Mjolnir which appeared from the sky. “W-what are you doing?!” The soldier screamed as Zidine coldly smiled. “Sending a message. Just not by letter or animal.” He said, using the Second Form of the Lightning of Elding to send the frightened soldier upwards, allowing him to jump up and slam his hammer into the soldier’s chest. “PLEASE! DON-!” The soldier screamed as Helena herself saw a bloodied helmet appearing on the red carpet of the Palace. “Who did this?” Helena asked Hadeil who looked genuinely annoyed. “Madam…. I suggest you take a good look outside.” Hadeil said, with which she saw an absolute nightmare. Red thunderbolts, skeletons, bones and a sea of blood devoured the entirety of the countryside as she saw numerous soldiers being ensnared in golden chains. “Request George to use the Scepter to annihilate Zidine from long range!” Helena screamed as Hadeil immediately made this request. “Why is Brother always so prudent in his revenge-based desire?” George asked his mother, still naive and completely under his mother’s thumb; with him using the sceptre to force the sky to become golden. Zidine, on the other hand, looked quite amazed as the soldiers that tried to run away (50 in total) were ensnared as Helena saw. “Why are you doing this?! I thought you were the mighty Helios’ son! The most powerful man in the West!” A soldier asked, who was clearly Zidine’s own age with a revolver on his side, holstered with what appeared to be bullets that had a sun symbol on them. “Well, you see… when you have a mother who is controlling, conniving, manipulative and an outright ass… you tend not to see things in the brightest way. And even with such power… not all forms of darkness can be quelled with ability alone.” Zidine said, sensing something was awry, with him looking at the sky which turned a beautiful golden hue. “What is that?!” The same soldier screamed as Zidine looked down at them. “My apologies… but it appears that you are going to be sacrificed…” Zidine said; his own Berserker Mode eating away at his soul with red lightning coursing out of every orifice of his being. “... like pigs for slaughter. That is what my mother saw you as… but alas… you were blind to a woman who was never loyal to you in the first place.” Zidine said as he turned around, seemingly unable to watch as the soldiers begged him for mercy with the beams of light from the sky eviscerating their mortal shells, leaving only ash and solar bullets which inevitably dissolved into dust. In an instant, Zidine’s neck snapped sidewards, his eyes locked on to his former castle, staring eye-to-eye with Helena for the first time in years. His eyes narrowed briefly as a red lightning bolt was heard within the castle.

He appeared within the domain of King George for the first time in years as he reminded himself of Helios' death. "Zidine, you come? Why must be your first appearance so shallow and cold?" Helena said as Zidine remained silent. "If I were you, I wouldn't talk so casually." Hadeil said, stopping any words from Zidine's mouth. "Why ask such a foolish question, Mother? Be struck with a sure semblance of kindness and respect that I even bestow thee with such a title of renown." Zidine spoke as Helena's once beautiful eyes became marred with scorn. "Why did you come and storm your way through the country?" Helena asked as Zidine turned to look at her. "I merely did so to send a message. But it appears that... it came loud and clear." Zidine said, staring at the helmet that once belonged to a soldier he had "slain". "You murdered thousands of my soldiers!" Hadeil screamed in utter outrage as he pointed his spear to Zidines throat, only for him to point a finger directly at the tip of the spear, as if to provoke him with unspoken threats. "Yes. I do apologise for doing such a thing, Lord Hadeil. But we both know that the only reason why you are in such a high position is simply because of corruption related to the Brotherhood of the Serpent before this damn debacle happened with King George for you were crowned as his protector, bound by a lifelong vow of servitude. Am I incorrect in my truths? Or is that simply a false narrative shoved down my throat by the one who you call Queen? Irrespective of such facts, your loyalty is more misplaced than a babe's lost pacifier." Zidine spoke. As this was being said by the lips of the traitor, the general's eyes narrowed with slight concern and visible outrage. It appeared that his words had great effect. Paralysis stung his heart and soul. "Damn traitor. How dare you refer to me as a baby." Hadeil said with disgust as Zidine smiled. "Considering your misplaced loyalty towards her... and your apparent desire to constantly be near her... then it is clear my assumptions are correct." Zidine said to which Hadeil gritted his teeth. "How dare ye speak so callously against me and the Queen!" He spoke with outrage in his words, immediately readying himself in a fighting stance. "So I am correct?" Zidine asked to which Hadeil knew he was right as Helena was visibly annoyed by this. "A third I know: if sore need should come of a spell to stay my foes; when I sing that song, which shall blunt their swords, nor their weapons nor staves can wound." Zidine spoke as Helena was horrified. "As much as I would like to deal with you further... I wouldn't want Mother over there to be traumatised would I?" Zidine asked as Hadeil looked absolutely terrified with Zidine then turning to look at George. "I won't let you control him any furth-! GET HIM AWAY FROM ME!" George screamed, holding onto his sceptre for dear life as Zidine’s eyes softened ever so slightly as though he stretched a hand out of Mercy and kindness. "Please, George... do not attack me." Zidine spoke to him to which George's eyes looked at him with visible rage. "MOTHER, GET HIM AWAY FROM ME AT ONCE!" George continued to scream as Zidine continued to walk towards him and as soon as he got close enough for the sceptre to do damage, he stood there and let the sceptre stab him. "I don't want to fight you George. You are under Mother's control. While I cannot forgive you for banishing me once last year... I will allow you the chance to kill me if you so desire. Right here. Right now." Zidine said; his hubris thus having become deceased. "Leave at once, Zidine." Helena said as Zidine turned to look at the woman he once called Mother. "Very well. I will leave. But, I warn you, Princess of the Serpents... if you dare think of harming me or my brethren in any way... your death will be swifter and slower than the wind and an elder lady. Your suffering will be magnified. I will show you true abuse. We have learned of Śatanika. He is a wretched king. We will watch him squirm. This will not be my last." He then continued to say as Helena's eyes widened slightly in shock, as if to question how he knew the leader of the Brotherhood. "You don't know? Does betrayal run in the clandestine family or something?" Zidine asked as Helena coldly retorted with "If you run your mouth any longer, I wilt have you fully eviscerated out of this kingdom and blood spayed from your slicèd tongue and feed it to the cows. I suggest you leave at once." as Zidine remained calm. He knew that everything had went accordingly. "Make me, loathsome mother." He coldly spoke as Helena looked aghast. This was not something she expected at all. This wasn't... something she predicted. "You wretched boy. The Brotherhood of the Serpent has won anyhow. Time is up." She spoke as Helena had Hadeil stab her hands briefly with the spear, releasing a small amount of blood, ultimately revealing... Two snake eyes. "Even so... I will be back. And when the time, I will restore the title which you besmirched. This will not be my last." Zidine said coldly, finally disappearing in a flash of red lightning as George's eyes looked terrified only for Helena and Hadeil to calm the boy down.

Contents

  • 1 A year later
    • 1.1 (11) ARMOUR
      • 1.1.1 II. QUIVER OF HERACLES
    • 1.2 ARMOUR OF AENEAS
      • 1.2.1 II. TYPHOEUS ATTACKS THE HEAVENS AS A STORM
  • 2 The Chat with the Man Long Since Gone
    • 2.1 Epithets
      • 2.1.1 Divine Perfection, Individuality, and Myths
  • 3 Function Hierarchy
    • 3.1 Anagogic and Katagogic Activity Hierarchy
    • 3.2 Ontological Hierarchy
    • 3.3 Hypercosmic Gods
    • 3.4 Hyper-Encosmic Gods
    • 3.5 Encosmic Gods
    • 3.6 Sub-Lunar Gods
    • 3.7 Daimons
    • 3.8 Heroes
    • 3.9 Purified Souls
    • 3.10 Free will’s relation to our descent to matter
  • 4 Fate
  • 5 Providence
    • 5.1 Ousia-Dunamis-Energia Triad
    • 5.2 I. Essence
      • 5.2.1 Where the soul comes from
    • 5.3 II. Power
    • 5.4 III. Activity
    • 5.5 ORPHIC HYMN TO PHANES
      • 5.5.1 II. THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY
    • 5.6 ANANKE GODDESS OF NECESSITY
    • 5.7 And so it was written:
    • 5.8 Only Eros, that Love which is most gratuitous and most undeserved, which is beyond all reason and necessity, can break free of Ananke.
    • 5.9 OTHER SOURCES
    • 5.10 Cosmic Egg Stories
  • 6 Battle of Brothers
    • 6.1 Outer Realms
  • 7 The Final Training
    • 7.1 ORPHIC HYMN TO PHANES
      • 7.1.1 II. THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY
  • 8 The War’s Beginning
    • 8.1 The Final Battle - The Runic Master of Thunder vs the King of Hell
  • 9 Powers and Stats
  • 10 Notable Abilities
  • 11 Notes

A year later[]

“Zidine?” Mr Harimatsu asked as Zidine’s ears perked up, knowing that Mr Harimatsu was a kind man, at least on the surface. “Can you take Abram Willis on your journey?” He asked, his moustache moving silently. “I cannot. I m-!” Zidine responded with only for Mr Harimatsu to glare at him. “Can you take him?” He responded with, leaving Zidine briefly taken aback, ultimately agreeing as Abram Willis walked onto the scene, with a black suit and red bowtie alongside neatly combed hair and a short stubble that befit his age. “You look too old to be with me. Are you sure you are 19?” Zidine asked with a slight air of arrogance. “Yes, I am. You look 35 yourself.” Abram said in quick retort with a sly look on his face. The two went from the School to the land of Iceland by boat as the Norns made themselves known. “Thy destiny is coming, boy. You must pay your debt to us with death.” All three said with true authority, only for him to walk away, whilst observing a nearby mountain. But this wasn’t the Mountain of Ancalogor with his eye activating subconsciously. “Snæfellsjökull is a 700,000-year-old glacier-capped stratovolcano in western Iceland. It is situated on the westernmost part of the Snæfellsnes peninsula. Sometimes it may be seen from the city of Reykjavík over Faxa Bay, at a distance of 120 km.” Zidine thought to himself, calmly walking to the Mountain as Abram went alongside him. “Why are we even here?” He asked as Zidine was silent, hardly speaking but as they climbed the mountain 3 hours later, Zidine noticed a majority of the mountain he was on being utterly decimated in one strike as the snow that he formerly crunched on became nothingness in the murky darkness underneath his feet, jumping away from this destruction only to walk away. “This mountain is one of a desolate area. No life exists here.” Zidine said only for Abram to glance him in utter vitriol. “Of course. It is a volcano.” Abram said with a snarky look in his eyes, but he knew that fighting Zidine head on would lead to his demise. However, despite this, they both saw a tree at its summit. It was a large tree, far larger than any other tree that could exist at the time as three invisible ladies revealed themselves on its tree tops. “We are Urðr, Verðandi and Skuld.” They each said, as with a mere snap of their fingers, Zidine was instantly sent flying to the summit whereas Abram was sent to the land of Denmark. “My name of Urðr means fate with her name, Verðandi means happening and present whereas Skuld means debt but in English, it meaneth should. There is a river underneath the ground known as Well of Urðarbrunnr which is the third of the Wells around Yggdrasil where the laws were set. I am a spinner of the threads of life, my sister Verdandi cuts things into existence whereas Skuld selecteth warriors from the slain into going to Valhalla. The tree that we sit in is called Yggdrasil but this tree you see is its mere manifestation in the earthly realm. I am the past, Verðandi is the present and Skuld is the future. We are each other’s speakers and voices where she (Verðandi) alloweth one to become their destiny whereas Skuld is the giver of debt and finality.” They each explained in complete unison; as he saw their sagging skin with pale red eyes for they were surely ladies of old, an ancient time from a different place, to both the face of Zidine and the mind of Abram; with the latter looking truly amazed by this information. “Your debt will be paid in death.” Skuld said as they each laughed in unison but did not dare to physically touch Zidine out of fear of his next move. Would it be a violent move or one of peace? “As ye have once already learned of our existence as the ones who weave fate of all creation, we grant you permission to touch thyself in the river known as the Well of Urðarbrunnr in its fullest form… only when the time hath come, your gift will come.” They each said, tapping the ground only to see the part of it reveal a beautiful blue river as Zidine stared at it, but, upon him doing this, they each used red strings to send the Berserker into the river, of which was holy, so holy in fact that Haakon once observed this in his younger days and felt his skin turning whiter than the inside of an eggshell, purifying him completely. “Is that the gift?” Zidine asked as he walked away. “No… it will come when the sun redeems the moon for its bearings and misgivings and then, only then wilt the eclipse come and tear ye asunder. Thy hammer is indeed the ultimate tool.” All three Norns said as Zidine’s eyes were greedy for this gift but slightly humbled and confused. “Thank you for the information.” Zidine said calmly, still with a hint of arrogance. “Here is a tale from the Prose Edda:

‘It is two wolves, and the one that is going after her is

called Skoll. She is afraid of him and he will catch her, and the one

that is running ahead of her is called Hati Hrodvitnisson, and he is

trying to catch the moon, and that will happen.’

Then spoke Gangleri: ‘What is the origin of the wolves?’

High said: ‘A certain giantess lives east of Midgard in a forest

called Ironwood. In that forest live trollwives called Iarnvidiur.

The ancient giantess breeds as sons many giants and all in wolf

shapes, and it is from them that these wolves are descended. And

they say that from this clan will come a most mighty one called

Moongarm. He will fill himself with the lifeblood of everyone that

dies, and he will swallow heavenly bodies and spatter heaven and

all the skies with blood. As a result the sun will lose its shine and

winds will then be violent and will rage to and fro. Thus it says in

Voluspa:

In the east lives the old one, in Ironwood, and breeds there

Fenrir’s kind. Out of them all comes one in particular, sun’s

snatcher in troll’s guise.

He gorges the life of doomed men, reddens gods’ halls with

red gore. Dark is sunshine for summers after, all weathers

  1. hostile. Know you yet, or what?’

High said: ‘There are many important things to be told about it.

First of all that a winter will come called fimbul-winter [mighty or

mysterious winter]. Then snow will drift from all directions.

There will then be great frosts and keen winds. The sun will do no

good. There will be three of these winters together and no summer

between. But before that there will come three other winters

during which there will be great battles throughout the world.

Then brothers will kill each other out of greed and no one will

show mercy to father or son in killing or breaking the taboos of

kinship. Thus it says in Voluspa:

Brothers will fight and kill each other, cousins will break the

bonds of their relationship. It will be harsh for heroes, much

depravity, age of axes, age of swords, shields cloven, age of

winds, age of wolves, until the world is ruined.

Then something will happen that will be thought a most significant

event, the wolf will swallow the sun, and people will think

this a great disaster. Then the other wolf will catch the moon, and

he also will cause much mischief. The stars will disappear from

the sky. Then there will take place another event, the whole earth

and mountains will shake so much that trees will become uprooted

from the earth and the mountains will fall, and all fetters

and bonds will snap and break. Then Fenriswolf will get free.

Then the ocean will surge up on to the lands because the Midgard

serpent will fly into a giant rage and make its way ashore. Then it

will also happen that Naglfar will be loosed from its moorings, the

ship of that name. It is made of dead people’s nails, and it is worth

taking care lest anyone die with untrimmed nails, since such a

person contributes much material to the ship Naglfar which gods

and men wish would take a long time to finish. And in this flood

Naglfar will be carried along. There is a giant called Hrym who

will captain Naglfar. But Fenriswolf will go with mouth agape

and its upper jaw will be against the sky and its lower one against

the earth. It would gape wider if there was room. Flames will burn

from its eyes and nostrils. The Midgard serpent will spit so much

poison that it will bespatter all the sky and sea, and it will be very

terrible, and it will be on one side of the wolf. Amid this turmoil

the sky will open and from it will ride the sons of Muspell. Surt

will ride in front, and both before and behind him there will be

burning fire. His sword will be very fine. Light will shine from it

more brightly than from the sun. And when they ride over Bifrost

it will break, as was said above. Muspell’s lads will advance to the

field called Vigrid. Then there will also arrive there Fenriswolf

and the Midgard serpent. By then Loki will also have arrived there

and Hrym and with him all the frost-giants, but with Loki will be

all Hel’s people. But Muspell’s sons will have their own battle

array; it will be very bright. The field Vigrid is a hundred leagues

in each direction.

‘And when these events take place, Heimdall will stand up and

blow mightily on Giallarhorn and awaken all the gods and they

will hold a parliament together. Then Odin will ride to Mimir’s

well and consult Mimir on his own and his people’s behalf. Then

the ash Yggdrasil will shake and nothing will then be unafraid in

heaven or on earth. The Æsir will put on their war gear, and so

will all the Einheriar, and advance on to the field. Odin will ride in

front with golden helmet and fine coat of mail and his spear called

Gungnir. He will make for Fenriswolf, and Thor will advance at

his side and be unable to aid him because he will have his hands

full fighting the Midgard serpent. Freyr will fight Surt and there

will be a harsh conflict before Freyr falls. The cause of his death

will be that he will be without the good sword that he gave Skirnir.

Then will also have got free the dog Garm, which is bound in front

of Gnipahellir. This is the most evil creature. He will have a battle

with Tyr and they will each be the death of the other. Thor will be

victorious over the Midgard serpent and will step away from it

nine paces. Then he will fall to the ground dead from the poison

which the serpent will spit at him. The wolf will swallow Odin.

That will be the cause of his death. And immediately after Vidar

will come forward and step with one foot on the lower jaw of the

wolf. On this foot he will have a shoe for which the material has

been being collected throughout all time: it is the waste pieces that

people cut from their shoes at the toe and heel. Therefore anyone

that is concerned to give assistance to the Æsir must throw these

pieces away. With one hand he will grasp the wolf’s upper jaw and

tear apart its mouth and this will cause the wolf’s death. Loki will

have a battle with Heimdall and they will cause each other’s

death. After that Surt will fling fire over the earth and burn the

whole world. Thus it is related in Voluspa:

Loud blows Heimdall, his horn is aloft. Odin speaks with

Mim’s head. The ash Yggdrasil shakes as it stands, the

ancient tree groans, and the giant gets free.

What is it with the Æsir? What is it with the elves? All

Giantland resounds. Æsir are in council. Dwarfs groan

before rock doorways, frequenters of rock-walls. Know you

yet, or what?

Hrym drives from the east holding his shield before him,

Iormungand writhes in a giant rage. The serpent churns the

waves, the eagle will screech with joy, darkly pale it tears

corpses, Naglfar is loosed.

A bark sails from the east, across the sea will come

Muspell’s troops with Loki at the helm. All that monstrous

brood are there with the wolf. In company with them is

Byleist’s brother.

Surt travels from the south with the stick-destroyer [fire].

Shines from his sword the sun of the gods of the slain. Rock

cliffs crash and troll-wives are abroad, heroes tread the road

of Hel and heaven splits.

Then Hlin’s second sorrow comes to pass as Odin goes to

fight the wolf, and Beli’s bright slayer against Surt. There

shall fall Frigg’s delight.

Odin’s son goes to fight the wolf, Vidar on his way against

the slaughterous beast. With his hand he lets his blade pierce

Hvedrung’s son’s heart. So is his father avenged.

Goes the great son of Hlodyn, dying, to the serpent who

shrinks from no shame. All heroes shall leave the world

when Midgard’s protector strikes in wrath.

The sun will go dark, earth sink in the sea. From heaven

vanish bright stars. Steam surges and life’s warmer [fire],

high flame flickers against the very sky.

It also says here:

There is a field called Vigrid where shall meet in battle Surt

and the sweet gods. A hundred leagues each way it is; this

field is marked out for them.’

Then spoke Gangleri: ‘What will happen then after heaven and

earth and all the world is burned and all the gods and all Einheriar

and all mankind are dead? You said previously that everyone

shall live in some world or other for ever and ever.’

Then said Third: ‘There will then be many mansions that are

good, and many that are bad. The best place to be in heaven then

will be Gimle, and there will be plenty of good drink for those that

take pleasure in it in the hall called Brimir. That is also in heaven.

That is also a good hall which is situated on Nidafioll, built of red

gold. It is called Sindri. In these halls shall dwell good and virtuous

people. On Nastrands is a large and unpleasant hall, and its doors

face north. It is also woven out of snakes’ bodies like a wattled

house, and the snakes’ heads all face inside the house and spit

poison so that rivers of poison flow along the hall, and wading

those rivers are oathbreakers and murderers, as it says here:

I know a hall that stands far from the sun on Nastrand.

North face the doors. Poison drops flow in through the

smoke-hole. This hall is woven from snakes’ backs. There

shall wade heavy streams men who are perjured and

murderers.

But it is worst in Hvergelmir:

There Nidhogg torments the bodies of the dead.’

Then spoke Gangleri: ‘Will there be any gods alive then? And

will there be any kind of earth or sky?’

High said: ‘The earth will shoot up out of the sea and will then

be green and fair. Crops will grow unsown. Vidar and Vali will be

alive, the sea and Surt’s fire not having harmed them, and they will

dwell on Idavoll, where Asgard had been previously. And then

Thor’s sons Modi and Magni will arrive, bringing Miollnir. After

that Baldr and Hod will arrive from Hel. Then they will all sit

down together and talk and discuss their mysteries and speak of

the things that had happened in former times, of the Midgard

serpent and Fenriswolf. Then they will find in the grass the golden

playing pieces that had belonged to the Æsir. Thus it is said:

Vidar and Vali will dwell in the gods’ holy places when

Surt’s flame goes dark. Modi and Magni shall have Miollnir

when Vingnir fights no more.

And in a place called Hoddmimir’s holt two people will lie hid

during Surt’s fire called Life and Leifthrasir, and their food will be

the dews of morning. And from these people there will be

descended such a great progeny that all the world will be inhabited. As it says here:

Life and Leifthrasir, and they shall lie hid in Hoddmimir’s

holt. Dews of morning they shall have as their food, and

from them shall grow mankind.

And this also will seem amazing to you, that the sun will have

begotten a daughter no less fair than she is, and she shall follow

the paths of her mother, as it says here:

A daughter shall Alfrodul bear before Fenrir catches her.

She shall ride, when the powers die, the maiden, her

mother’s road.

And now if you know any more questions to ask further into the

future, I do not know where you will find answers, for I have

heard no one relate the history of the world any further on in time.

And may the knowledge you have gained do you good.’

Next Gangleri heard great noises in every direction from him,

and he looked out to one side. And when he looked around

further he found he was standing out on open ground, could see

no hall and no castle. Then he went off on his way and came back

to his kingdom and told of the events he had seen and heard

about. And from his account these stories passed from one person

  1. to another.

And when the dragon came slithering toward the water, there was

an earthquake that shook all the earth in the vicinity. The dragon blew

poison from his mouth in every direction in front of him, and Sigurđ

was afraid neither of the sight nor the sound. And when the dragon

slithered over his pit, Sigurđ stabbed him beneath his left armpit, so

deep that the sword sank up to the hilt. Then Sigurđ leapt up out of

his pit and drew his sword back, and his arms were bloody up to the

shoulders. And when the great dragon felt himself mortally wounded,

he thrashed out with his head and tail and broke everything in reach.

And as Fáfnir felt himself dying, he said, “Who are you? Who is your

father? What family are you from, that you were daring enough to bring

  1. weapons against me?” The three Norns spoke as Zidine felt a sense of fear for Abram himself.

Despite this, the top of the Mountain truly didn’t show much as Zidine felt the cover of midnight devouring him… only to hear a howl as a huge wolf revealed itself in front of him.

“In Prose Edda's Gylfa*ginning, parts 43-46: "The Wolf the Æsir brought up at home, and Týr alone dared go to him to give him meat. But when the gods saw. how much he grew every day, and when all prophecies declared that he was fated to be their destruction, then the Æsir seized upon this way of escape: they made a very strong fetter, which they called Lædingr, and brought it before the Wolf, bidding him try his strength against the fetter. The Wolf thought that no overwhelming odds, and let them do with him as they would. The first time the Wolf lashed out against it, the fetter broke; so he was loosed out of Lædingr. After this, the Æsir made a second fetter, stronger by half, which they called Drómi, and bade the Wolf try that fetter, saying he would become very famous for strength, if such huge workmanship should not suffice to hold him. But the Wolf thought that this fetter was very strong; he considered also that strength had increased in him since the time he broke Lædingr: it came into his mind, that he must expose himself to danger, if he would become famous. So he let the fetter be laid upon him. Now when the Æsir declared themselves ready, the Wolf shook himself, dashed the fetter against the earth and struggled fiercely with it, spurned against it, and broke the fetter, so that the fragments flew far. So he dashed himself out of Drómi. Since then it passes as a proverb, 'to loose out of Lædingr,' or 'to dash out of Drómi,' when anything is exceeding hard. "After that the Æsir feared that they should never be able to get the Wolf bound. Then Allfather sent him who is called Skírnir, Freyr's messenger, down into the region of the Black Elves, to certain dwarves, and caused to be made the fetter named Gleipnir. It was made of six things: the noise a cat makes in foot-fall, the beard of a woman, the roots of a rock, the sinews of a bear, the breath of a fish, and the spittle of a bird. And though thou understand not these matters already, yet now thou mayest speedily find certain proof herein, that no lie is told thee: thou must have seen that a woman has no beard, and no sound comes from the leap of a cat, and there are no roots under a rock; and by my troth, all that I have told thee is equally true, though there be some things which thou canst not put to the test." Then said Gangleri: "This certainly I can perceive to be true: these things which thou hast taken for proof, I can see; but how was the fetter fashioned?" Hárr answered: "That I am well able to tell thee. The fetter was soft and smooth as a silken ribbon, but as sure and strong as thou shalt now hear. Then, when the fetter was brought to the Æsir, they thanked the messenger well for his errand. Then the Æsir went out upon the lake called Ámsvartnir, to the island called Lyngvi, and summoning the Wolf with them, they showed him the silken ribbon and bade him burst it, saying that it was somewhat stouter than appeared from its thickness. And each passed it to the others, and tested it with the strength of their hands and it did not snap; yet they said the Wolf could break it. Then the Wolf answered: 'Touching this matter of the ribbon, it seems to me that I shall get no glory of it, though I snap asunder so slender a band; but if it be made with cunning and wiles, then, though it seem little, that band shall never come upon my feet.' Then the Æsir answered that he could easily snap apart a slight silken band, he who had before broken great fetters of iron,--'but if thou shalt not be able to burst this band, then thou wilt not be able to frighten the gods; and then we shall unloose thee.' The Wolf said: 'If ye bind me so that I shall not get free again, then ye will act in such a way that it will be late ere I receive help from you; I am unwilling that this band should be laid upon me. Yet rather than that ye should impugn my courage, let some one of you lay his hand in my mouth, for a pledge that this is done in good faith.' Each of the Æsir looked at his neighbor, and none was willing to part with his hand, until Týr stretched out his right hand and laid it in the Wolf's mouth. But when the Wolf lashed out, the fetter became hardened; and the more he struggled against it, the tighter the band was. Then all laughed except Týr: he lost his hand. "When the Æsir saw that the Wolf was fully bound, they took the chain that was fast to the fetter, and which is called Gelgja, and passed it through a great rock--it is called Gjöll--and fixed the rock deep down into the earth. Then they took a great stone and drove it yet deeper into the earth--it was called Thviti--and used the stone for a fastening-pin. The Wolf gaped terribly, and thrashed about and strove to bite them; they thrust into his mouth a certain sword: the guards caught in his lower jaw, and the point in the upper; that is his gag. He howls hideously, and slaver runs out of his mouth: that is the river called Ván; there he lies till the Weird of the Gods." Then said Gangleri: 'Marvellous ill children did Loki beget, but all these brethren are of great might. Yet why did not the Æsir kill the Wolf, seeing they had expectation of evil from him?" Hárr answered: "So greatly did the gods esteem their holy place and sanctuary, that they would not stain it with the Wolf's blood; though (so say the prophecies) he shall be the slayer of Odin." Fenrir spoke as Zidine was visibly horrified, realising that fighting him would be extremely difficult. Fenrir stretched his jaw from earth to heaven to swallow anything that popped up in his path. “So his mouth is as large as the skies and his body, the earth.” Zidine thought to himself as he forced Mjolnir to shoot huge plumes of lightning at Fenrir who fired his huge paws at him, only for Zidine to casually dodge this. “You are too slow, wolf!” Zidine said, spinning his hammer as clouds began to obscure the sun violently only for Fenrir to smile and blow a mere breath of air, freezing over the clouds and then slamming Zidine into the ground with his paw once again, also adding this with a blast of raw, bluish energy from his mouth, to which Zidine defended himself by using his Drigo Axe as Fenrir laughed. “That axe is a chew toy.” Fenrir said with a slight amount of arrogance. “Prepare for thy death at the creature who could blow up stars!” Fenrir said, to which Zidine looked visibly amazed, ultimately forcing himself into a position to where he had to use the Lightning of Elding. “You cannot kill me!” Fenrir said as red lightning poured around him, only for a huge red thunderbolt to scar the skies and fire at Fenrir, with such speed and power that Fenrir felt some iota of pain. “Not bad, wretched boy.” Fenrir said, immediately firing a huge amount of freezing mist in tandem with the star-ending blast. “Who sent you?!” Zidine asked as the Wolf was silent, immediately growing in strength. “None of thy concern-! Second Form of the Lightning of Elding: Vortex of Death.” Zidine then said, mercilessly interrupting him and summoning a huge tornado around the throat of Fenrir and from his mouth, causing his star-based blast to fire upwards. “No, ye don’t!” Zidine screamed, sending his hammer to counter the attack. “How foolish can you be?!” Fenrir said as he immediately breathed on Zidine, causing the man to be frozen. “Wretched scum.” Zidine said, to which Fenrir stomped on his face. “Die.” Fenrir said, firing the same blast once again but as this was about to occur, Mjolnir mercilessly smashed itself into Fenrir’s face, sending him flying away a few metres. “WRETCHED SCUM JUST LIKE THY MOTHER!” Fenrir screamed as he howled at the Moon, only for two wolves to summon themselves. “My mother? What are you talking about?” Zidine asked as Mjolnir returned to his hand. “In Norse mythology, Sköll (Old Norse: Skǫll, "Treachery" or "Mockery") is a wolf that, according to Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, chases the Sun (personified as a goddess, Sól) riding her chariot across the sky. Hati Hróðvitnisson chases the Moon (personified, as Máni) during the night. Skӧll and Hati are the sons of the wolf Fenrir, and an unnamed giantess. It is foretold the wolves will chase the Sun and Moon across the skies until Ragnarök, at which point the wolves catch up and devour the celestial beings. In Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, the mention of Sköll appears when describing the story of Sol, who drives the chariot of the Sun in Norse Mythology. The wolf is seen chasing her after she receives her chariot to carry the Sun. "[Sun] goes at a great pace; her pursuer is close behind her and there is nothing she can do but flee. … There are two wolves and the one pursuing her is called Skoll [Treachery] is the one she fears; he will catch her [at the end of the world]." Hati Hróðvitnisson (first name meaning "He Who Hates", or "Enemy") is also my child. You will suffer, miserable imp. Even if you have ripped me from thy sinews, I hath gained such control over this situation that your loss is inevitable.” Fenrir said as he stared at Zidine. “Have you now?” Zidine asked, to which Fenrir saw a rune appear on Mjolnir’s front with him having then noticed the Algiz rune merge with something else, another rune that resembled three sticks. “So he has also manifested the Eihwaz for defence from weaponry. “Fjórða Og Fimmta Rún Óðins: Ógæfan Sem Splundraði Sjón Bogmanns! (Fourth and Fifth Rune of Odin: Manacle Shattering of Archer's Sight)!” Zidine screamed aloud, seeing the sky beckoning to his semi-divine command in that one, singular minute as he used his full strength to send Fenrir flying back as Skǫll and Hati Hróðvitnisson looked shocked, ultimately firing the Sun and solar radiation at Zidine who could only respond by simply saying “A sixth I know: when some thane would harm me in runes on a moist tree’s root, on his head alone shall light the ills of the curse that he called upon mine.” to which Fenrir looked stunned, seeing his children being damaged by their own attacks. “How can you destroy a star when we haven’t even got off this mountain?” Zidine asked with an air of arrogance as Fenrir glared at him, literally teleporting above Zidine and firing mist or ice at him. “Do you want to know how this is done, wretched boy of Helios? CONTROL!” Fenrir screamed as he fired a blast that would now destroy two stars. “Did his strength increase?” Zidine thought to himself as the entire mountain still maintained its structure by some miracle. “You have lost.” Fenrir said as he saw a glowing blue eye and a glowing red eye. “Do you want to die?” Zidine asked, now in Berserker Mode as Fenrir looked genuinely enraged as a vortex surrounded the entire mountain. “You threaten your own country?!” Fenrir asked as his sons fired solar and lunar radiation at Zidine. “Third form of the Lightning of Elding: Thunderous Fusion.” Zidine thought to himself as Fenrir felt his body being damaged on the cellular level, with electricity shooting from every single orifice of his being. “You really think that can damage me-?!” Fenrir said as Zidine fired supercharged lightning into his mouth. “A fifth I know: when I see, by foes shot, speeding a shaft through the host, flies it never so strongly I still can stay it, if I get but a glimpse of its flight. I know a ninth spell; if the need arises for me to save a ship upon the sea, I can calm the wind upon the waves and soothe the sea to sleep.” He spoke, causing the solar and lunar radiation to become nothing more than wind to the sheer horror of Fenrir as he immediately vomited, causing lightning to splurge in every direction only for his children to rush at Zidine who countered by glaring at them, sending what appeared to be a blue wave of energy. “I know an eighth spell; it would be useful for anyone to learn it. When hate arises between any two people, I can cool their tempers. Bow down to your king!” Zidine screamed, as he then used the Blades of Demphaus at his full strength. “IF YOU DO WHAT I THINK YOU ARE TO DO, ENTIRE STAR SYSTEMS WILL BE DESTROYED!” Fenrir screamed as Zidine pulled him from his hind legs, groaning in pain and sending him upwards only to be sent in a nearby mountain as the wolf’s children immediately tried to fire the Sun and Moon once again… but were now under Zidine’s complete control, having calmed themselves down as their blasts still manifested, only for Zidine to smile. Zidine soon felt his eyes of fire and ice dilate, permanently deactivating themselves for the foreseeable future where the form and madness of the Berserker Mode swept away in red dots as he soon walked out, now himself with his skin having seemingly become much lighter as thunder soon struck him that had a light-blue hue only to walk away from the Norns. “Let thy debt be paid… in a due time.” The three women said as they would never see him again, as he walked away and collected his cloak and armour; readying himself for what would come to him.

“So… Zidine is back… and has murdered Fenrir.” Helena said to George who stared at her in deep shock. “My boy… I love you so.” She said to her son, with rage and sadness clashing in her hardened and rock-hard eyes and heart only to look out to the outskirts of the city as she saw two goats flying in the sky above. “So he has truly returned. That bastardised Berserker. No matter… when I am through with him… he will learn who the rightful monarch of this damned place is.” She thought to herself, staring at George who had now had his father’s crown and sceptre fully manifested. Tears dripped down her face and cheeks, warming her cold-blooded heart briefly as she smiled calmly, finally realising that her dreams of seeing Zidine falling and grovelling to her knees would be real. “Your Majesty, what is the news concerning?” Hadeil, her favourite general who bore a Roman-esque helmet, asked as she smiled. “To speed this up, upon even stepping foot into Hesperia… he will find himself murdered or castrated by the way of our spears.” He casually suggested, knowing that she would willingly agree to do so, sacrificing her “son” for her “first-born”. Little did Zidine know however… that the next creature he would face… would test his strength absolutely.

Abram vs Fáfnir

After being teleported to Denmark, he was in a Dragon’s lair, which he found open. The doors and door-posts were of iron; of iron also were all the beams in the house; but the treasure was buried in the earth. Sigurd found there a great quantity of gold, and filled two chests with it. He took thence the Oegis-helm, a golden corslet, the sword named Hrotti, and many precious things, all which he laid on Grani; but the horse would not proceed until Sigurd had mounted on his back. Despite this, he saw a huge dragon towering over him. “Who are you?” Fafnir asked as Abram smiled coldly, intending to summon the power of Fenrir, ultimately failing. “He is dead, boy.” Fafnir said with an emotionless tone. When Fafnir crawled from the gold he blew forth venom, but it flew over Sigurd's head. When Fafnir crept over the pit, Sigurd with his sword pierced him to the heart. Fafnir shook himself, and beat with his head and tail. Sigurd leapt from the pit, and each looked at the other. Fafnir said: “Young fellow! young fellow! by what fellow art thou begot? of what people are thou the son? that thou in Fafnir reddenst thy glittering falchion? Thy sword has pierced my heart.” He spoke as Abram concealed his name and instead took the name of Siegfried, because it was the belief in those times, that the words of dying persons were of great power, if they cursed an enemy by his name. “Gofugt-dyr I am called, but I have wandered a motherless child; nor have I a father like the sons of men: alone I wander.” Abram explained to which Fafnir laughed. “If thou hast no father like the sons of men, by what wonder art thou begotten?” He asked as ‘Siegfried’ responded with “My race, I tell thee, is to thee unknown, and myself also. Sigmund was my father named, my name is Sigurd, who with weapon have assailed thee.” Abram explained as Fafnir then stated “Who has incited thee? why hast thou suffered thyself to be incited to take my life? youth of the sparkling eyes! Thou hadst a cruel father. I know if thou hadst chanced to grow in the lap of friends, they would have seen thee fierce in fight. Now thou art a captive, taken in war, and, 'tis said, slaves ever tremble. Thou wilt account only as angry words all I to thee shall say, but I will say the truth. The jingling gold, and the gleed-red treasure, those rings, shall be thy bane. The Norns' decree thou wilt hold in contempt as from a witless wight: In water thou shalt be drowned, if in wind thou rowest. All things bring peril to the fated.” Fafnir continued to state with Abram looking visibly terrified but calm enough to think rationally. “My heart incited me, my hands gave me aid, and my keen sword. Rarely a man is bold, when of mature age, if in childhood he was faint-hearted. Why Fafnir! dost thou upbraid me that I am far from my paternal home? I am not a captive, although in war I was taken: thou hast found that I am free. Treasure at command every one desires, ever till that one day; for at some time each mortal shall hence to Hel depart. Tell me, Fafnir! as thou art wise declared, and many things to know: who those Norns are, who help in need, and from babes loose the mothers. Very diversely born I take those Norns to be: they have no common race. Some are of Æsir-race, some of Alfar-race, some are Dvalin's daughters. Tell me, Fafnir! as thou art wise declared, and many things to know, how that holm is called, where Surt and the Æsir will sword-liquor together mingle?” Siegfried said to Fafnir who roared. “Oskopnir it is called; there shall the gods with lances play; Bifrost shall be broken, when they go forth, and their steeds in the river swim. An Oegis-helm I bore among the sons of men, while I o'er the treasures lay; stronger than all I thought myself to be; stronger I found not many! Venom I blew forth, when on my father's great heritage I lay. Regin betrayed me, he will thee betray, he of us both will be the bane. Fafnir must, I trow, let forth his life: thine was the greater might! Regin had gone away while Sigurd slew Fafnir, but came back as Sigurd was wiping the blood from his sword. He said: Hail to thee now, Sigurd! Now hast thou victory won and Fafnir slain: of all the men who tread the earth, thou art, I say, the bravest born.” To which Abram was unsurprised, shackled alone to the fact that he couldn’t truly fight without Fenrir’s powers. “Thou didst me counsel, that I should ride o'er high fells hither. Treasure and life had still possess'd that glistening serpent, hadst thou my anger not excited. Sit now, Sigurd!—but I must go to sleep—and Fafnir's heart hold to the fire. Of this refection I would fain partake, after that drink of blood.” Regin said, to which Abram smiled to himself, realising the weakness of Fafnir… but the question is: Can he do it? “ Thou wentst far off, while I in Fafnir my keen sword reddened. With my strength I strove against the serpent's might, while in the ling thou layest. Valour is better than might of sword, when foes embittered fight; for a brave man I have ever seen gain victory with a dull sword. For the brave 'tis better than for the timid to join in the game of war; for the joyous it is better than for the sad, let come whatever may.” Abram thought to himself as he summoned a sword. Gram. “YOU SUMMONED THAT?!” Fafnir screamed in sheer shock as the venom that he now spewed from his mouth alongside draconic fire devoured him. “This is far worse than Damien. Unlike him, he lacks a living host so he is instead untethered to existence in the form of this creature, meaning if I get even a lick more venom on me… I will be dead. My soul is going to be gone.” Abram thought to himself as his sword glowed with a beautiful blue hue. “I thus summon Skofnung and Tyrfing! It is the keenest of all blades; every time it was drawn a light shone from it like a ray of the sun. It could never be held unsheathed without being the death of a man, and it had always to be sheathed with blood still warm upon it. There was no living thing, neither man nor beast, that could live to see another day if it were wounded by Tyrfing, whether the wound were big or little; never had it failed in a stroke or been stayed before it plunged into the earth, and the man who bore it in battle would always be victorious, if blows were struck with it.” He thought to himself as Fafnir didn’t realise that his downfall would be swift. “If I were to die… he would likely release a country’s worth of venom.” Abram thought to himself and just as he sliced the dragon’s underside once again, Fafnir laughed. “Your death will be in vain, boy!” Fafnir screamed as his underside also tore venom. “Does his venom spew from a limitless source?!” Abram asked himself, making sure that any wound he struck unto the Dragon would be unhealable. “Thy future is one of suffering, boy, so if you don’t let death tame you….” Fafnir said as he felt his underside getting ruthlessly exposed by Abram’s sword strikes. “If I get to his heart, I win!” Abram thought to himself as Fafnir used his claws to kick him away from him which barely succeeded. “So he is just like Siegfried. A fatherless boy.” Fafnir thought to himself as he released all of the venom he could spew out from his mouth, ultimately flying away… but as he did this, he made a grave error since his legs were sliced off by Abram, causing him to roar in pain. “DIE!” They both screamed to each other as Abram used his full strength to cleave all the way to the dragon’s heart, destroying his hyde, only for the Dragon to literally release all of his venom in the form of flatulence, thereby forcing Abram to smell his flatulence and even absorb some of it orally, causing immense blood loss as he fell… keeling over and died. “Thy mother is thy worst enemy.” Fafnir said, exploding in a heap of blood as he left his heart and scales as the final thing behind. Upon this occurring, Zidine appeared by way of a thunderbolt and used Mjolnir to revive him by touching his chest. “You truly aren’t ready for this, are you?” Zidine asked as Abram coughed up blood. “I am… anyway where the f*ck did you go?” Abram asked as he slowly got up, by the help of Zidine. “I fought a dragon like you, but unlike you, I didn’t truly let my arrogance misplace nor sever my connection to reality.” Zidine said as though he was an old man.

A day prior = Zidine vs Typhon

Zidine flew into Greece and upon riding there, he saw an old man who had a very shaggy beard and looked as ugly as sin, whilst also seeing a statue of a man who was heavily clad and well-built. Was this a god? “There is a beast you must slay. He is Typhon. Typhoeus was a winged giant, said to be so huge that his head brushed the stars. He was man-shaped from the waist up with two coiled serpents in place of legs. He had a hundred serpent-heads for fingers, a filthy, matted beard, pointed ears, and eyes flashing fire. According to some he had two hundred hands consisting of fifty serpent-headed fingers on each hands and a hundred heads proper--one was human, the other ninety-nine bestial (of bulls, boars, serpents, lions and leopards). As a volcano-demon Typhoeus hurled red-hot rocks at heaven and fire boiled forth from his mouth. TYPHON or TYPHOEUS (Tuphaôn, Tuphôeus, Tuphôs), a monster of the primitive world, is described sometimes as a destructive hurricane, and sometimes as a fire-breathing giant. According to Homer (Il. ii. 782; comp. Strab. xiii. p. 929) he was concealed in the country of the Arimi in the earth, which was lashed by Zeus with flashes of lightning. In Hesiod Typhaon and Typhoeus are two distinct beings. Typhaon there is a son of Typhoeus (Theog. 869), and a fearful hurricane, who by Echidna became the father of the dog Orthus, Cerberus, the Lernaean hydra, Chimaera, and the Sphynx. (Theog. 306; comp. Apollod. ii. 3. § 1, iii. 5. § 8.) Notwithstanding the confusion of the two beings in later writers, the original meaning of Typhaon was preserved in ordinary life. (Aristoph. Ran. 845; Plin. H. N. ii. 48.) Typhoeus, on the other hand, is described as the youngest son of Tartarus and Gaea, or of Hera alone, because she was indignant at Zeus having given birth to Athena. Typhoeus is described as a monster with a hundred heads, fearful eyes, and terrible voices (Pind. Pyth. i. 31, viii. 21, Ol. iv. 12); he wanted to acquire the sovereignty of gods and men, but was subdued, after a fearful struggle, by Zeus, with a thunderbolt. (Hes. Theog. 821, &c.) He begot the winds, whence he is also called the father of the Harpies (Val. Flacc. iv. 428), but the beneficent winds Notus, Boreas, Argestes, and Zephyrus, were not his sons. (Hes. Theog. 869, &c.) Aeschylus and Pindar describe him as living in a Cilician cave. (Pind. Pyth. viii. 21; comp. the different ideas in Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1210, &c., and Herod. iii. 5.) He is further said to have at one time been engaged in a struggle with all the immortals, and to have been killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning; he was buried in Tartarus under Mount Aetna, the workshop of Hephaestus. (Ov. Her. xv. 11, Fast. iv. 491; Aeschyl. Prom. 351, &c.; Pind. Pyth. i. 29, &c.) The later poets frequently connect Typhoeus with Egypt, and the gods, it is said, when unable to hold out against him, fled to Egypt, where, from fear, they metamorphosed themselves into animals, with the exception of Zeus and Athena. (Anton. Lib. 28; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 28; Ov. Met. v. 321, &c.; comp. Apollod. i. 6. § 3; Ov. Fast. ii. 461; Horat. Carm. iii. 4. 53.)” The man explained as Zidine looked sceptical only for his eye to activate; seeing an event from the Past and the Future in the same form. “You bear the power of Zeus, no?” The man asked as Zidine nodded in response, yet he was beckoned to walk with him. Upon doing so silently for a few minutes, they were in a mysterious building that was simply called the Acropolis. “We are in Athens?” Zidine asked to which the man simply nodded. “No, we are in the Acropolis. An ancient marvel where, here, the past meets the future.” The man simply said, to which many beings appeared. The entire Greek Pantheon barring Zeus himself. “Thy father is perched and frozen, for he is not thus petrified in any form of a non-redemptive or glory-bound status therein and at the behest of thy mother of madness in any form of sacrificial love that was false betwixt the two; laypersons called it love but it was glory.” The elder explained as every single Greek God appeared. “Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Demeter, Dionysus, Hephaestus, Hera, Hermes, Poseidon, Zeus, Amphitrite, Hades, Hebe, Heracles, Hestia, Pan, Persephone, Hermathena, Talos” The man spoke as they all looked at Zidine with no hint of malice. “You are our rightful successor, boy.” Ares said, blood and guts sported upon his very bosom as Zidine stared at him. “Here are creatures… Echidna… and the groups of Algea, Anemoi, Charities, Dioscuri, Erinyes, Erotes, Horae, Muses, Oneiroi, Moirai, the Amphillogiai, the Androktasiai, the Arai, the Hysminai, the Keres, the Korybantes/Kouretes, the Litae, the Maniae, the Machai/Machae/Makhai, the Neikea, the Palici, the Phonoi, the Pleyades and finally the Telchines.” The elder explained, to which Zidine was slightly surprised. “There is still one more I mentioned earlier. Typhon.” The man said as Hera glared at him. She was a majestic woman at a mature age, with a beautiful forehead, large and widely opened eyes, and with a grave expression commanding reverence. Her hair was adorned with a crown or a diadem. A veil frequently hangs down the back of her head, to characterise her as the bride of Zeus, and, in fact, the diadem, veil, sceptre, and peaco*ck are her ordinary attributes. “Your mother broke the vow she made with your father, Helios. She defiled the vow by having you murder him.” Hera explained as Zidine looked in sheer terror. “SHE DID WHAT?!” Zidine screamed in outrage, to which Hera calmly smiled; perhaps a nod to her true allegiance. “Yes. She had your father murdered by you fighting him. A wretched whor* even in comparison to myself.” Hera explained to which Zidine glared at her in absolute disgust. “That fiend.” Zidine said to which Ares said “All is fair is love and war”. Yet still, this was not enough to quell the young man’s rage. “Art thou Zidine of Helios? The warrior who murdered him at a young age? Helios, the strongest of us all. He could move the sun with a wave of his hand.” Heracles stated boldly as Zidine stared at his father’s statue in disdain towards himself. He stared at his hands. “Am I worthy of completing the final Labour?” Zidine asked with sadness, touching his head with his hands, only for Heracles to see Mjolnir within Zidine’s side. “Thou art a bearer of Jove. Helios spoke of the Orphic Hymns. All the stars in the sky bowed to him, much like how Hera made a galaxy by her breast milk. You are his son. You must kill your mother.” Heracles said as Zidine looked deeply conflicted. Yes, on the one hand, he wanted her dead for the sake of manipulation and lies… but at the same time, he didn’t want to leave George an orphan who bore power over many nations. “I can’t. Killing her would only make George a desperate power-hungry fiend. I need to find some way to do it without conflict.” Zidine said as the gods stared at him in visible disbelief. “You have to end her physically! Leaving her alive is a bad idea… if she gets wind of this… she shall release the mother of all evils unto this world once more.” Heracles stated, glaring at Hera as he said this, reminding himself of when he murdered his family because of her. “You blame me even though it was you who fell into a bout of insanity.” Hera said coldly, to which Zidine stared at her. He felt Berserker Mode coursing through him in that moment but he didn’t, because he knew that he would likely be outmatched even with Zeus’ thunderbolts. “HOW COULD YOU TELL ME THAT MY “DEAR MOTHER” ORCHESTRATED ALL TH-!” Zidine screamed as Hera also made an infinite noise resound through the air, to restrain the wrath of Zidine’s fiery power, to which he stared at his hands. “You have a choice, boy. You and I both know that your mother sits on a throne of lies.” Hera then explained from her mighty throne, all prevail’d as one who could end the universe with her control of the wind. “Mother is right.” Hephaestus said regrettably, his anvil bearing unquenching fire. “You must kill your mother. She took everything from you. Controlled you. Manipulated you. Your brother is likely her servant. But even so… before you defeat her… there is something you must do.” He said, pointing to a mountain a few metres away from them. “Destroy thy illusion.” Poseidon spoke, slamming his trident and submerging the entirety of Greece in a flood that was thus contained to the Acropolis alone as Zidine felt himself drowning. “Thy runes see not the truth, even if your eye is all-seeing boy.” Poseidon said menacingly as thunder struck the Acropolis. “Ay. Your brother has my bow. And Artemis’ hunting wits. As fast as Helios he is too. Speed means nothing. He can cause disease, hit accurately. He even hit a bull three cities away whilst staring at a needle. Don’t forget the Scepter of Helios, that can cast a blanket of solar sparks across the heavens.” Apollo said as Zidine looked at them all, realising what this meant. “You must fight us before you fight Typhon. What you stand on is Olympos. Mount Olympus in Roman sources is not only a mountain, but also a place or a realm of Jupiter, which exists somewhere outside and beyond the physical (or immanent) universe. That said, Typhon is far too powerful for your current state. Think of it like a video game. Your current base self wilt be amplified considerably. But it is still your base. I think and can say with certainty, that you can perhaps destroy mountains and even the boundless earth and boundless sea with the power of your hammer, physicality and thy thunderbolts. Even Chaos feels your might. For a month, you will train… but in truth, a mere hour will pass by. Time will stop. You will fight in zero time where we are outside of the universe, so you can hold back no longer as the concept of space, time or whatever you may say has no sway. But… anything resembling your thunderbolts or hammer in a physical clash wilt cause earthly reverberations such as earthquakes or splitting the sky. Understood?” Apollo asked as Zidine readied himself. “Orphic Hymns wilt be sung alongside the Homeric counterparts, as both an amplifier of boundless magnitude and strength as well as a way for you to gain thy knowledge in a non-oracular manner. With the base of mathematical institution: 12 in 30 is 2 and a half days each.” Apollo said as Zidine smiled, ready to give it everything he had. “Aphrodite: Come.” Apollo said as a third girl entered, her beauty visibly unsurpassed. Her charming, ambrosia-like complexion intimated that she represented the earlier Venus [Aphrodite] when that goddess was still a maiden. She vaunted her unblemished beauty by appearing naked and unclothed except for a thin silken garment veiling her entrancing lower parts. An inquisitive gust of air would at one moment with quite lubricous affection blow this garment aside, so that when wafted away it revealed her virgin bloom; at another moment it would wantonly breathe directly upon it, clinging tightly and vividly outlining the pleasurable prospect of her lower limbs. The goddess's appearance offered contrasting colours to the eye, for her body was dazzling white, intimating her descent from heaven and her robe was dark blue, denoting her emergence from the sea . . . Each maiden representing a goddess was accompanied by her own escort . . . Venus [Aphrodite] was surrounded by a throng of the happiest children; you would have sworn that those little boys whose skins were smooth and milk-white were genuine Cupides [Erotes] who had just flown in from sky or sea. They looked just he part with their tiny wings, miniature arrows, and the rest of their get-up, as with gleaming torches they lit the way for their mistress as though she were en route to a wedding-banquet. Next floated in charming children, unmarried girls, representing on one side the Gratiae [Charites, Graces] at their most graceful, and on the other the Horae [Horai] in all their beauty. They were appeasing the goddess by strewing wreaths and single blossoms before her, and they formed a most elegant chorus-line as they sought to please the Mistress of pleasures with the foliage of spring. The flutes with their many stops were now rendering in sweet harmony melodies in the Lydian mode. As they affectingly softened the hearts of onlookers, Venus [Aphrodite] still more affectingly began to gently stir herself; with gradual, lingering steps, restrained swaying of the hips, and slow inclination of the head she began to advance, her refined movements matching the soft wounds of the flutes. Occasionally her eyes alone would dance, as at one moment she gently lowered her lids, and at another imperiously signalled with threatening glances. She [Aphrodite] clothed herself with garments which the Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Horai (Hours) had made for her and dyed in flowers of spring--such flowers as the Horai (Horae, Seasons) wear--in crocus and hyacinth and flourishing violet and the rose's lovely bloom, so sweet and delicious, and heavenly buds, the flowers of the narcissus and lily. In such perfumed garments is Aphrodite clothed at all seasons. Aphrodite, the daughter of Zeus stood before him [Ankhises (Anchises)], being like a pure maiden in height and mien, that he should not be frightened when he took heed of her with his eyes. Now when Ankhises saw her, he marked her well and wondered at her mien and height and shining garments. For she was clad in a robe out-shining the brightness of fire, a splendid robe of gold, enriched with all manner of needlework, which shimmered like the moon over her tender breasts, a marvel to see. Also she wore twisted brooches and shining earrings in the form of flowers; and round her soft throat were lovely necklaces . . . [later she revealed her true divine height and mien] and her head reached to the well-hewn roof-tree; from her cheeks shone unearthly beauty such as belongs to rich-crowned Kythereia (Cytherea). . . [and] when he [Ankhises] saw the neck and lovely eyes of Aphrodite, he was afraid and turned his eyes aside another way, hiding his comely face with his cloak." Homeric Hymn 6 to Aphrodite 6 ff:

"The Horai (Horae, Seasons) clothed her [Aphrodite] with heavenly garments: on her head they put a fine, well-wrought crown of gold, and in her pierced ears they hung ornaments of orichalc and precious gold, and adorned her with golden necklaces over her soft neck and snow-white breasts, jewels which the gold-filleted Horai wear themselves

“She bleeds Ichor like us all. Her power is true enchantment, who excited this passion in the hearts of gods and men, and by this power ruled over all the living creation. Ancient mythology furnishes numerous instances in which Aphrodite punished those who neglected her worship or despised her power, as well as others in which she favoured and protected those who did homage to her and recognized her sway. Love and beauty are ideas essentially connected, and Aphrodite was therefore also the goddess of beauty and gracefulness. In these points she surpassed all other goddesses, and she received the prize of beauty from Paris; she had further the power of granting beauty and invincible charms to others. "To Aphrodite. Ourania (Urania) (Heavenly), illustrious, laughter-loving (philommeideia) queen, sea-born (pontogenes), night-loving (philopannyx), of awful mien; crafty, from whom Ananke (Necessity) first came, producing, nightly, all-connecting dame. 'Tis thine the world with harmony to join, for all things spring from thee, O power divine. The triple Moirai (Fates) are ruled by thy decree, and all productions yield alike to thee: whatever the heavens, encircling all, contain, earth fruit-producing, and the stormy main, thy sway confesses, and obeys thy nod, awful attendant of Bakkhos [Dionysos] God. Goddess of marriage, charming to the sight, mother of the Erotes (Loves), whom banquetings delight; source of Peitho (Persuasion), secret, favouring queen, illustrious born, apparent and unseen; spousal Lukaina, and to men inclined, prolific, most-desired, life-giving, kind. Great sceptre-bearer of the Gods, 'tis thine mortals in necessary bands to join; and every tribe of savage monsters dire in magic chains to bind through mad desire. Come, Kyprogenes (Cyprus-Born), and to my prayer incline, whether exalted in the heavens you shine, or pleased in odorous Syria to preside, or over the Aigyptian (Egyptian) plains they care to guide, fashioned of gold; and near its sacred flood, fertile and famed, to fix they blest abode; or if rejoicing in the azure shores, near where the sea with foaming billows roars, the circling choirs of mortals thy delight, or beauteous Nymphai (Nymphs) with eyes cerulean bright, pleased by the sandy banks renowned of old, to drive thy rapid two-yoked car of gold; or if in Kypros (Cyprus) thy famed mother fair, where Nymphai unmarried praise thee every year, the loveliest Nymphai, who in the chorus join, Adonis pure to sing, and thee divine. Come, all-attractive, to my prayer inclined, for thee I call, with holy, reverent mind." Apollo himself spoke, as Aphrodite glared at Zidine, knowing that she would win him over, as he felt himself blushing. “I must deny thy all-attractiveness, girl.” Zidine said as Aphrodite animated numerous doves and women from the very ground about her. “Think of this like how Muspelheim is definity and how Niflheim is infinity.” Apollo said as Zidine closed his eyes, making sure that he was not controlled by Aphrodite’s all-alluring enchantment. “Your soul is under my spell, my dear child.” Aphrodite said, her tongue dripping with lust like how the morning dew spits off the nectared plant. “A sixth I know: when some thane would harm me in runes on a moist tree’s root, on his head alone shall light the ills of the curse that he called upon mine and I know a sixteenth spell; if I want to win over a cunning woman and have her all to myself, I can change the mind of that lovely-armed beauty and win her favor for myself” Zidine said, to which Aphrodite was amazed as Mjolnir was immediately thrown straight at her. “What are you playing at? You may bear the power to shatter mountains, but do you want to die so early?” Apollo asked coldly, as he grabbed Mjolnir out of reflex alone, casually throwing it back at Zidine with twice the speed as even Aphrodite felt herself, the universal embodiment of love, falling in love with herself, only for Apollo to glare at her, snapping her out. “The fact that you beat her in terms of love whilst her Orphic amplification was there was genuinely impressive. It is our turn though. I will make sure you learn what control is.” Apollo said as he immediately and instinctively summoned his silver bow. "O Lord [Apollon], Lykia (Lycia) is yours and lovely Maionian (Maeonian) and Miletos (Miletus), charming city by the sea, but over wave-girt Delos you greatly reign your own self. Leto's all-glorious son goes to rocky Pytho, playing upon his hollow lure, clad in divine, perfumed garments; and at the touch of the golden key his lyre sings sweet. Thence, swift as thought, he speeds from earth to Olympos, to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods: then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Mousai (Muses) together, voice sweetly answering voice, hymn the unending gifts the gods enjoy and the sufferings of men ... Meanwhile the rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai (Horae, Seasons) dance with Harmonia and Hebe and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist. And among them sings one . . . Artemis who delights in arrows, sister of Apollon. Among them sport Ares and the keen-eyed Argeiphontes [Hermes], while Apollon plays his lure stepping high and featly and radiance shines around him, the gleaming of his feet and close-woven vest. And they, even gold-tressed Leto and wise Zeus, rejoice in their great hearts as they watch their dear son playing among the undying gods…. To Apollon. Blest Paian (Paean), come, propitious to my prayer, illustrious power, whom Memphian tribes revere, Tityoktonos (Slayer of Tityos), and the god of Health, Lykoreus (Lycoreus), Phoibos (Phoebus), fruitful source of wealth: Pytheion (Pythian), golden-lyred, the field from thee receives its constant rich fertility. Titan, Gryneion, Smyntheus, thee I sing, Pythoktonos (Python-Slayer), hallowed, Delphion king: rural, light-bearing Daimon, and Mousagetos (Leader of the Muses), noble and lovely, armed with arrows dread: far-darting, Bakkhion (Bacchian), twofold and divine, power far diffused, and course oblique is thine. O Delion king, whose light-producing eye views all within, and all beneath the sky; whose locks are gold, whose oracles are sure, who omens good revealest, and precepts pure; hear me entreating for he human kind, hear, and be present with benignant mind; for thou surveyest this boundless aither all, and every part of this terrestrial ball abundant, blessed; and thy piercing sight extends beneath the gloomy, silent night; Beyond the darkness, starry-eyed, profound, the table roots, deep-fixed by thee, are found. The world's wide bounds, all-flourishing, are thine, thyself of all the source and end divine. 'Tis thine all nature's music to inspire with various-sounding, harmonious lyre: now the last string thou tunest to sweet accord, divinely warbling, now the highest chord; the immortal golden lyre, now touched by thee, responsive yields a Dorian melody. All nature's tribes to thee their difference owe, and changing seasons from thy music flow: hence, mixed by thee in equal parts, advance summer and winter in alternate dance; this claims the highest, that the lowest string, the Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring: hence by mankind Pan royal, two-horned named, shrill winds emitting through the syrinx famed; since to thy care the figured seal's consigned, which stamps the world with forms of every kind. Hear me, blest power, and in these rites rejoice, and save thy mystics with a suppliant voice." The ground sang as Apollo immediately flung a thousand arrows from nowhere, to which Zidine casually countered by simply saying “A fifth I know: when I see, by foes shot, speeding a shaft through the host, flies it never so strongly I still can stay it, if I get but a glimpse of its flight” only for Apollo to counter that by playing his harp and hypnotising Zidine’s mind, soul and concept, ultimately combining this with several legions of arrows in a mere moment to which Zidine swung his hammer around, creating huge winds, sending the arrows back however Apollo was still fast enough to appear in front of him, as swift as thought only for Zidine to just react in time, using Mjolnir to repel him away. “Too slow.” Apollo said, blitzing Zidine’s eyesight as well as teleporting in front of him, behind and underneath, using hundreds of arrows all at once. “Can you survive death?” Apollo asked as Zidine’s eyes looked shocked, realising that Apollo’s plan was obvious… only for several arrows to strike him as blood dripped out of his mouth. “You are a fraction of your father. Once Typhon arrives… if you cannot slay him like your father… you will be poisoned immediately and die. Zeus… was your father. His soul… was within him. No… he was stronger than us all. If he was in that room… everyone, including even Hera would quake in their boots. You are his son… the sun… his legacy but unlike the sun, you cannot shine bright.” Apollo said calmly as Zidine ripped out the arrows from his blood-soaked chest. “Who are you to say that, Apollo?” Zidine said, vomiting blood whilst staring at it, ultimately grabbing Apollo by his radiant head only for wolves, dolphins, roe deer, swans, cicadas along with ravens, hawks, crows to appear and sing, releasing Apollo. “How did they-!” Zidine said as Apollo said “This is how you will fall!”, shooting Zidine in the throat with his arrows, causing smallpox in his throat. “RESIST THE ALLURE OF DEATH!” Apollo said, firing thousands of arrows in the form of one arrow to which Zidine was forced to use his Odin’s Eye to observe the near-future. “Your eye is a paltry copy of Odin’s. He could see all events from the spark of the sun to the moon’s luminous end.” Apollo said, allowing Zidine the chance to teleport behind him (by sheer movement) as Apollo felt death’s stench of absolute disaster pouring from Zidine’s wounds. “His weakness is the lack of ability to speak and thus mitigate the runic powers. How ironic.” Apollo thought to himself, only for him to get his face smashed in by Mjolnir… but it wasn’t Mjolnir. “WHAT?! How in Gaea’s name did he do such a thing? His hammer is not even visible!?” Apollo thought to himself as every deity watching noticed something peculiar. “His hands now somehow contain the force of that hammer. Is he passively evolving?” They all asked, as Heracles was particularly impressed. “This boy isn’t half bad.” He thought to himself, his hands itching for the feel of battle. “Art of Truth: Daedelion.” Apollo said, summoning a bird which immediately attacked Zidine however he couldn’t swat away the bird to his shock. “Is this bird a bird or a human?” Zidine thought to himself, ultimately deciding to grab the bird’s talons and use the Third Form of the Lightning of Elding to kill the bird, devouring it in a small vortex. “You possess Zeus’ lightning in a controlled formation?” Apollo asked, summoning an arrow of fire to which he immediately fired at the speed of thought only for Zidine to catch it without even looking. “Not bad.” Apollo said, deciding to get serious by turning his arrows into cubes and then miniature suns by transmuting them into such, only for Zidine to point Mjolnir at all of them, combining that with the Lightning of Elding’s Third Form to destroy all of the suns on the conceptual level. “Your hand strength was as strong as Mjolnir itself?!” Apollo asked, only for him to shine with light in an attempt to blind Zidine who closed his eyes and simply let his hammer fly. “Arrows of Light!” Apollo spoke, causing his light to shine straight at the hammer, ultimately catching it seconds before it hit him in the face. “Sleep-Thorn.” Zidine then spoke, instead turning the suns into thorns and firing them at Apollo who stretched his hand out. “I am motion.” Apollo said, to which Zidine glared at him, using that instant to summon a sun above Mount Olympus. “You will lose here, Zidine of Helios!” Apollo screamed as Zidine took a deep breath. “4th form of the Lightning Of Elding: Thunderous Rune of the Old Sorcerer.” Zidine thought to himself with Mjölnir beginning to glow with a mysteriously blue hue. “I curse you with instant loss of light… A sixth I know: when some thane would harm me in runes on a moist tree’s root, on his head alone shall light the ills of the curse that he called upon mine” They both said aloud, with Zidine countering Apollo’s curse, despite having smallpox devouring his throat. “This boy doth know not his limitless of humane vanity.” Apollo thought to himself as his eyes fired lasers of light at Zidine who simply dodged them and ran at Apollo who teleported away and let the sun blow up in front of Zidine. “ARE YOU PLANNING TO KILL-!” Heracles screamed, only for Algiz to appear in Zidine’s eyeball, seemingly protecting him. “You will have to try harder than that, Apollo.” Zidine spoke as the rune immediately disappeared. “Are you just supernaturally arrogant?” Apollo asked, appearing in a ball of golden light and immediately standing behind Zidine, his arrow drawn and ready. “If I shoot you point-blank range… your soul, mind, concept and all the rest you call “you” goes away.” Apollo said as Zidine glared at him. “Try it and we will see if you live any longer than a few seconds.” Zidine said as Mjolnir flew as soon as Apollo did so, devouring Zidine in the light of the sun, effectively using nuclear radiation and solar radiation with the one arrow… only for Mjolnir to hit Apollo in the back of the head at the last moment, knocking him out cold as his bow shattered. “Believe me, your arrogance will be your undoing.” Apollo’s last words were as Zidine used his hammer to heal him, maintaining a stoic form whereas his mind was trapped with concern of the future. “Next.” Zidine said as Ares made himself known where he was usually dressed as a standard Greek warrior with a short tunic, breastplate, helm and greaves. The breastplate was often omitted in favour of a simple tunic, and he was sometimes depicted nude except for the helm and shield. "Ares insatiable in battle, blazing like the light of burning fire in his armour and standing in his chariots, and his running horses trampled and dented the ground with their hooves . . . And all the grove and the altar . . . were lighted up by the dread god, Ares, himself and his armour, and the shining from his eyes was like fire . . . manslaughtering Ares screaming aloud, courses all over the sacred grove." All beings around spoke as Ares smiled coldly, taking off his guts. “You are a curse of sport and war, boy.” Ares said as Zidine immediately used Mjolnir to try and slay Ares who simply dodged it… except it still hit him in the back of the head. “Too slow.” Ares said, using his spear to try and kill Zidine who struggled to dodge it, even with Odin’s eye activated, combining this with the Lightning of Elding to make an orb that appeared behind Ares, however he simply kicked it away, only for Zidine to counter this by using the Blades of Demphaus, wrapping it around Ares’ leg. “Using one blade ‘gainst me and leaving the other prancing about? What a knave.” He said, using his eye-beams to destroy the blade, leaving Zidine briefly vulnerable for the shortest of moments. “Your blades are strong. Very, very strong. But they lack one strength thy hammer has: They can be damaged sufficiently, leaving you vulnerable!” Ares spoke, using the repaired chain to grab Zidine, attracting him towards himself however he foresaw this and used his foresight to predict this, and use his remaining blade to ensnare Ares. “How embarrassing for the son of someone so strong. Even if you want to fight your mother without killer intent, try harder! Even if you could perhaps later destroy Platonic concepts, thy suffering will ne’er be abated. Where is the Berserker that nearly ended the wretched Haakon?!” Ares asked as Zidine looked utterly shocked. “How do you know Haakon?!” He asked as Ares laughed at this question; a fool’s errand. “He is the ruler of Valhalla, wretched oaf. In the Prose Edda, Snorri Sturluson presents the world as basically a big landmass in the middle of a vast sea created from Ymir’s spilled blood, with Muspelheim and Niflheim as their own areas that existed before Odin and his brothers made the earth inside of Ginnungagap. Midgard and Asgard are depicted as specific areas of that world, rather than two separate universes as in modern media. Midgard is a “fortification” made from Ymir’s eyelashes to separate the lands where humans live from the lands where giants live (AKA Jötunheim, also clearly not its own universe, and seemingly part of this landmass), and Asgard’s just a city. The heavens are located above this landmass, reachable by the rainbow Bifrost bridge.” Ares explained and upon learning this, he felt his mind swinging with thoughts of madness. His mind was molested by this desire for violence but his thoughts and soul could, nay, they had to verily suppress it for the sake of his mortal sanity. “Show me the Berserker, boy! If you could not get past me… how could you ever hope to surpass Hephaestus, Poseidon or even Hades?” Ares asked with great disdain for Zidine at this moment. “How dare you bewitch my mind, War.” Zidine said as red thunder finally could be heard rumbling over the skies. “Show me your godhood, covered in a violent form, foppish boy of an impotent mind.” Ares spoke as Zidine’s right eye glowed red. “Do you mind shutting that gob of yours?” Zidine said coldly as Ares smiled coldly, ultimately causing red orbs of lightning to surround Ares no matter where he went. “Is he summoning a constellation of thunder?! What a bastard!” Ares thought to himself, only for Zidine to appear, kick him in the nuts and send him flying but his next attack was blocked by Ares’ shield. “5th form of the Lightning of Elding: Mind-Mode of Thunderous Rune! Berserkur Hamur - Mikros Keraunos (Berserk Mode: Small Thunderbolt)!” He said as

Ares looked absolutely terrified, and upon the Keravnos touching him, he screamed in pain. “So thanks to the effect of Berserker Mode, he used its god-negating properties to damage me effectively by using Mjolnir as a medium?! Tactful whor*.” Ares thought to himself with clear amazement. “You’re going to die.” Zidine thought to himself as he used the Drigo Axe to ultimately shatter Ares’ shield, leading to Ares teleporting away in a pool of blood and kicking him in the back. “Why would War die?” Ares asked, creating a pair of flaming chains to ensnare Zidine’s violent arms. “DAMN FIEND!” Zidine screamed as Ares laughed, dodging Mjolnir’s next assault. “Just because you can damage a god doesn’t mean it applies to everyone, boy.” Ares spoke, with embittered lips. “You really are dumb, Ares. A fourth I know: if men make fast in chains the joints of my limbs, when I sing that song which shall set me free, spring the fetters from hands and feet.” Zidine spoke to which he released his chains, kicking the chains upwards and then kicking them back to sender, leading to Ares coldly grabbing them and swinging them again only for Zidine to glare at him and snap his fingers but as he did this, Ares summoned Mars. “I know a sixteenth spell; if I want to win over a cunning woman and have her all to myself, I can change the mind of that lovely-armed beauty and win her favor for myself” to which Ares fell to his knees in horror. Hera witnessed this as she laughed with her lips, but her forehead above her dark brows relaxed not, and, moved with indignation, she spake among them all: "Fools, that in our witlessness are wroth against Zeus! In sooth we are even yet fain to draw nigh unto him and thwart him of his will by word or by constraint, but he sitteth apart and recketh not, neither giveth heed thereto; for he deemeth that among the immortal gods he is manifestly supreme in might and strength. Wherefore content ye yourselves with whatsoever evil thing he sendeth upon each. Even now I deem that sorrow hath been wrought for Ares, seeing that his son, dearest of men to him, hath perished in battle, even Ascalaphus, whom mighty Ares declareth to be his own.” So spake she, but Ares smote his sturdy thighs with the flat of his hands, and with wailing spake, and said: "Count it not blame for me now, O ye that have dwellings on Olympus, if I go to the ships of the Achaeans and avenge the slaying of my son, even though it be my fate to be smitten with the bolt of Zeus, and to lie low in blood and dust amid the dead.” So spake he and bade Terror and Rout yoke his horses, and himself did on his gleaming armour. Then would yet greater and more grievous wrath and anger have been stirred between Zeus and the immortals as Zidine smiled. “Love? You enchanted Aphrodite… you blood-sucking brat. May thy mother curse thee with hatred.” Ares said as Zidine glared at him, ultimately throwing his hammer at the planet… destroying it. “Next.” He spoke, leading to Artemis coming and firing her bow straight at Zidine who swiftly deflected each arrow. “He’s getting stronger per each fight.” Artemis thought to herself however Zidine was simply too fast for her and used Mjolnir, crushing her bow casually. “He crushed the Moon?” Heracles thought to himself in slight fear, only for Zidine to smile, knowing he had won. “Next.” Zidine said to which Artemis swiftly responding by saying “Thy mother wilt hunt ye like how the lion hunts the gazelle before the sun rises swifter in the Western direction.” Only for Athena herself to arrive, fully grown, a most blessed woman. She is thus surely the Olympian goddess of wisdom and good counsel, war, the defence of towns, heroic endeavour, weaving, pottery and various other crafts. She was depicted as a stately woman armed with a shield and spear, and wearing a long robe, crested helm, and the famed aigis--a snake-trimmed cape adorned with the monstrous visage of the Gorgon Medousa (Medusa). The ground of Olympos spoke Homeric Hymn 39 to Athena:

"I begin to sing of Pallas Athena, the glorious goddess, bright-eyed, inventive, unbending of heart, pure virgin, saviour of cities, courageous, Tritogeneia. From his awful head wise Zeus himself bare her arrayed in warlike arms of flashing gold, and awe seized all the gods as they gazed. But Athena sprang quickly from the immortal head and stood before Zeus who holds the aegis, shaking a sharp spear: great Olympos began to reel horribly at the might of the grey-eyed goddess, and earth round about cried fearfully, and the sea was moved and tossed with dark waves, while foam burst forth suddenly: the bright Son of Hyperion [Helios the Sun] stopped his swift-footed horses a long while, until the maiden Pallas Athena had stripped the heavenly armour from her immortal shoulders. And wise Zeus was glad. Hail to you, daughter of Zeus who holds the aigis!"

In the Orphic hymn 32: "Only-begotten, noble race of Zeus, blessed and fierce, who joyest in caves to rove: O warlike Pallas, whose illustrious kind, ineffable, and effable we find: magnanimous and famed, the rocky height, and groves, and shady mountains thee delight: in arms rejoicing, who with furies dire and wild the souls of mortals dost inspire. Gymnastic virgin of terrific mind, dire Gorgon's bane, unmarried, blessed, kind: mother of arts, impetuous; understood as fury by the bad, but wisdom by the good. Female and male, the arts of war are thine, O much-formed, Drakaina (She-Dragon), inspired divine: over the Phlegraion Gigantes (Phlegraean Giants), roused to ire, thy coursers driving with destructive dire. Tritogeneia, of splendid mien, purger of evils, all-victorious queen. Hear me, O Goddess, when to thee I pray, with supplicating voice both night and day, and in my latest hour give peace and health, propitious times, and necessary wealth, and ever present be thy votaries aid, O much implored, art's parent, blue-eyed maid." Zidine noticed that she [Athena] donned the stormy Aigis flashing far, adamantine, massy, a marvel to the Gods, whereon was wrought Medousa's (Medusa's) ghastly head, fearful: strong serpents breathing forth the blast of ravening fire were on the face thereof. Crashed on the Queen's breast all the Aigis-links, as after lightning crashes the firmament. Then grasped she her father's weapons, which no God save Zeus can lift, and wide Olympos shook. Then swept she clouds and mist together on high; night over earth was poured, haze o'er the sea. Zeus watched, and was right glad as broad heaven's floor rocked 'neath the Goddess's feet, and crashed the sky, as though invincible Zeus rushed forth to war. She was ruddy of face and most masculine in sheer appearance, as Zidine sensed this would be incredibly difficult. “So she has the Aegis?” Zidine asked himself, immediately and instinctively using his Thunderbolts, only for nothing to truly affect Athena who simply used her shield to deflect the attack back at Zidine with immense force, with him realising that she was far more than she appeared to be. “Damn… will Mjolnir work?” Zidine thought to himself as upon clashing his hammer against the Aegis, he felt it merely bounce off, like how fire hits a spark in twain, as the hammer itself was turned to stone, to Zidine’s horror. “So I have no choice.” Zidine thought to himself, immediately using the Drigo Axe and smiling, knowing Athena would likely survive everything he had and so, he manifested lightning within the axe’s orifice. Runic symbols manifested with unknown or perhaps, uncertain meaning and he, to the fray rose first, and on Athena rushed. Thereat fell each on other: clashed around their limbs the golden arms celestial as they charged, round them the wide sea thundered, the dark earth quaked 'neath immortal feet. Rang from them all far-pealing battle-shouts; that awful cry rolled up to the broad-arching heaven, and down even to Hades' fathomless abyss as the entirety of Olympus shook. “They’re shaking the entirety of the universe.” Heracles said in shock, as waves began to ring around, stretching across broad-arched heaven as the mount withstood this force, as even Helena and Abram felt this immense force but couldn’t truly feel this intensity coming from the two. “You are indeed skilled, Zidine in the usage of thy bladed axe… but you have failed to look at one issue: Intelligence. Skill is not all. Intelligence is the strongest warrior.” Athena said as Zidine felt himself being pushed back, not by Athena’s power but by his own unwillingness to go all out. “You have no reason to fear but you should not hold yourself back. Your mother will not be so merciful.” Athena said, with an air of wisdom emanating from her locked tongue that was created when she was born of Zeus and Metis’ absorptive union. “Very well.” Zidine thought to himself, instinctively beginning to want to go all in against a worthy opponent… as Heracles watched on in slight amazement as Olympos’ roots shook in fear. “You cannot beat immortality.” Athena spoke only for Zidine to use the full power of his thunderbolts, to which she simply countered by tapping her shield, releasing a huge wave of fear that even shook Zidine’s very soul only for him to just resist this and use his thunderbolts to damage Athena herself, only for her Aegean shield to counter this by simply shaking it off. “Know that the Aegis can never be damaged by Father’s thunderbolts. You should know that, considering thy previous try at doing this. Remember this.” Athena said as Zidine slowly began to realise that this would be a battle of an immovable object vs an unstoppable force. “This won’t end well.” Zidine thought to himself as he continued to use the Drigo Axe in tandem with runes to amplify his strength; however no matter what he did… he would never be able to penetrate the Aegis which shone brighter than the sun itself. “We gods in front of you are mere forms.” Athena explained as her spear stabbed into Zidine’s chest, doing visible damage and bypassing the protective rune that stopped all spears. “What- Forms are objects of a perfect, transcendental world. While there exists no perfect circle in the physical world, it does exist in the World of the Forms, and it is the reason why we can think of perfect circles despite never having seen one.

Now the Forms have a couple of distinct properties.

  1. Perfect: Forms are always the ultimate instantiation of goodness, there's a Form of Justice, but not a Form of Injustice. Injustice in the physical world is a result of people's failure to adhere to the Form of Justice.
  2. Immutable: Forms are eternal and can't be created, changed or destroyed.
  3. Transcendent: Forms are aspatial and atemporal, so it's impossible for anything in the physical world to interact with them.

Thinking a bit about these properties, you'll realize that they're rather inflexible. A Form can't be destroyed. This is not a matter of "we're just not powerful enough, but maybe something in fiction is." No, they're absolutely indestructible, in the same sense an omnipotent would be indestructible. If something can be destroyed, then it's by definition not a Form. There also exists another type of Form called Jungian Archetypes: Jungian Archetypes is an explanation for what he classified as the 12 different archetypes found across all cultures and hence attributed to a universal (human) unconscious. These are supposedly unlearned and hereditary ideas that inspires us and gives us purpose. These are the: Ruler, Artist, Sage, Innocent, Explorer, Rebel, Hero, Magician, Jester, Everyman, Lover, and Caregiver. By not beating me, you will lose any true chance of doing anything to Typhon.” Athena explained only for the power of Berserker Mode to spur him on. “Silence yourself.” She spoke, shutting down the power on the conceptual level to Zidine’s horror as Demeter came and froze him in ice only for a rune to appear in the air and unfreeze Mjolnir, allowing Zidine the chance to strike Demeter, to which she fell, thus causing Hesperia’s crops to desist and cease, forcing Helena into a terrible decision. “We must use the Scepter.” She said to George who did so, pointing it at the sky and stopping the temporal flow of the elements, reverting them to a state of peace with Helena looking on in sheer anger and annoyance at the fact that Zidine caused this. Upon Demeter’s “death”... Zidine spoke “ I know an eighth spell; it would be useful for anyone to learn it. When hate arises between any two people, I can cool their tempers” and beat Dionysus without any effort. “Know that thy mother is likely controlling Hesperia by way of the staff that thy Father left behind for his future reigning monarch who was to be you.” Demeter explained as Hephaestus finally appeared from his forge of Olympus (despite it being destroyed) and readied himself for battle.

A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapour and melted as tin melts when heated by men's art in channelled crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is softened by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaestus as Hephaistos took the huge blower off from the block of the anvil limping; and yet his shrunken legs moved lightly beneath him. He set the bellows away from the fire, and gathered and put away all the tools with which he worked in a silver strongbox. Then with a sponge he wiped clean his forehead, and both hands, and his massive neck and hairy chest, and put on a tunic, and took up a heavy stick in his hand, and went to the doorway limping. And in support of their master moved his attendants. These are golden, and in appearance like living young women. There is intelligence in their hearts, and there is speech in them and strength, and from the immortal gods they have learned how to do things. These stirred nimbly in support of their master.

From the Works and Days: And he bade famous Hephaestus make haste and mix earth with water and to put in it the voice and strength of human kind, and fashion a sweet, lovely maiden-shape, like to the immortal goddesses in face; and Athene to teach her needlework and the weaving of the varied web; and golden Aphrodite to shed grace upon her head and cruel longing and cares that weary the limbs. And he charged Hermes the guide, the Slayer of Argus, to put in her a shameless mind and a deceitful nature. So he ordered. And they obeyed the lord Zeus the son of Cronos. Forthwith the famous Lame God moulded clay in the likeness of a modest maid, as the son of Cronos purposed. And the goddess bright-eyed Athene girded and clothed her, and the divine Graces and queenly Persuasion put necklaces of gold upon her, and the rich-haired Hours crowned her head with spring flowers. And Pallas Athene bedecked her form with all manners of finery. Also the Guide, the Slayer of Argus, contrived within her lies and crafty words and a deceitful nature at the will of loud thundering Zeus, and the Herald of the gods put speech in her. And he called this woman Pandora (All Endowed), because all they who dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread. Sing, clear-voiced Muses, of Hephaestus famed for inventions. With bright-eyed Athene he taught men glorious gifts throughout the world, -- men who before used to dwell in caves in the mountains like wild beasts. But now that they have learned crafts through Hephaestus the famed worker, easily they live a peaceful life in their own houses the whole year round. Be gracious, Hephaestus, and grant me success and prosperity! "To Hephaistos (Hephaestus), Fumigation from Frankincense and Manna. Strong, mighty Hephaistos, bearing splendid light, unwearied fire, with flaming torrents bright: strong-handed, deathless, and of art divine, pure element, a portion of the world is thine: all-taming artist, all-diffusive power, 'tis thine, supreme, all substance to devour: aither, sun, moon, and stars, light pure and clear, for these thy lucid parts [of fire] to men appear. To thee all dwellings, cities, tribes belong, diffused through mortal bodies, rich and strong. Hear, blessed power, to holy rites incline, and all propitious on the incense shine: suppress the rage of fire's unwearied frame, and still preserve our nature's vital flame." as Hephaestus simply forged a copy of Zidine himself. “6th form of the Lightning of Elding: Gust of Ragnarok!” Zidine said as Mjolnir sent Hephaestus on its lonesome to his horror, causing wind to shatter his armour slowly; as him and his clone fought each other physically as Hephaestus was deeply amazed, seeing both of their hammers clash and their axes clash all the same only for the real Zidine’s axe to force itself into Hephaestus’ body who looked so horrified but simply laughed it off and turned his body into fire. “You can never harm a forger like m-?!” Hephaestus was about to say, only to see a huge flame in Zidine’s hand that became thunder itself.

“As animal itself likewise proximately subsists from intelligible life, so the demiurgus is generated from intellectual life, and is the first that is filled with the rivers of vivification. Hence he illuminates all things with life, unfolding the depths of the animal-producing deity, and calling forth the prolific power of the intellectual Gods. If therefore, all things live through the demiurgic cause, they also participate of soul and intellect, and, as I may say, of all vivification, through the providence of this God. But he who pours the rivers of life on all things in the world from himself, and is the ruler and king of wholes, is the mighty Jupiter, as Socrates says in the Cratylus, and evidently appears to be the same with the demiurgus. And the divinely-inspired intellectual conception of Timaeus concerning the demiurgus, accords with the theojogy of Socrates about Jupiter. If likewise each of them denominates the knowledge of this God difficult to be apprehended, and one of them says that it is difficult to discover, him, and when discovered, that it is impossible to speak of him to all men, but the other asserts that it is not easy to understand the name of Jupiter, do they not in this respect accord with each other in what they say concerning this God? Besides this also, the composition of the names, and the coalition of the two names into one hyparxis, appear in a remarkable degree to be adapted to the demiurgus. For a biformed essence, and generative power, are attributed to him according to other theologists. For the duad sits with him, according to which he generates all things; concerning which Timaeus also introduces him speaking to the demiurgi in the world, and saying, "Imitating my power." And through this he produces and vivifies all things. Hence it is necessary through names also to consecrate the duad to him according to ancient rumour. For he glitters with intellectual sections, divides and collects wholes, and constitutes one indissoluble order from many things. And this the power of the names indicates, extending us from divided intellection, to one self-perfect and uniform theory. And though some one should derive a certain evil from the motions of the celestial Gods, so as to become timid or intemperate, yet they operate in one way, and their influences are participated by souls in another. For the efflux of intellect, says Plotinus, becomes craft in him who receives the efflux badly; the gift of an elegant life becomes intemperance through a similar cause; and in short, while they produce beneficently, their gifts are participated by terrestrial natures, after a contrary manner. Hence the givers who bestow beneficently are not to be accused as the authors of evil, but the recipients who pervert their gifts by their own inaptitudes. Thus also Jupiter in Homer blames souls as in vain accusing the Gods, while they themselves are the causes of evils. For the Gods are the [135 ] sources of good, and the suppliers of intellect and life, but are not the causes of any evil; since even a partial nature is not the cause of evil to its offspring. What, therefore, ought we to think concerning the Gods themselves? Is it not, that they are much more the causes of good to their productions; since with them there is power, with them there is a self­perfect nature, with them there is universal goodness, to all which evil is contrary. For in its own nature it is powerless, imperfect, and without measure” as said by Proclus on The Theology of Plato, Book 7, Chapter XII. Continuing on, this starts with the One, which subsequently spawns the many Gods (called Henads, or “Unities“) through simple multiplication of itself into a multitude (and thus preserving most of its attributes, as everything is multiplied oneness), who functions as horizontal extensions of the same power, who ultimately leads back to that unity. This means that all of the Gods are unending, perfect and unborn, each with an infinity of attributes, as They are not “separate from the first cause, or from one each other” (Sallustius, II). Though the Gods are supra-essential and beyond Being (hyperousios), the bottom level of one hypostasis is considered to be the top level of the next, and thus the Gods are simultaneously understood to possess substance (Ousia) at the summits of Being, and thus are Being’s first principles. Following the Gods are the Greater Kinds, including human souls, who spawn from the Gods and participate in Them. This plurality which derives from the One is made up of “different states or appearances of a single substance” (Urmson 1991, 259), or Ousia, which makes up everything with the quality of Ontos (Being), from the bodies of the Gods to the Greater Kinds and ultimately us, making the religion a form of substance monism. Julian Hellenism is also a panentheistic religion, with the divine being concurrently both transcendent and immanent, looking over our universe from the outside while also animating it and manifesting throughout the Kosmos through a divine illumination which fills all things eternally.

The Gods are eternal Beings, their origins being prior to the creation of time. They are unchanging, unbegotten, eternal, incorporeal, and not in space. The Gods and Their Ousia are ungenerated as “eternal natures are without generation; and those beings are eternal who possess a first power, and are naturally void of passivity. Nor are their essences [ousia] composed from bodies; for even the powers of bodies are incorporeal: nor are they comprehended in place; for this is the property of bodies: nor are they separated from the first cause, or from each other; in the same manner as intellections are not separated from intellect, nor sciences from the soul” (Sallustius, II). They are living immortals who surround and permeating unhindered the entire material universe and act on it. The Gods are not subject to Fate, but rather lay above it and overlook Providence (Sallustius, IX). Their wisdom sees the whole, and so their light puts us on the right path and brings to pass what is best (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 261-263). They are the causes of all that is now and all that shall be, and though They are not seen by us, They can direct their divine gaze, which is more powerful than any light, towards us– even as far as our hidden thoughts (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 323). They are wholly beyond our physical universe and by directing the Logoi (Logic), thoughts that are lower manifestations of the higher principle (e.g., the Forms), and Anagne (Necessity), the moral and natural cause which compels nature, They create the Kosmos and produce its laws (Plato Timaeus, 48a).

The divine are Beings (Ónta/Όντα), not Persons (Prosopon/Πρόσωπα), as persons denotates human limits which the Gods lack because They are so beyond us. They do not intervene in the realms of actions of other Gods, cease to exist, or combine into one. Because each God is not separated “from the first cause [i.e., the One/the Godhead/the Good], or from one each other” (Sallustius, II), They thus share an infinity of attributes as each of Them are in eachother and are treated as equal to the One. As such, each God, as a multiplication of the One, is the center of all, and are each omnipotent (infinite in power), omniscient (complete, unlimited knowledge, awareness and understanding of everything), omnibenevolent (possessing perfect and unlimited goodness), omnipresent (present everywhere at the same time), omnitemporal (knowing the future equally as well as the past), eternal and immutable, and without any flaws. Each God is a full-spectrum deity; and while They may have areas of special focus, They are each far more than some limited function (e.g., “Goddess of Love” or “God of War”). The soul of a God can be understood in three parts: Essence, Powers, and Activity:

  • A God’s Existence (Hyparxis) is their inner-most and most fundamental independent self which is beyond any essence, substance or Being (hyperousios). However, this is pre-essential axiomatic existence is completely beyond the Kosmos, and hence beyond what we can interact with and beyond any sort of intellection (noeta). So instead we interact with Their Essence/Substance (Ousia), which lies at the summit of Being and are objects of intellection (noeta). Their essence is “at the summit [of existence], and transcendent and perfect” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7). Their essence is wholly intelligible and beyond our material realm, and their bodies present in the material Kosmos, such as the stars and the planets, are merely ruled from the outside. They do not have either gender or any other characteristic of mortal beings, as their substance is entirely alien to us. Their movements are spherical, and thus perfect. The Gods share a divine genus that is “dominant in them throughout, [which] establishes one and the same essence [(i.e., ousia)] throughout the whole” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17). This essence is “simple, as it is without parts, so also it is indivisible, and as it is invariable, so also is it not subject to change” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17), and thus the Gods are “hom*ogeneous in all respects, entirely united among themselves, uniform and non-composite” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17).
  • Their Power (Greek: Dunamis, Latin: Potentia, Numen) is Their potential expression of Their essence. A God’s power “can achieve all things simultaneously, in the present instant, unitarily” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7).
  • Their Activity (Greek: Energeia, Latin: Actus) is Their powers in action. The activities of the Gods are uniform (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17). A God’s activities “generates and governs all things without inclining towards them” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7). The Gods concern Themselves with things of this world and perform activities, however They do not perform these activities out of need since They are perfect and thus without need. This nature links back to the One. Plotinus’ description of the activity of the One is that it overflows of its superabundance (Uždavinys 2009, 27). It gains nothing from this overflowing, nor has any need to overflow. Rather, it is simply its nature, and hence in turn it is also simply in the nature of the divine. The Gods are above Necessity (Plato Timaeus, 45a), which isn’t to be confused with want or nature.

It is important to note that these “parts” are inseparable, for as the divine Julian writes, “For it cannot be that a God’s substance is one thing, and His power another, and His activity, by Zeus, a third thing besides these. For all that He wills he is, and can do, and puts into action. For He does not will what is not, nor does He lack power to do what He wills, nor does He desire to put into action what He cannot” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 389). This is contrary to human beings, who has a “two-fold contending nature of soul and body compounded into one, the former divine, the latter dark and clouded. Naturally, therefore, there is a battle and a feud between them. And Aristotle also says that this is why neither the pleasures nor the pains in us harmonise with one another. For he says that what is pleasant to one of the natures within us is painful to the nature which is its opposite” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 389). Among the Gods, however, “there is nothing of this sort. For from their very nature what is good belongs to them, and perpetually, not intermittently” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 389). Knowledge of the divine is not attainable in mere belief [doxa], but rather, it is a natural tendency which is innate in all people (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.2-3), because whether in private or public, whether as individuals or as peoples, there exists a universal striving towards divinity, for we all believe, even without being taught, in the existence of something divine (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 321), for there is no one who does not raise their hands to heaven in prayer when they swear by the Gods; if they have any notion at all of the divine, they will turn heavenward, and it was very natural that people should feel thus (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 323). It in this innate understanding that we can find true knowledge of the divine, which is not easily comprehended, nor is it able to be easily communicated, for no one in the world can adequately describe the true greatness of the divine without failing to a certain extent in their attempt (Flavius Claudius Iulianis, I 357). The Gods are beyond us and need nothing, and we worship Them because They are beings worthy of worship, being so beyond us and responsible for all kinds of good and no evil. As a result of this it can be understood that worship, prayer, and sacrifice aren’t given to the Gods to “appease” Them. The Gods are not angry with sinners, for to be angry would be to passion. The Gods do not rejoice- for what rejoices also grieves. Nor are They appeased by gifts – for if They were, They would also be conquered by pleasure. The Gods are always good, always do good and never do injustice, instead always being in the same state and like Themselves. Rather, when we are good, we are joined and cling to the Gods when we show likeness to Them by living according to virtue, and when we become evil we make the Gods our enemies – not because They are angered against us, but because our sins prevent the light of the Gods from shining upon us, and thus putting us in communion with spirits of punishment (Sallustius, XIV). If by prayers and sacrifices we find forgiveness of sins, we do not appease or change the Gods, but instead, by turning toward the divine, we heal our own badness and so again enjoy the eternal and infinite goodness of the Gods (Sallustius, XIV). To say that the Gods turn away from evil is like saying that the Sun hides Himself from the blind. Because of this, it is to be correctly understood that we provide the Gods with worship ultimately for our own benefit, since the Gods need nothing; and worship is done by exposing ourselves to Their divine radiance (Sallustius, XIV).” Hephastus explained with certainty as Hephaestus immediately made more copies of Zidine himself only for Zidine to force Mjolnir to continue electrocute him. “This is not enough to fell me.” Zidine said, still glaring at Hephaestus in Berserker Mode to which Zidine used his full power to smash the entirety of Olympus, causing massive earthquakes in Hesperia which was stopped thanks to Helios’ Sun Scepter. “Release them now.” Zidine said in a genuinely threatening manner as Hephaestus immediately created the Aegis out of respect, deleting Zidine’s clones and as such… he felt a divine power billowing through him. “Thank you.” Zidine said as Hera herself finally teleported down from her throne. “Hera is the stars in Zeus’ sky & the wind in Zeus’ storm. She is the platonic Intellect, the beginning of the unfolding of the ineffable One into the multiplicity of the Cosmos. Where Zeus is Aither she is Air, and through their union the fire of creation - Hephaistos - manifests. Hera, Demeter, and Artemis form the triad of goddesses responsible for the animation - that is, the setting-in-motion - of the cosmos. Whereas Demeter specifically oversees the unfolding of Life into living beings and Artemis the unfolding of consciousness into separate minds, Hera governs the very act of division and multiplication that makes all posterior unfoldings possible, and in doing so establishes the laws by which separate things relate to each other, whether those be the laws of physics or of the state. As the fountain of multiplicity, she is represented by the peaco*ck, upon whose tail the hundred eyes of Argus form a symbol analogous to Indra’s Net. Though she may go unrecognized for it in much of the mythology, Hera is indeed the great goddess who underpins all creation. Hera’s act of creation, the procreation that results from her union with Zeus, is simultaneously the foundation of Law, of Themis & Nomos. Thus Hera is represented as the queen mother, the patroness of statehood & the lynchpin of the family that serves as the model for the state. It’s from this depiction that we get the common mythical trope of a jealous Hera punishing the offspring of Zeus’ trysts. It’s important to know that myths aren’t literal, but they do encode important information, and often do so in ways that are shocking to the sensibilities in order to make the listener remember and dwell on the content. "I sing of golden-throned Hera whom Rhea bare. Queen of the Immortals is she, surpassing all in beauty: she is the sister and wife of loud-thundering Zeus,--the glorious one whom all the blessed throughout high Olympos reverence and honour even as Zeus who delights in thunder." O Royal Juno [Hera] of majestic mien, aerial-form'd, divine, Jove's [Zeus'] blessed queen, Thron'd in the bosom of cærulean air, the race of mortals is thy constant care. The cooling gales thy pow'r alone inspires, which nourish life, which ev'ry life desires. Mother of clouds and winds, from thee alone producing all things, mortal life is known: All natures share thy temp'rament divine, and universal sway alone is thine. With founding blasts of wind, the swelling sea and rolling rivers roar, when shook by thee. Come, blessed Goddess, fam'd almighty queen, with aspect kind, rejoicing and serene.” Heracles spoke as Zidine was slightly taken aback with her firing frozen hails of wind at Zidine who was unable to dodge it, whilst also summoning plumes of trees and forests to trap Zidine. “You are far too slow.” Hera said with a sly smile curling on her face, ultimately using wind and water. “Of Ovid’s Metamorphoses: Losing no time, malign Tisiphone seized a torch steeped in blood, put on a robe all red with dripping gore and wound a snake about her waist, and started from her home; and with her as he went were Luctus (Grief) and Pavor (Dread), Terror (Terror), and Insania (Madness) too with frantic face. She stood upon the threshold of the palace; the door-posts shook, it’s said; the maple doors turned pale, the sunlight fled. The monstrous sight terrified Ino, terrified Athamas. They made to leave the palace; in the entrance the baleful Erinys stood and barred their way, stretching her arms entwined with tangled snakes, and shaking out her hair. The snakes, dislodged, gave hissing sounds; some crawled upon her shoulders; some, gliding round her bosom, vomited a slime of venom, flickering their tongues and hissing horribly. Then from her hair she tore out two with a doom-charged aim darted them. Down the breasts of Athamas and Ino, winding, twisting, they exhaled their noisome breath; yet never any wound to see, the fateful fangs affect their minds. Tisiphone brought with her poisons too of magic power: lip-froth of Cerberus, the Echidna’s venom, wild deliriums, blindnesses of the brain, and crime and tears, and maddened lust for murder; all ground up, mixed with fresh blood, boiled in a pan of bronze, and stirred with a green hemlock stick. And while they shuddered there, she poured the poisoned brew, that broth of madness, over both their breasts right down into their hearts. Then round and round she waved her torch, fire following brandished fire. And so, her task accomplished, victory won, back to great Dis’ [Haides’] realm of wraiths she went, and loosed the snake she’d fastened round her waist. Then raving through the palace Aeolides [Athamas] shouted [and in his madness boiled his elder son alive and attempted to slay his wife and baby son who leapt off a cliff into the sea to escape him]." Hera spoke as Zidine’s mind felt itself being controlled only for Mjolnir to immediately act on his own, counterbalancing Hera’s control of wind with its own as she simply bound herself in a forest to defend herself from its wind. “Not bad. Even if you can shatter the boundless Earth and cause boundless chaos to quiver, you will lose.” Hera said, ultimately snapping her fingers and inducing the very concept of blindness on Mjolnir, leading its absolute accuracy to shut down on purpose. “What has she done?” Zidine thought to himself as he immediately spoke “A sixth I know: when some thane would harm me in runes on a moist tree’s root, on his head alone shall light the ills of the curse that he called upon mine and I know a sixteenth spell; if I want to win over a cunning woman and have her all to myself, I can change the mind of that lovely-armed beauty and win her favor for myself” Zidine said, to which Hera smiled, devouring the entirety of Olympus in water to drown Zidine, however this was lower than Poseidon’s capabilities with control over water, only for Zidine to bind Hera’s forest (not a euphemism :D) with the Blades of Demphaus, ultimately allowing him to burn the entire forest. “You burned this forest? Have ye absorbed the power of Hephaestus? Thy growth is incredible… surely ye hath destroyed my boundless earth.” Hera said as she then released enough wind and water to devour the entire universe only for Zidine to use Mjolnir, summoning the rune of ᚴ Kaunaz (Wound or pain) to nullify the attack, ultimately allowing Hera to be struck by Zeus’ thunderbolt, seemingly burning her to ashes as everyone looked stunned and Hermes immediately blitzed Zidine, only for him to dodge. “You killed Hera.” Hermes said, only for Zidine to remain emotionless. “She isn’t dead. She’s far too strong for that to kill her.” He swiftly said, grabbing Hermes and then sending him to the ground. “Even if you are faster than thought… you will die.” Zidine said, grabbing Hermes’ ankles and smashing them with Mjolnir, destroying them. “Your mother will rue her victory against you.” Hermes spoke as Poseidon smiled, readying himself for his short, but titanic clash against Zidine. He was a bearded yet well-put man. "I begin to sing about Poseidon, the great god, mover of the earth and fruitless sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Helikon (Helicon) and wide Aigai (Aegae). O Shaker of the Earth (Ennosigaios), to be a tamer of horses and a saviour of ships! Hail Poseidon Holder of the Earth (gaienokhos), dark-haired lord! O blessed one, be kindly in heart and help those who voyage in ships!". And Orphic Hymn 22: "Hear, Poseidon, ruler of the sea profound, whose liquid grasp begirds the solid ground; who, at the bottom of the stormy main, dark and deep-bosomed holdest they watery reign. Thy awful hand the brazen trident bears, and sea's utmost bound thy will reveres. Thee I invoke, whose steeds the foam divide, from whose dark locks the briny waters glide; shoe voice, loud sounding through the roaring deep, drives all its billows in a raging heap; when fiercely riding through the boiling sea, thy hoarse command the trembling waves obey. Earth-shaking, dark-haired God, the liquid plains, the third division, fate to thee ordains. 'Tis thine, cerulean daimon, to survey, well-pleased, the monsters of the ocean play. Confirm earth's basis, and with prosperous gales waft ships along, and swell the spacious sails; add gentle peace, and fair-haired health beside, and pour abundance in a blameless tide." Heracles spoke, only for Poseidon’s trident to create a huge earthquake, sending Zidine flying back as he was clearly reeling. “Earth, hm? To think you were an embodiment of water?” Zidine thought to himself, immediately causing Mjolnir to be thrown out of his hands as Poseidon countered the hammer by using his trident against the hammer, causing the two weapons to briefly clash as Zidine took this opportunity to say “I know a ninth spell; if the need arises for me to save a ship upon the sea, I can calm the wind upon the waves and soothe the sea to sleep” and upon witnessing this godless act, Neptune, their ancient ruler, thus began; “A long appeal is needless; pour ye forth in rage of power; open up your fountains; rush over obstacles; let every stream pour forth in boundless floods.” Thus he commands, and none dissenting all the River Gods return, and opening up their fountains roll tumultuous to the deep unfruitful sea. And Neptune with his trident smote the Earth, which trembling with unwonted throes heaved up the sources of her waters bare; and through her open plains the rapid rivers rushed resistless, onward bearing the waving grain, the budding groves, the houses, sheep and men,—and holy temples, and their sacred urns. The mansions that remained, resisting vast and total ruin, deepening waves concealed and whelmed their tottering turrets in the flood and whirling gulf. And now one vast expanse, the land and sea were mingled in the waste of endless waves—a sea without a shore as the entirety of Olympus in its boundless mingling shook and shimmered, terrified by the godless power that Zidine himself made known as he knew that he couldn’t destroy Poseidon’s universe-ending power. Then Zeus Khthonios (Zeus of the Underworld) [Haides] rumbled hearing the noise of the heavenly fray above [as Poseidon and Apollon entered battle when the gods took sides in the war of Dionysos and his army against the Indians]; he feared that the Earthshaker [Poseidon], beating and lashing the solid ground with the earthquake-shock of his waves, might lever out of gear the whole universe with his trident, might move the foundations of the abysm below and show the forbidden sight of earth’s bottom, might burst all the veins of the subterranean channels and pour his water away into the pit of Tartaros, to flood the mouldering gates of the lower world. So great was the din of the gods in conflict, and the trumpets of the underworld added their noise as Zidine coldly smiled, using Mjolnir to partition the water, and spinning his hammer to create such a wind that death itself would be inevitable only for Poseidon to throw his trident at Zidine who spoke “Seventh and Eighth Form of the Lightning of Elding: Lightning of Jove - Aegis of Hesiod.” Zidine spoke with an immense amount of gravitas. “Of the Shield of Hesiod, I speak of lines 77-318: From him Zeus took away sense, so that he left his home and his parents and went to do honour to the wicked Eurystheus – unhappy man! Deeply indeed did he grieve afterwards in bearing the burden of his own mad folly; but that cannot be taken back. But on me fate laid heavy tasks. Yet, come, friend, quickly take the red-dyed reins of the swift horses and raise high courage in your heart and guide the swift chariot and strong fleet-footed horses straight on. Have no secret fear at the noise of man-slaying Ares who now rages shouting about the holy grove of Phoebus Apollo, the lord who shoots form afar. Surely, strong though he be, he shall have enough of war.”

[102] And blameless Iolaus answered him again: “Good friend, truly the father of men and gods greatly honours your head and the bull-like Earth-Shaker also, who keeps Thebe's veil of walls and guards the city, -- so great and strong is this fellow they bring into your hands that you may win great glory. But come, put on your arms of war that with all speed we may bring the car of Ares and our own together and fight; for he shall not frighten the dauntless son of Zeus, nor yet the son of Iphiclus: rather, I think he will flee before the two sons of blameless Alcides who are near him and eager to raise the war cry for battle; for this they love better than a feast.”

[115] So he said. And mighty Heracles was glad in heart and smiled, for the other's words pleased him well, and he answered him with winged words: “O hero Iolaus, heaven-sprung, now is rough battle hard at hand. But, as you have shown your skill at other-times, so now also wheel the great black-maned horse Arion about every way, and help me as you may be able.”

[122] So he said, and put upon his legs greaves of shining bronze, the splendid gift of Hephaestus. Next he fastened about his breast a fine golden breast-plate, curiously wrought, which Pallas Athene the daughter of Zeus had given him when first he was about to set out upon his grievous labours. Over his shoulders the fierce warrior put the steel that saves men from doom, and across his breast he slung behind him a hollow quiver. Within it were many chilling arrows, dealers of death which makes speech forgotten: in front they had death, and trickled with tears; their shafts were smooth and very long; and their butts were covered with feathers of a brown eagle. And he took his strong spear, pointed with shining bronze, and on his valiant head set a well-made helm of adamant, cunningly wrought, which fitted closely on the temples; and that guarded the head of god-like Heracles.

[139] In his hands he took his shield, all glittering: no one ever broke it with a blow or crushed it. And a wonder it was to see; for its whole orb was a-shimmer with enamel and white ivory and electrum, and it glowed with shining gold; and there were zones of cyanus2 drawn upon it. In the centre was Fear worked in adamant, unspeakable, staring backwards with eyes that glowed with fire. His mouth was full of teeth in a white row, fearful and daunting, and upon his grim brow hovered frightful Strife who arrays the throng of men: pitiless she, for she took away the mind and senses of poor wretches who made war against the son of Zeus. Their souls passed beneath the earth and went down into the house of Hades; but their bones, when the skin is rotted about them, crumble away on the dark earth under parching Sirius.

[154] Upon the shield Pursuit and Flight were wrought, and Tumult, and Panic, and Slaughter. Strife also, and Uproar were hurrying about, and deadly Fate was there holding one man newly wounded, and another unwounded; and one, who was dead, she was dragging by the feet through the tumult. She had on her shoulders a garment red with the blood of men, and terribly she glared and gnashed her teeth.

[160] And there were heads of snakes unspeakably frightful, twelve of them; and they used to frighten the tribes of men on earth whosoever made war against the son of Zeus; for they would clash their teeth when Amphitryon's son was fighting: and brightly shone these wonderful works. And it was as though there were spots upon the frightful snakes: and their backs were dark blue and their jaws were black.

[168] Also there were upon the shield droves of boars and lions who glared at each other, being furious and eager: the rows of them moved on together, and neither side trembled but both bristled up their manes. For already a great lion lay between them and two boars, one on either side, bereft of life, and their dark blood was dripping down upon the ground; they lay dead with necks outstretched beneath the grim lions. And both sides were roused still more to fight because they were angry, the fierce boars and the bright-eyed lions.

[178] And there was the strife of the Lapith spearmen gathered round the prince Caeneus and Dryas and Peirithous, with Hopleus, Exadius, Phalereus, and Prolochus, Mopsus the son of Ampyce of Titaresia, a scion of Ares, and Theseus, the son of Aegeus, like unto the deathless gods. These were of silver, and had armour of gold upon their bodies. And the Centaurs were gathered against them on the other side with Petraeus and Asbolus the diviner, Arctus, and Ureus, and black-haired Mimas, and the two sons of silver, and they had pinetrees of gold in their hands, and they were rushing together as though they were alive and striking at one another hand to hand with spears and with pines.

[191] And on the shield stood the fleet-footed horses of grim Ares made gold, and deadly Ares the spoil-winner himself. He held a spear in his hands and was urging on the footmen: he was red with blood as if he were slaying living men, and he stood in his chariot. Beside him stood Fear and Flight, eager to plunge amidst the fighting men. There, too, was the daughter of Zeus, Tritogeneia who drives the spoil.3 She was like as if she would array a battle, with a spear in her hand, and a golden helmet, and the aegis about her shoulders. And she was going towards the awful strife.

[201] And there was the holy company of the deathless gods: and in the midst the son of Zeus and Leto played sweetly on a golden lyre. There also was the abode of the gods, pure Olympus, and their assembly, and infinite riches were spread around in the gathering, the Muses of Pieria were beginning a song like clear-voiced singers.

[207] And on the shield was a harbour with a safe haven from the irresistible sea, made of refined tin wrought in a circle, and it seemed to heave with waves. In the middle of it were many dolphins rushing this way and that, fishing: and they seemed to be swimming. Two dolphins of silver were spouting and devouring the mute fishes. And beneath them fishes or bronze were trembling. And on the shore sat a fisherman watching: in his hands he held a casting net for fish, and seemed as if about to cast it forth.

[216] There, too, was the son of rich-haired Danae, the horseman Perseus: his feet did not touch the shield and yet were not far from it -- very marvellous to remark, since he was not supported anywhere; for so did the famous Lame One fashion him of gold with his hands. On his feet he had winged sandals, and his black-sheathed sword was slung across his shoulders by a cross-belt of bronze. He was flying swift as thought. The head of a dreadful monster, the Gorgon, covered the broad of his back, and a bag of silver -- a marvel to see -- contained it: and from the bag bright tassels of gold hung down. Upon the head of the hero lay the dread cap of Hades which had the awful gloom of night. Perseus himself, the son of Danae, was at full stretch, like one who hurries and shudders with horror. And after him rushed the Gorgons, unapproachable and unspeakable, longing to seize him: as they trod upon the pale adamant, the shield rang sharp and clear with a loud clanging. Two serpents hung down at their girdles with heads curved forward: their tongues were flickering, and their teeth gnashing with fury, and their eyes glaring fiercely. And upon the awful heads of the Gorgons great Fear was quaking.

[237] And beyond these there were men fighting in warlike harness, some defending their own town and parents from destruction, and others eager to sack it; many lay dead, but the greater number still strove and fought. The women on well-built towers of bronze were crying shrilly and tearing their cheeks like living beings -- the work of famous Hephaestus. And the men who were elders and on whom age had laid hold were all together outside the gates, and were holding up their hands to the blessed gods, fearing for their own sons. But these again were engaged in battle: and behind them the dusky Fates, gnashing their white fangs, lowering, grim, bloody, and unapproachable, struggled for those who were falling, for they all were longing to drink dark blood. So soon as they caught a man overthrown or falling newly wounded, one of them would clasp her great claws about him, and his soul would go down to Hades to chilly Tartarus. And when they had satisfied their souls with human blood, they would cast that one behind them, and rush back again into the tumult and the fray. Clotho and Lachesis were over them and Atropos less tall than they, a goddess of no great frame, yet superior to the others and the eldest of them. And they all made a fierce fight over one poor wretch, glaring evilly at one another with furious eyes and fighting equally with claws and hands. By them stood Darkness of Death, mournful and fearful, pale, shrivelled, shrunk with hunger, swollen-kneed. Long nails tipped her hands, and she dribbled at the nose, and from her cheeks blood dripped down to the ground. She stood leering hideously, and much dust sodden with tears lay upon her shoulders.

[270] Next, there was a city of men with goodly towers; and seven gates of gold, fitted to the lintels, guarded it. The men were making merry with festivities and dances; some were bringing home a bride to her husband on a well-wheeled car, while the bridal-song swelled high, and the glow of blazing torches held by handmaidens rolled in waves afar. And these maidens went before, delighting in the festival; and after them came frolicsome choirs, the youths singing soft-mouthed to the sound of shrill pipes, while the echo was shivered around them, and the girls led on the lovely dance to the sound of lyres. Then again on the other side was a rout of young men revelling, with flutes playing; some frolicking with dance and song, and others were going forward in time with a flute player and laughing. The whole town was filled with mirth and dance and festivity.

[285] Others again were mounted on horseback and galloping before the town. And there were ploughmen breaking up the good soul, clothed in tunics girt up. Also there was a wide cornland and some men were reaping with sharp hooks the stalks which bended with the weight of the cars -- as if they were reaping Demeter's grain: others were binding the sheaves with bands and were spreading the threshing floor. And some held reaping hooks and were gathering the vintage, while others were taking from the reapers into baskets white and black clusters from the long rows of vines which were heavy with leaves and tendrils of silver. Others again were gathering them into baskets. Beside them was a row of vines in gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaestus: it had shivering leaves and stakes of silver and was laden with grapes which turned black.5 And there were men treading out the grapes and others drawing off liquor. Also there were men boxing and wrestling, and huntsmen chasing swift hares with a leash of sharp-toothed dogs before them, they eager to catch the hares, and the hares eager to escape.

[305] Next to them were horsem*n hard set, and they contended and laboured for a prize. The charioteers standing on their well-woven cars, urged on their swift horses with loose rein; the jointed cars flew along clattering and the naves of the wheels shrieked loudly. So they were engaged in an unending toil, and the end with victory came never to them, and the contest was ever unwon. And there was set out for them within the course a great tripod of gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaestus.

[314] And round the rim Ocean was flowing, with a full stream as it seemed, and enclosed all the cunning work of the shield. Over it swans were soaring and calling loudly, and many others were swimming upon the surface of the water; and near them were shoals of fish.

[318] A wonderful thing the great strong shield was to see -- even for Zeus the loud-thunderer, by whose will Hephaestus made it and fitted it with his hands. This shield the valiant son of Zeus wielded masterly, and leaped upon his horse-chariot like the lightning of his father Zeus who holds the aegis, moving lithely. And his charioteer, strong Iolaus, standing upon the car, guided the curved chariot.” He said, turning on the shield he turned off at the start of the fight, whilst also summoning the Aegis in its shielded form. “Now, you are getting serious and releasing thy Greek side… come Jove.” Poseidon said as Zidine screamed in rage and slight… madness. Red lightning surrounded his every being. “Ever dance with the devil in the pale moonlight?” He felt himself screaming in his head that was now clouded with thoughts of nothing but rage and the thirst for blood. “Mikros Keraunos!” He then screamed from his throat as Poseidon looked visibly annoyed, realising that no matter how many storms he could conjure, compared to Zeus’ thunderbolts… especially Jupiter’s, death would be faster than sleep. “In Ovid's Metamorphoses Book 1 line 253: "And now his thunder bolts would Jove wide scatter, but he feared the flames, unnumbered, sacred ether might ignite and burn the axle of the universe: and he remembered in the scroll of fate, there is a time appointed when the sea and earth and Heavens shall melt, and fire destroy the universe of mighty labour wrought. Such weapons by the skill of Cyclops forged, for different punishment he laid aside—for straightway he preferred to overwhelm the mortal race beneath deep waves and storms from every raining sky… The hot vapour lapped round the Titenes Khthonios (Earthly): flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air (aither): the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized air (khaos): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth (Gaia) and wide Heaven (Ouranos) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth (Gaia) were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven (Ouranos) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war... And great Olympos was shaken under the immortal feet of the master as he moved, and the earth groaned beneath him, and the heat and blaze from both of them was on the dark-faced sea, from the thunder and lightning of Zeus and from the flame of the monster, from his blazing bolts and from the scorch and breath of his stormwinds, and all the ground and the sky and the sea boiled, and towering waves were tossing and beating all up and down the promontories in the wind of these immortals, and a great shaking of the earth. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Okeanos' streams and the unfruitful sea." Heracles spoke as the entire outside Olympus blew up with that one strike. Not even a Platonic Form wouldst have survived such a brandishing at Zidine’s hands. “I bless ye with thine trident.” Poseidon said as Hades immediately stormed forth. “You hath his trident. I shall summon my bident.” Hades said swiftly as he knew Zidine could easily carry the boundless earth with its boundless rivers. “Die.” Hades said, using his bident to rip out Zidine’s soul only for Zidine to resist this through sheer force of will as he threw three thunderbolts only for Hades to swiftly destroy them as Cerberus appeared, only to have his soul ripped from him by way of Mjolnir crushing his three-headed sinews with enough force to end the boundless earth in all its glory. “Without your hammer, you are-? Powerless?” Zidine interrupted, cutting off Hades’ sentence and as it is said in Seneca's Hercules Furens, lines 46-75, Book 1: "Nor is earth vast enough for him; behold, he has broken down the doors of infernal Jove, and brings back to the upper world the spoils of a conquered king. I myself saw, yes, saw him, the shadows of nether night dispersed and Dis overthrown, proudly displaying to his father a brother’s spoils. Why does he not drag forth, bound and loaded down with fetters, Pluto himself, who drew a lot equal to Jove’s? Why does he not lord it over conquered Erebus and lay bare the Styx? It is not enough merely to return; the law of the shades has been annulled, a way back has been opened from the lowest ghosts, and the mysteries of dread Death lie bared. But he, exultant at having burst the prison of the shades, triumphs over me, and with arrogant hand leads through the cities of Greece that dusky hound. I saw the daylight shrink at sight of Cerberus, and the sun pale with fear; upon me, too, terror came, and as I gazed upon the three necks of the conquered monster I trembled at my own command. But I lament too much o’er trivial wrongs. ‘Tis for heaven we must fear, lest he seize the highest realms who has overcome the lowest – he will snatch the sceptre from his father. Nor will he come to the stars by a peaceful journey as Bacchus did; he will seek a path through ruin, and will desire to rule in an empty universe. He swells with pride of tested might, and has learned by bearing them that the heavens can be conquered by his strength; he set his head beneath the sky, nor did the burden of that immeasurable mass bend his shoulders, and the firmament rested better on the neck of Hercules. Unshaken, his back upbore the stars and the sky and me down-pressing. He seeks a way to the gods above." and Hades said “If you beat me fully, you have beaten mortality itself! The Styx’s invulnerability will be yours!” with a shout as Zidine’s thunderbolts became fiery, ever-burning in his hand and in Orphic Hymn 17, Hades speaketh: "Pluto [Plouton], magnanimous, whose realms profound are fix'd beneath the firm and solid ground, In the Tartarian plains remote from fight, and wrapt forever in the depths of night; Terrestrial Jove [Zeus Khthonios], thy sacred ear incline, and, pleas'd, accept thy mystic's hymn divine. Earth's keys to thee, illustrious king belong, its secret gates unlocking, deep and strong. 'Tis thine, abundant annual fruits to bear, for needy mortals are thy constant care. To thee, great king, Avernus is assign'd, the seat of Gods, and basis of mankind. Thy throne is fix'd in Hade's dismal plains, distant, unknown to rest, where darkness reigns; Where, destitute of breath, pale spectres dwell, in endless, dire, inexorable hell; And in dread Acheron, whose depths obscure, earth's stable roots eternally secure. O mighty dæmon, whose decision dread, the future fate determines of the dead, With captive Proserpine [Kore], thro' grassy plains, drawn in a four-yok'd car with loosen'd reins, Rapt o'er the deep, impell'd by love, you flew 'till Eleusina's city rose to view; There, in a wond'rous cave obscure and deep, the sacred maid secure from search you keep, The cave of Atthis, whose wide gates display an entrance to the kingdoms void of day. Of unapparent works, thou art alone the dispensator, visible and known. O pow'r all-ruling, holy, honor'd light, thee sacred poets and their hymns delight: Propitious to thy mystic's works incline, rejoicing come, for holy rites are thine." only for Hades’ apparent amplified power to not work as Zidine was simply too much, to which Hades summoned the barren wasteland of Tartarus. “You hath survived your concept, soul, mind and heart being removed?! Thou art worthy of it, oh immortal slayer! COME, DEATHLESS ONE!” Hades screamed as Zidine’s scream was like an eagle… Hades felt unadulterated fear as he went invisible, only for Zidine to crush the ground with his hand, using his shield to remove the concept of Hades’ invisibility and freeze him in place. “Take the reward.” Hades spoke as he summoned a woman of raw nakedness.

For whoever of the deathless gods that hold the peaks of snowy Olympus pours a libation of her water and is forsworn, must lie breathless until a full year is completed, and never come near to taste ambrosia and nectar, but lie spiritless and voiceless on a strewn bed: and a heavy trance overshadows him. But when he has spent a long year in his sickness, another penance more hard follows after the first. For nine years he is cut off from the eternal gods and never joins their councils or their feasts, nine full years. But in the tenth year he comes again to join the assemblies of the deathless gods who live in the house of Olympus. Whatever thy wish, it shall not be denied, and that thy heart shall suffer no distrust, I pledge me by that Deity, the Waves of the deep Stygian Lake,—oath of the Gods.” Hades spoke as Heracles was amazed, seeing an eagle… Prometheus’ eagle as all of his endless blood dripped unto Zidine’s flagrant and whitest of skin. “Do you ... really expect to be able to steal, or even touch, a single drop from that holiest—and cruelest—of springs? Even the gods and Jupiter himself are frightened of these Stygian waters. You must know that, at least by hearsay, and that, as you swear by the powers of the gods, so the gods always swear by the majesty of the Styx.” Heracles spoke as Zidine was thus completely immortal, the strongest man in the boundless universe and invulnerable to all for time no longer had meaning. The water of this Arcadian Styx was said to be poisonous and able to dissolve most substances. The first-century natural philosopher Pliny, wrote that drinking its water caused immediate death. “COME, ZIDINE! THE FINAL BATTLE COMMENCES!” Heracles shouted as he smiled, ready to face the ultimate warrior. 28 days had passed in this infinite and timeless realm of great Olympos. “I call upon the Orphic Hymns of Pan and myself.

I Call strong Pan, the substance of the whole, etherial, marine, earthly, general soul,

Immortal fire; for all the world is thine, and all are parts of thee, O pow'r divine.

Come, blessed Pan, whom rural haunts delight, come, leaping, agile, wand'ring, starry light;

The Hours and Seasons [Horai], wait thy high command, and round thy throne in graceful order stand. Goat-footed, horned, Bacchanalian Pan, fanatic pow'r, from whom the world began,

Whose various parts by thee inspir'd, combine in endless dance and melody divine.

In thee a refuge from our fears we find, those fears peculiar to the human kind.

Thee shepherds, streams of water, goats rejoice, thou lov'st the chace, and Echo's secret voice:

The sportive nymphs, thy ev'ry step attend, and all thy works fulfill their destin'd end.

O all-producing pow'r, much-fam'd, divine, the world's great ruler, rich increase is thine.

All-fertile Pæan, heav'nly splendor pure, in fruits rejoicing, and in caves obscure.

True serpent-horned Jove [Zeus], whose dreadful rage when rous'd, 'tis hard for mortals to asswage. By thee the earth wide-bosom'd deep and long, stands on a basis permanent and strong. Th' unwearied waters of the rolling sea, profoundly spreading, yield to thy decree.

Old Ocean [Okeanos] too reveres thy high command, whose liquid arms begirt the solid land.

The spacious air, whose nutrimental fire, and vivid blasts, the heat of life inspire

The lighter frame of fire, whose sparkling eye shines on the summit of the azure sky,

Submit alike to thee, whole general sway all parts of matter, various form'd obey.

All nature's change thro' thy protecting care, and all mankind thy lib'ral bounties share:

For these where'er dispers'd thro' boundless space, still find thy providence support their race.

Come, Bacchanalian, blessed power draw near, fanatic Pan, thy humble suppliant hear,

Propitious to these holy rites attend, and grant my life may meet a prosp'rous end;

Drive panic Fury too, wherever found, from human kind, to earth's remotest bound.

Hear, pow'rful, Hercules [Herakles] untam'd and strong, to whom vast hands, and mighty works belong, Almighty Titan, prudent and benign, of various forms, eternal and divine, Father of Time [khronos], the theme of gen'ral praise, ineffable, ador'd in various ways. Magnanimous, in divination skill'd and in the athletic labours of the field. 'Tis thine strong archer, all things to devour, supreme, all-helping, all-producing pow'r; To thee mankind as their deliv'rer pray, whose arm can chase the savage tribes away: Uweary'd, earth's best blossom, offspring fair, to whom calm peace, and peaceful works are dear. Self-born, with primogenial fires you shine, and various names and strength of heart are thine. Thy mighty head supports the morning light, and bears untam'd, the silent gloomy night; From east to west endu'd with strength divine, twelve glorious labours to absolve is thine; Supremely skill'd, thou reign'st in heav'n's abodes, thyself a God amid'st th' immortal Gods. With arms unshaken, infinite, divine, come, blessed pow'r, and to our rites incline; The mitigations of disease convey, and drive disasterous maladies away. Come, shake the branch with thy almighty arm, dismiss thy darts and noxious fate disarm.” Heracles spoke as he immediately readied himself.

These were Heracles’ items

Adamant: A net made of a mythical metal or stone that is impossible to break or damage (possibly a diamond). Several weapons and bindings of the gods are made out of it.

The Aegis: A magical defensive item (alternately a breastplate, cape, or shield) made out of the hide of the goat Amalthea, who suckled Zeus. It was eventually given to Athena, who put the head of the Gorgon Medusa on it.

Apple of Discord: A magical golden apple that induces people to fight over it by being so shiny that everyone wants it.

Armor of Achilles: Magical golden armor forged for Achilles by Hephaestus.

Aureole: The shining crown of the sun god, Helios.

Bident of Hades: The two-pronged spear of Hades, Lord of the Underworld.

Bow and Arrows of Eros: A magical bow and magic arrows that strike anyone they hit with powerful infatuation.

Bow and Arrows of Apollo: The magical silver bow and arrows of Apollo, which cause plague or sudden death when shot.

Bow and Arrows of Artemis: The magical golden bow and arrows of Artemis, which cause plague or sudden death when shot.

The Caduceus: Hermes’ magic wand, a golden herald’s staff (kerykeion) entwined with two serpents and crowned with wings. It can heal people, bring peace, turn things to gold, awaken people or put them to sleep.

The Cornucopia: The Horn of Plenty, one of the horns of Amalthea, which is filled with food and never empties. (Alternatively, a horn of the river-god Achelous, ripped off by Heracles.)

Girdle of Aphrodite: A magical girdle that makes anyone who wears it irresistibly attractive.

Girdle of Hippolyta: A magical golden girdle that Heracles had to retrieve for his ninth labor.

Golden Bridle: A golden bridle that Athena gives to Bellerophon so he can tame Pegasus.

Golden Apples of the Hesperides: Golden apples that Heracles was sent to gather for his eleventh labor.

The Golden Fleece: The pelt of a golden ram (Khrysomallos), which Jason was sent to fetch.

Helm of Darkness: The helmet of Hades, Lord of the Underworld, which turns its wearer invisible.

Hephaestus’ Net: A magical net so fine that it’s almost invisible, which Hephaestus used to catch his wife Aphrodite and Ares in the act of adultery.

Heracles’ Lion Skin: A cape made from the pelt of the Nemean Lion, whose hide is so tough it’s impenetrable.

Lyre of Apollo: Apollo’s lyre, either golden or made from a turtle shell (invented by Hermes).

Tablets of Phanes: Oracular tablets written by the primordial god Phanes that describe the fate of the cosmos and the movements of the universe, kept by Helios.

Talaria of Hermes: The Winged Sandals (or boots) of Hermes, which allow the wearer to run through the air.

Talos: A bronze robot created by Hephaestus that guards the island of Crete.

Thunderbolts of Zeus: Powerful bolts of lightning, the weapon of Zeus, Lord of the Sky.

Trident of Poseidon: The trademark three-pronged spear of Poseidon, Lord of the Sea.

Thyrsus: The pinecone-topped staff of Dionysus (and his worshippers) which can cause wine, milk, and honey to spring from the earth.

Winged Petasos: The Winged Cap of Hermes.

Heracles had some arrows dipped in hydra blood that were extremely poisonous. This is stretching things a bit, but a hydra is a magical creature and the poison was more effective then a mundane poison would have been.

Thanatos (the grim reaper) had a set of magical manacles that were impossible for the person wearing to escape from.

Zeus had his lightning, which were forged weapons.

Some versions of Hades had a helmet that made him invisible.

The Rod of Asclepius had wings and a pair of snakes, and was effective at healing. Sources vary whether this was used by Apollo or Apollo’s son Asclepius.

Hermes had a pair of winged sandals that allowed him to fly at high speeds.

Daedalus invented wings that would allow the person to fly. Within the story they were supposedly technological, but they worked better then their manufacture should have allowed.

Iris used a rainbow to also travel at high speeds, but whether the rainbow was natural or magical is not explicit.

Odysseus had possession of a bag of winds that would supposedly create a favorable voyage for a ship, but it was destroyed before it was used.

The gods generally had access to a variety of food and drink that would sustain immortality once eaten.

The gifts of the gods: Diodorus also lists the boons gifted to Heracles by the gods upon return from his labors: a robe from Athena, war club from Hephaestus, horses from Poseidon, a sword from Hermes, bow and arrows from Apollo, and the Lesser mysteries, instituted by Demeter to purify him of the Centaurs murders.

He also beareth:

ARROWS OF APOLLON & ARTEMIS The twin archer-gods had their arrows forged by Hephaistos.

THUNDERBOLTS OF ZEUS The thunderbolts of Zeus were usually said to be forged by the three Kyklopes, only rarely was Hephaistos named as their artificer.

SPEARS & SWORDS OF THE KABEIROI (Cabeiri) Hephaistos crafted weapons for his sons the Kabeiroi gods of Lemnos.

KNIFE OF PERSEUS The adamantine blade with which Perseus beheaded the Gorgon Medousa was said to have been crafted by Hephaistos.

SPEAR & KNIFE OF PELEUS Hephaistos and Athena presented the Phthian hero Peleus with the gift of a spear at his marriage to Thetis. The same spear was employed by his son Akhilleus in the Trojan War.

(11) ARMOUR[]

AIGIS OF ZEUS The shaggy goat-skin Aigis breastplate was said to have been created for Zeus or Athena by Hephaistos.

ARMOUR & SHIELD OF HERAKLES Herakles received a golden breastplate and fabulous shield from the god Hephaistos.

QUIVER OF HERAKLES The richly decorated quiver of Herakles was crafted by Hephaistos. Philoktetes possessed it and the hero's bow at the time of the Trojan War.

ARMOUR & SHIELD OF AKHILLEUS (Achilles) Thetis petitioned Hephaistos to forge a new set of armour for her son Akhilleus, after his father's set was captured by Hektor during the Trojan War.

CORSELET OF DIOMEDES Diomedes a hero of the Trojan War was described as possessing a corselet crafted by Hephaistos.

ARMOUR OF MEMNON Eos had Hephaistos forge armour for her son Memnon before he entered the Trojan War.

ARMOUR OF AENEAS Aphrodite persuaded her husband Hephaistos to forge a set of armour for her son Aeneas after his arrival in Latium and preparation for war.

Hesiod, Shield of Heracles 122 - 327 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.):

[I. GREAVES & BREASTPLATE.]

"[Herakles] put upon his legs greaves of shining bronze, the splendid gift of Hephaistos. Next he fastened about his breast a fine golden breast-plate, curiously wrought, which Pallas Athene the daughter of Zeus had given him when first he was about to set out upon his grievous labours.

[II. QUIVER & ARROWS.]

"Over his shoulders the fierce warrior put the steel that saves men from doom, and across his breast he slung behind him a hollow quiver. Within it were many chilling arrows, dealers of death which makes speech forgotten: in front they had death, and trickled with tears; their shafts were smooth and very long; and their butts were covered with feathers of a brown eagle.

[III. SPEAR & HELM.]

"And he took his strong spear, pointed with shining bronze, and on his valiant head set a well-made helm of adamant, cunningly wrought, which fitted closely on the temples; and that guarded the head of god-like Herakles.

[IV. SHIELD.]

"In his hands he took his shield, all glittering: no one ever broke it with a blow or crushed it. And a wonder it was to see; for its whole orb was a-shimmer with enamel and white ivory and electrum, and it glowed with shining gold; and there were zones of cyanus [i.e. a glass paste of deep-blue colour] drawn upon it. In the centre was Phobos (Fear) worked in adamant, unspeakable, staring backwards with eyes that glowed with fire. His mouth was full of teeth in a white row, fearful and daunting,

[V. HELM.]

"and upon his grim brow hovered frightful Eris (Strife) who arrays the throng of men: pitiless she, for she took away the mind and senses of poor wretches who made war against the son of Zeus. Their souls passed beneath the earth and went down into the house of Aides; but their bones, when the skin is rotted about them, crumble away on the dark earth under parching Seirios.

[VI. SHIELD RELIEFS.]

"Upon the shield Proioxis ( Pursuit) and Palioxis ( Flight) were wrought, and Homados (Tumult), and Phobos (Panic), and Androktasie (Slaughter). Eris (Strife) also, and Kydoimos ( Uproar) were hurrying about, and deadly Ker (Death-Fate) was there holding one man newly wounded, and another unwounded; and one, who was dead, she was dragging by the feet through the tumult. She had on her shoulders a garment red with the blood of men, and terribly she glared and gnashed her teeth.

And there were heads of snakes unspeakably frightful, twelve of them; and they used to frighten the tribes of men on earth whosoever made war against the son of Zeus; for they would clash their teeth when Amphitryon's son was fighting: and brightly shone these wonderful works. And it was as though there were spots upon the frightful snakes: and their backs were dark blue and their jaws were black.

Also there were upon the shield droves of boars and lions who glared at each other, being furious and eager: the rows of them moved on together, and neither side trembled but both bristled up their manes. For already a great lion lay between them and two boars, one on either side, bereft of life, and their dark blood was dripping down upon the ground; they lay dead with necks outstretched beneath the grim lions. And both sides were roused still more to fight because they were angry, the fierce boars and the bright-eyed lions.

And there was the strife of the Lapith spearmen gathered round the prince Kaineus and Dryas and Peirithous, with Hopleus, Exadios, Phalereus, and Prolokhos, Mopsos the son of Ampyke of Titaresia, a scion of Ares, and Theseus, the son of Aegeus, like unto the deathless gods. These were of silver, and had armour of gold upon their bodies. And the Kentauroi were gathered against them on the other side with Petraios and Asbolos

the diviner, Arktos, and Oureus, and black-haired Mimas, and the two sons of silver, and they had pinetrees of gold in their hands, and they were rushing together as though they were alive and striking at one another hand to hand with spears and with pines.

And on the shield stood the fleet-footed horses of grim Ares made gold, and deadly Ares the spoil-winner himself. He held a spear in his hands and was urging on the footmen: he was red with blood as if he were slaying living men, and he stood in his chariot. Beside him stood Deimos (Fear) and Phobos (Flight), eager to plunge amidst the fighting men. There, too, was the daughter of Zeus, Tritogeneia [Athene] who drives the spoil. She was like as if she would array a battle, with a spear in her hand, and a golden helmet, and the aigis about her shoulders. And she was going towards the awful strife.

And there was the holy company of the deathless gods: and in the midst [Apollon] the son of Zeus and Leto played sweetly on a golden lyre. There also was the abode of the gods, pure Olympos, and their assembly, and infinite riches were spread around in the gathering, the Mousai Pierides were beginning a song like clear-voiced singers.

And on the shield was a harbour with a safe haven from the irresistible sea, made of refined tin wrought in a

circle, and it seemed to heave with waves. In the middle of it were many dolphins rushing this way and that, fishing: and they seemed to be swimming. Two dolphins of silver were spouting and devouring the mute fishes. And beneath them fishes or bronze were trembling. And on the shore sat a fisherman watching: in his hands he held a casting net for fish, and seemed as if about to cast it forth.

There, too, was the son of rich-haired Danae, the horseman Perseus: his feet did not touch the shield and yet were not far from it--very marvellous to remark, since he was not supported anywhere; for so did the famous Lame One (klytos Amphigueeis) fashion him of gold with his hands. On his feet he had winged sandals, and his black-sheathed sword was slung across his shoulders by a cross-belt of bronze. He was flying swift as thought. The head of a dreadful monster, the Gorgon, covered the broad of his back, and a bag of silver--a marvel to see--contained it: and from the bag bright tassels of gold hung down. Upon the head of the hero lay the dread cap of Haides which had the awful gloom of night. Perseus himself, the son of Danae, was at full stretch, like one who hurries and shudders with horror. And after him rushed the Gorgones, unapproachable and unspeakable, longing to seize him: as they trod upon the pale adamant, the shield rang sharp and clear with a loud clanging. Two serpents hung down at their girdles with heads curved forward: their tongues were flickering, and their teeth gnashing with fury, and their eyes glaring fiercely. And upon the awful heads of the Gorgones great Phobos (Fear) was quaking.

And beyond these there were men fighting in warlike harness, some defending their own town and parents from destruction, and others eager to sack it; many lay dead, but the greater number still strove and fought. The women on well-built towers of bronze were crying shrilly and tearing their cheeks like living beings--the work of famous Hephaistos. And the men who were elders and on whom age had laid hold were all together outside the gates, and were holding up their hands to the blessed gods, fearing for their own sons. But these again were engaged in battle: and behind them the dusky Keres (Fates), gnashing their white fangs, lowering, grim, bloody, and unapproachable, struggled for those who were falling, for they all were longing to drink dark blood. So soon as they caught a man overthrown or falling newly wounded, one of them would clasp her great claws about him, and his soul would go down to Haides to chilly Tartaros. And when they had satisfied their souls with human blood, they would cast that one behind them, and rush back again into the tumult and the fray. Klotho and Lakhesis were over them and Atropos less tall than they, a goddess of no great frame, yet superior to the others and the eldest of them. And they all made a fierce fight over one poor wretch, glaring evilly at one another with furious eyes and fighting equally with claws and hands. By them stood Akhlys (Darkness of Death), mournful and fearful, pale, shrivelled, shrunk with hunger, swollen-kneed. Long nails tipped her hands, and she dribbled at the nose, and from her cheeks blood dripped down to the ground. She stood leering hideously, and much dust sodden with tears lay upon her shoulders.

Next, there was a city of men with goodly towers; and seven gates of gold, fitted to the lintels, guarded it. The men were making merry with festivities and dances; some were bringing home a bride to her husband on a well-wheeled car, while the bridal-song swelled high, and the glow of blazing torches held by handmaidens rolled in waves afar. And these maidens went before, delighting in the festival; and after them came frolicsome choirs, the youths singing soft-mouthed to the sound of shrill pipes, while the echo was shivered around them, and the girls led on the lovely dance to the sound of lyres. Then again on the other side was a rout of young men revelling, with flutes playing; some frolicking with dance and song, and others were going forward in time with a flute player and laughing. The whole town was filled with mirth and dance and festivity.

Others again were mounted on horseback and galloping before the town. And there were ploughmen breaking up the good soul, clothed in tunics girt up. Also there was a wide cornland and some men were reaping with sharp hooks the stalks which bended with the weight of the cars--as if they were reaping Demeter's grain: others were binding the sheaves with bands and were spreading the threshing floor. And some held reaping hooks and were gathering the vintage, while others were taking from the reapers into baskets white and black clusters from the long rows of vines which were heavy with leaves and tendrils of silver. Others again were gathering them into baskets. Beside them was a row of vines in gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaistos: it had shivering leaves and stakes of silver and was laden with grapes which turned black. And there were men treading out the grapes and others drawing off liquor. Also there were men boxing and wrestling, and huntsmen chasing swift hares with a leash of sharp-toothed dogs before them, they eager to catch the hares, and the hares eager to escape.

Next to them were horsem*n hard set, and they contended and laboured for a prize. The charioteers standing on their well-woven cars, urged on their swift horses with loose rein; the jointed cars flew along clattering and the naves of the wheels shrieked loudly. So they were engaged in an unending toil, and the end with victory came never to them, and the contest was ever unwon. And there was set out for them within the course a great tripod of gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaistos.

And round the rim Okeanos was flowing, with a full stream as it seemed, and enclosed all the cunning work of the shield. Over it swans were soaring and calling loudly, and many others were swimming upon the surface of the water; and near them were shoals of fish.

A wonderful thing the great strong shield was to see--even for Zeus the loud-thunderer, by whose will Hephaistos made it and fitted it with his hands. This shield the valiant son of Zeus wielded masterly, and leaped upon his horse-chariot."

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 71 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.):

"Herakles was given a sword from Hermes, bow and arrows from Apollon, chest-armour of gold from Hephaistos, and a peplos from Athene."

II. QUIVER OF HERACLES[]

The quiver of Herakles is also mentioned briefly in the passage from the Shield of Heracles quoted above.

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 192 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.):

"[Philoktetes] whose limbs were clad in mighty Herakles' arms [his bow and quiver] of cunning workmanship; for on the belt gleamed bears most grim and savage, jackals fell, and panthers, in whose eyes there seems to lurk a deadly smile. There were fierce-hearted wolves, and boars with flashing tusks, and mighty lions all seeming strangely alive; and, there portrayed through all its breadth, were battles murder-rife. With all these marvels covered was the belt; and with yet more the quiver was adorned.

There Hermes was, storm-footed Son of Zeus, slaying huge Argos nigh to Inakhos' streams, Argos, whose sentinel eyes in turn took sleep. And there was Phaethon from the Sun-car hurled into Eridanus. Earth verily seemed ablaze, and black smoke hovered on the air. There Perseus slew Medousa gorgon-eyed by the stars' baths and utmost bounds of earth and fountains of deep-flowing Okeanos, where night in the far west meets the setting sun. There was the Titan Iapetos' great son [Prometheus] hung from the beetling crag of Kaukasos in bonds of adamant, and the eagle tare his liver unconsumed--he seemed to groan! All these Hephaistos' cunning hands had wrought for Herakles; and these to Poias' son [Philoktetes], most near of friends and dear, he gave to bear."

"First of all he forged a shield that was huge and heavy, elaborating it about, and threw around it a shining triple rim that glittered, and the shield strap was cast of silver. There were five folds composing the shield itself, and upon it he elaborated many things in his skill and craftsmanship.

He made the earth upon it, and the sky, and the sea's water, and the tireless sun, and the moon waxing into her fullness, and on it all the constellations that festoon the heavens, the Pleiades and the Hyades and the strength of Orion and the Bear . . .

On it he wrought in all their beauty two cities of mortal men. And there were marriages in one, and festivals. They were leading the brides along the city from their maiden chambers under the flaring of torches, and the loud bride song was arising. The young men followed the circles of the dance, and among them the flutes and lyres kept up their clamour as in the meantime the women standing each at the door of her court admired them. The people were assembled in the market place, where a quarrel had arisen, and two men were disputing over the blood price for a man who had been killed. One man promised full restitution in a public statement, but the other refused and would accept nothing. Both then made for an arbitrator, to have a decision; and people were speaking up on either side, to help both men. But the heralds kept the people in hand, as meanwhile the elders were in session on benches of polished stone in the sacred circle and held in their hands the staves of the heralds who lift their voices. The two men rushed before these, and took turns speaking their cases, and between them lay on the ground two talents of gold, to be given to that judge who in this case spoke the straightest opinion.

But around the other city were lying two forces of armed men shining in their war gear. For one side counsel was divided whether to storm and sack, or share between both sides the property and all the possessions the lovely citadel held within it. But the city's people were not giving way, and armed for an ambush. Their beloved wives and their little children stood on the rampart to hold it, and with them the men with age upon them, but meanwhile the others went out. And Ares led them, and Pallas Athene. These were gold, both, and golden raiment upon them, and they were beautiful and huge in their armour, being divinities, and conspicuous from afar, but the people around them were smaller. These, when they were come to the place that was set for their ambush, in a river, where there was a watering place for all animals, there they sat down in place shrouding themselves in the bright bronze. But apart from these were sitting two men to watch for the rest of them and waiting until they could see the sheep and the shambling cattle, who appeared presently, and two herdsmen went along with them playing happily on pipes, and took no thought of the treachery. Those others saw them, and made a rush, and quickly thereafter cut off on both sides the herds of cattle and the beautiful flocks of shining sheep, and killed the shepherds upon them. But the other army, as soon as they heard the uproar arising from the cattle, as they sat in their councils, suddenly mounted behind their light-foot horses, and went after, and soon overtook them. These stood their ground and fought a battle by the banks of the river, and they were making casts at each other with their spears bronze-headed; and Eris (Hate) was there with Kydoimos (Confusion) among them, and Ker (Death) the destructive; she was holding a live man with a new wound, and another one unhurt, and dragged a dead man by the feet through the carnage. The clothing upon her shoulders showed strong red with the men's blood. All closed together like living men and fought with each other and dragged away from each other the corpses of those who had fallen.

He made upon it a soft field, the pride of the tilled land, wide and triple-ploughed, with many ploughmen upon it who wheeled their teams at the turn and drove them in either direction. And as these making their turn would reach the end-strip of the field, a man would come up to them at this point and hand them a flagon of honey-sweet wine, and they would turn again to the furrows in their haste to come again to the end-strip of the deep field. The earth darkened behind them and looked like earth that has been ploughed though it was gold. Such was the wonder of the shield's forging.

He made on it the precinct of a king, where the labourers were reaping, with the sharp reaping hooks in their hands. Of the cut swathes some fell along the lines of reaping, one after another, while the sheaf-binders caught up others and tied them with bind-ropes. There were three sheaf-binders who stood by, and behind them were children picking up the cut swathes, and filled their arms with them and carried and gave them always; and by them the king in silence and holding his staff stood near the line of the reapers, happily. And apart and under a tree the heralds made a feast ready and trimmed a great ox they had slaughtered. Meanwhile the women scattered, for the workmen to eat, abundant white barley.

He made on it a great vineyard heavy with clusters, lovely and in gold, but the grapes upon it were darkened and the vines themselves stood out through poles of silver. About them he made a field-ditch of dark metal, and drove all around this a fence of tin; and there was only one path to the vineyard, and along it ran the grape-bearers for the vineyard's stripping. Young girls and young men, in all their light-hearted innocence, carried the kind, sweet fruit away in their woven baskets, and in their midst a youth with a singing lyre played charmingly upon it for them, and sang the beautiful song for Linos in a light voice, and they followed him, and with singing and whistling and light dance-steps of their feet kept time to the music.

He made upon it a herd of horn-straight oxen. The cattle were wrought of gold and of tin, and thronged in speed and with lowing out of the dung of the farmyard to a pasturing place by a sounding river, and beside the moving field of a reed bed. The herdsmen were of gold who went along with the cattle, four of them, and nine dogs shifting their feet followed them. But among the foremost of the cattle two formidable lions had caught hold of a bellowing bull, and he with loud lowings was dragged away, as the dogs and the young men went in pursuit of him. But the two lions, breaking open the hide of the great ox, gulped the black blood and the inward guts, as meanwhile the herdsmen were in the act of setting and urging the quick dogs on them. But they, before they could get their teeth in, turned back from the lions, but would come and take their stand very close, and bayed, and kept clear.

And the renowned smith of the strong arms made on it a meadow large and in a lovely valley for the glimmering sheep flocks, with dwelling places upon it, and covered shelters, and sheepfolds.

And the renowned smith of the strong arms made elaborate on it a dancing floor, like that which once in the wide spaces of Knosos Daidalos built for Ariadne of the lovely tresses. And there were young men on it and young girls, sought for their beauty with gifts of oxen, dancing, and holding hands at the wrist. These wore, the maidens long light robes, but the men wore tunics of finespun work and shining softly, touched with olive oil. And the girls wore fair garlands on their heads, while the young men carried golden knives that hung from sword-belts of silver. At whiles on their understanding feet they would run very lightly, as when a potter crouching makes trial of his wheel, holding it close in his hands, to see if it will run smooth. At another time they would form rows, and run, rows crossing each other. And around the lovely chorus of dancers stood a great multitude happily watching, while among the dancers two acrobats led the measures of song and dance revolving among them.

He made on it the great strength of the River Okeanos which ran around the uttermost rim of the shield's strong structure.

[III. CORSELET, HELM & GREAVES.]

"Then after he had wrought this shield, which was huge and heavy, he wrought for him a corselet brighter than fire in its shining, and wrought him a helmet, massive and fitting close to his temples, lovely and intricate work, and laid a gold top-ridge along it, and out of pliable tin wrought him leg-armour.

[IV. ARMOUR RECEIVED BY THETIS.]

"Thereafter when the renowned smith of the strong arms (periklytos Amphigueeis) had finished the armour he lifted it and laid it before the mother of Akhilleus. And she like a hawk came sweeping down from the snows of Olympos and carried with her the shining armour, the gift of Hephaistos.

Now Eos (Dawn) the yellow-robed arose from the river Okeanos to carry her light to men and to immortals. And Thetis ame to the ships and carried with her the gifts of Hephaistos. She found her beloved son [Akhilleus] lying in the arms of Patroklos crying shrill . . . She clung to her son's hand and called him by name and spoke to him: ‘My child . . . accept from me the glorious arms of Hephaistos, so splendid, and such as no man has ever worn on his shoulders.’

The goddess spoke so, and set down the armour on the ground before Akhilleus, and all its elaboration clashed loudly. Trembling took hold of all the Myrmidones. None had the courage to look straight at it. They were afraid of it. Only Akhilleus looked, and as he looked the anger came harder upon him and his eyes glittered terribly under his lids, like sunflare. He was glad, holding in his hands the shining gifts of Hephaistos. But when he had satisfied his heart with looking at the intricate armour, he spoke to his mother and addressed her in winged words: ‘My mother, the god has given me these weapons; they are such as are the work of immortals. No mortal man could have made them. Therefore now I shall arm myself in them.’"

Homer, Iliad 19. 368 ff:

"[Akhilleus] raging at the Trojans he put on the gifts of the god, that Hephaistos wrought for him with much toil. First he placed along his legs the fair greaves linked with silver fastenings to hold the greaves at the ankles. Afterward he girt on about his chest the corselet, and across his shoulders lung the sword with the nails of silver, a bronze sword, and caught up the great shield, huge and heavy next, and from it the light glimmered far, as from the moon . . . the light from the fair elaborated shield of Akhilleus shot into the high air. And lifting the helm he set it massive upon his head, and the helmet crested with horse-hair shone like a star, the golden fringes were shaken about it which Hephaistos had driven close along the horn of the helmet. And brilliant Akhilleus tried himself in his armour, to see if it fitted close, and how his glorious limbs ran within it, and the armour became as wings and upheld the shepherd of the people."

Homer, Iliad 20. 259 ff:

"On the terrible grim shield [of Akhilleus] [Aineias] drove the ponderous pike, so that the great shield moaned as it took the spearhead. The son of Peleus with his heavy hand held the shield away from him, in fright, since he thought the far-shadowing spear of great-hearted Aineias would lightly be driven through it. Fool, and the heart and spirit in him could not understand how the glorious gifts of the gods are not easily broken by mortal men, who such gifts will not give way before them. Not this time could the ponderous spear of war-wise Aineias smash the shield, since the gold stayed it, the god's gift. Indeed he did drive the spear through two folds, but there were three left still, since the god of the dragging feet had made five folds on it, and between them the single gold, and in this the ash spear was held fast."

Homer, Iliad 22. 316 ff:

"In front of his [Akhilleus'] chest the beautiful elaborate great shield covered him, and with the glittering helm with four horns he nodded; the lovely golden fringes were shaken about it which Hephaistos had driven close along the horn of the helmet."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 19. 8 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.):

"[Amongst the scenes depicted on the chest of Kypselos dedicated at Olympia:] Thetis is receiving the armour from Hephaestus. And moreover, he who is giving the armour is not strong upon his feet, and a slave follows him behind, holding a pair of fire-tongs."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 16. 3:

"[Homer] compares the dance worked by Hephaistos on the shield of Akhilleus to a dance made by Daidalos, because he had never seen more clever workmanship."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 29. 7:

"Homer shows that he knew that the sufferings of Linos were the theme of a Greek song when he says that Hephaistos, among the other scenes he worked upon the shield of Akhilleus, represented a boy harpist singing the Linos song."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 1 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.):

[I. FUNERAL GAMES OF AKHILLEUS.]

"So when all other contests had an end [at the Funeral Games of Akhilleus], Thetis the Goddess laid down in the midst great-souled Akhilleus' arms divinely wrought; and all around flashed out the cunning work wherewith Hephaistos overchased the shield fashioned for Aiakos' son, the dauntless-souled.

[II. SHIELD OF AKHILLEUS.]

"Inwrought upon that labour of a God were first high heaven and cloudland, and beneath lay earth and sea: the winds, the clouds were there, the moon and sun, each in its several place; there too were all the stars that, fixed in heaven, are borne in its eternal circlings round. Above and through all was the infinite air where to and fro flit birds of slender beak: thou hadst said they lived, and floated on the breeze. Here Tethys' all-embracing arms were wrought, and Okeanos' fathomless flow. The outrushing flood of rivers crying to the echoing hills all round, to right, to left, rolled o'er the land. Round it rose league-long mountain-ridges, haunts of terrible lions and foul jackals: there fierce bears and panthers prowled; with these were seen wild boars that whetted deadly-clashing tusks in grimly-frothing jaws. There hunters sped after the hounds: beaters with stone and dart, to the life portrayed, toiled in the woodland sport. And there were man-devouring wars, and all Horrors of fight: slain men were falling down mid horse-hoofs; and the likeness of a plain blood-drenched was on that shield invincible. Panic was there, and Dread, and ghastly Enyo with limbs all gore-bespattered hideously, and deadly Strife, and the Avenging Spirits fierce-hearted--she, still goading warriors on to the onset they, outbreathing breath of fire. Around them hovered the relentless Fates; beside them Battle incarnate onward pressed yelling, and from their limbs streamed blood and sweat. There were the ruthless Gorgones: through their hair horribly serpents coiled with flickering tongues. A measureless marvel was that cunning work of things that made men shudder to behold seeming as though they verily lived and moved. And while here all war's marvels were portrayed, yonder were all the works of lovely peace. The myriad tribes of much-enduring men dwelt in fair cities. Justice watched o'er all. To diverse toils they set their hands; the fields were harvest-laden; earth her increase bore. Most steeply rose on that god-laboured work the rugged flanks of holy Arete's (Honour's) mount, and there upon a palm-tree throned she sat exalted, and her hands reached up to heaven. All round her, paths broken by many rocks thwarted the climbers' feet; by those steep tracks daunted ye saw returning many folk: few won by sweat of toil the sacred height. And there were reapers moving down long swaths swinging the whetted sickles: 'neath their hands the hot work sped to its close. Hard after these many sheaf-binders followed, and the work grew passing great. With yoke-bands on their necks oxen were there, whereof some drew the wains heaped high with full-eared sheaves, and further on were others ploughing, and the glebe showed black behind them. Youths with ever-busy goads followed: a world of toil was there portrayed. And there a banquet was, with pipe and harp, dances of maids, and flashing feet of boys, all in swift movement, like to living souls. Hard by the dance and its sweet winsomeness out of the sea was rising lovely-crowned Kypris [Aphrodite], foam-blossoms still upon her hair; and round her hovered smiling witchingly Himeros (Desire), and danced the Kharites (Graces) lovely-tressed. And there were lordly Nereus' Daughters shown leading their sister up from the wide sea to her espousals with the warrior-king. And round her all the Immortals banqueted on Pelion's ridge far-stretching. All about lush dewy watermeads there were, bestarred with flowers innumerable, grassy groves, and springs with clear transparent water bright. There ships with sighing sheets swept o'er the sea, some beating up to windward, some that sped before a following wind, and round them heaved the melancholy surge. Seared shipmen rushed this way and that, adread for tempest-gusts, hauling the white sails in, to 'scape the death--it all seemed real--some tugging at the oars, while the dark sea on either side the ship grew hoary 'neath the swiftly-plashing blades. And there triumphant the Earth-shaker r[Poseidon] ode amid sea-monsters' stormy-footed steeds drew him, and seemed alive, as o'er the deep they raced, oft smitten by the golden whip. Around their path of flight the waves fell smooth, and all before them was unrippled calm. Dolphins on either hand about their king swarmed, in wild rapture of homage bowing backs, and seemed like live things o'er the hazy sea swimming, albeit all of silver wrought. Marvels of untold craft were imaged there by cunning-souled Hephaistos' deathless hands upon the shield. And Okeanos's fathomless flood clasped like a garland all the outer rim, and compassed all the strong shield's curious work.

[III. HELMET.]

"And therebeside the massy helmet lay. Zeus in his wrath was set upon the crest throned on heaven's dome; the Immortals all around fierce-battling with the Titans fought for Zeus. Already were their foes enwrapped with flame, for thick and fast as snowflakes poured from heaven the thunderbolts: the might of Zeus was roused, and burning Gigantes seemed to breathe out flames.

[IV. CORSELET & GREAVES.]

"And therebeside the fair strong corslet lay, unpierceable, which clasped Peleides once: there were the greaves close-lapping, light alone to Akhilleus; massy of mould and huge they were.

[V. SWORD.]

"And hard by flashed the sword whose edge and point no mail could turn, with golden belt, and sheath of silver, and with haft of ivory: brightest amid those wondrous arms it shone.

[VI. SPEAR.]

"Stretched on the earth thereby was that dread spear, long as the tall-tressed pines of Pelion, still breathing out the reek of Hektor's blood.

[VII. CONTEST FOR THE ARMS.]

"Then mid the Argives Thetis sable-stoled in her deep sorrow for Akhilleus spake; ‘Now all the athlete-prizes have been won which I set forth in sorrow for my child. Now let that mightiest of the Argives come who rescued from the foe my dead: to him these glorious and immortal arms I give which even the blessed Deathless joyed to see.’ Then rose in rivalry, each claiming them, Laertes' seed [Odysseus] and godlike Telamon's son, Aias, the mightiest far of Danaan men . . . [After their speeches, the chieftains awarded the armour to Odysseus]."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 7. 210 ff:

"[Odysseus presents the armour of Akhilleus to his son Neoptolemos when the youth agrees to join the Trojan War:] ‘Gifts beyond words to thee the Akhaian kings shall give: yea, I myself will give to thee thy godlike father's arms, and great shall be thy joy in bearing them; for these be like no mortal's battle-gear, but splendid as the very War-god's arms. Over their marvellous blazonry hath gold been lavished; yea, in heaven Hephaistos' self rejoiced in fashioning that work divine, the which thine eyes shall marvel to behold; for earth and heaven and sea upon the shield are wrought, and in its wondrous compass are creatures that seem to live and move--a wonder even to the Immortals. Never man hath seen their like, nor any man hath worn, save thy sire only, whom the Akhaians all honoured as Zeus himself. I chiefliest from mine heart loved him, and when he was slain, to many a foe I dealt a ruthless doom, and through them all bare back to the ships his corpse. Therefore his glorious arms did Thetis give to me. These, though I prize them well, to thee will I give gladly when thou com'st to Troy.’"

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 7. 500 ff:

"In his father's arms Akhilleus' son [Neoptolemos] clad him and lo, he seemed Akhilleus' self! Light on his limbs and lapping close they lay--so cunning was Hephaistos' workmanship--which for another had been a giant's arms. The massive helmet cumbered not his brows; yea, the great Pelian spear-shaft burdened not his hand, but lightly swung he up on high the heavy and tall lance thirsting still for blood."

Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 10 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.):

"[From a description of an ancient Greek painting:] Pyrrhos [i.e. Neoptolemos, son of Akhilleus] wears the armour made by Hephaistos, which Odysseus, regretting his own victory, has yielded to him.

If one examines this armour he will find that none is missing of the representations in relief which Homer describes, but that the work of art reproduces all that Homer gives. For the representations of earth and sea and sky will not, I think, require anyone to explain them; for the sea is evident at once to the observer, since the craftsman has given it its proper colour; the land is designated by the cities and the other terrestrial things, and you will soon learn all about them; but here is the Sky. You see here, of course, the orb of the unwearying sun and the brightness of the full moon. But I believe you want to hear about the stars in detail, for the differences between them provide a reason for your inquiry. Here are the Pleiades, signs for sowing and for reaping when they set or when they appear once more, as the changing seasons bring them; and opposite them are the Hyades. You see Orion also, but the story about him and the reason why he is one of the stars we must defer to another occasion, my boy, that we may not divert you from the object of your present desire. The stars next to Orion are the Bear, or the Wain if you prefer that name. Men say that this constellation alone does not sink into Okeanos, but revolves about itself as a guard over Orion.

Let us now make our way over the earth, leaving the upper regions, and let us examine the most beautiful of things on the earth, namely, the cities. As you see there are two of these. Which of the two do you wish explained to you first? Do the light of the torches, and the marriage hymn, the sound of the flutes and the twanging of the lyre and the rhythmic motion of the dancers attract your attention? You see also the women visible through the vestibules as they marvel and all but shout for joy. This is a marriage, my boy, the first gathering of the bridal party, and the bridegrooms are brining their brides. I shall not attempt to desire how modesty and desire are clearly depicted in each, for the craftsman ahs suggested this with great skill. But look! Here is a court of justice and a general session, and dignified old men preside in a dignified manner over the gathering. As for the gold in the centre, the two talents here, I do not know what it is for, unless, by Zeus, on may conjecture that it is a reward to be paid to the judge who shall pronounce true judgment, in order that no judge may be influenced by gifts to give the wrong judgment. And what is the case? Here are two men in the centre, one of whom, I believe, is bringing a charge of bloodshed, and the other, as you see, is denying the charge; for he claims that he is not guilty of that which the accuser brings against him, but that, having paid the blood-money, he has come free of offence. You see also the adherents of each man, in two groups, who applaud according to their preference; but the presence of the heralds checks them and restores them to silence. This scene, accordingly, represents a state of affairs midway between war and peace in a city that is not at war.

The second city is walled, as you see, and those unfitted for war by reason of age guard the walls at intervals; for there are women at certain points on the battlements, and here are old men and even children. Where, pray, are their fighting men? Yonder you may find them--the men who follow Ares and Athena. For this is what the work of art means, I believe, indicating by the use of gold and by great stature that the leaders are gods, and giving to the others their inferior rank by this device. They are issuing forth for battle, having refused the proposals of the enemy, namely, that the wealth of the city be apportioned among them, else, if it be not so apportioned, it shall be the prize of battle. Accordingly, they are devising an ambush on this side; for that, it seems to me, is suggested by the thicket along the banks of the river, where you see men under arms. But it will not prove possible for them to profit by the ambush; for the invading army, having stationed some scouts, is contriving how to drive off the booty. Indeed, we see here shepherds herding their flocks to the music of pipes. Does not the simple and ingenuous and truly highland strain of their music reach your ears? But they have made their music for the last time; and through ignorance of the plot devised against them they die, as you see, for the enemy has attacked them, and a portion of their flocks is being driven away as booty by the raiders. A report of what has occurred has reached the men in ambush, and they rise and go into battle on horseback; you can see the banks of the river covered with men who are fighting and hurling javelins at the foe. What shall we say of those beings who pass to and fro among the combatants and of that Daimon (spirit) whose person and clothing are reddened with gore? These are Eris (Strife) and Kydoimos (Tumult), and the third is Ker (Doom), to whom are subject all matters of war. For you see, surely, that she follows no one course, but thrusts one man, still unwounded, into the midst of hostile swords, a second is being dragged away a corpse beneath her, while a third she urges onward wounded though he is. As for the soldiers, they are so terrifying in their onrush and their fierce gaze that they seem to me to differ not at all from living men in the charge of battle.

But look again at the works of peace. This is clearly fallow land, to be thrice-ploughed, I think, if one may judge at all by the number of the ploughmen; and in the field the ploughman frequently turns the yoke of oxen back, since a wine-cup awaits the ploughman at the end of the furrow; and the plough's seem to make the gold turn black as it cleaves the soil. In the next scene you perceive a domain--a king's, as I think you may infer--and the king who attests the gladness of his spirit by the radiance of his eyes. The cause of his delight is not far to seek; for that the crop greatly exceeds the sowing is proved by the workers who busily cut the grain and by those who bind the bunches of cut stalks into sheaves, while others very zealously bring them more grain to find. The oak tree stands here not unfittingly nor without good reason, for thee is abundant shade beneath it for the refreshment of such as grow weary with their labour; and yonder fat ox, that has been consecrated by the heralds whom you see, is appointed as a meal beneath the oak for those who labour at harvesting the wheat. And what do you say of the women? Do they not seem to you to be full of excitement and to be encouraging each other to knead plenty of barley meal as a dinner for the harvesters? If there should be need of fruit as well, here you have a vineyard, golden for the vines and black for the grapes. The dark blue inlay of the ditch is the device, methinks, of the artificer to indicate its depth; and you have no difficulty in recognizing in the tin inlay the barrier surrounding the vines. As for the silver in the vineyards, these are props, to keep the vines which are laden with fruit from being bent to the earth. And what would you say of the men gathering the grapes? Making their way through this narrow passage they pile the fruit in baskets, charming persons of an age adapted to their task. For young men and maidens move forward in rhythm, with Euian and Bakkhic step, while another gives them the rhythm, one whom you doubtless recognize, not only from his lyre, but also from the fact that he seems to be singing softly to the lyre's notes. And if you should also notice the herd of cattle which press forward to their pasture, followed by the herdsmen, you might not, indeed, marvel at the colour, although the whole scene is made of gold and tin, but the fact that you can almost hear the cows lowing in the painting and that the river along the banks of which are the cows seems to be making a splashing sound,--is not that he height of vividness? As for the lions, no one, it seems to me, could in a description do justice to them or to the bull beneath them; for the bull, that seems to bellow and quiver, is being torn to pieces, the lions having already laid hold upon its entrails. The dogs here, I believe there are nine of them, follow the herd and at the command of the herdsmen who set them on they rush close up to the lions, wishing to frighten them by barking, but the dare not come to close quarters though the herdsmen urge them even to that. And you also see sheep leaping on the mountain, and sheep-folds, and huts and pens; you are to recognize herein the home of the flocks.

One more scene remains, I think--a troup of dancers here, like the chorus which Daidalos is aid to have given to Ariadne, the daughter of Minos. What does the art represent? Young men and maidens with joined hands are dancing. But apparently you will not be content unless I go on and give you an accurate account of their garments also. Well, the girls here are clothed in fine linen and wear golden crowns on their heads; while the young men wear delicate thin chitons, and golden swords hang at their sides held by silver and golden swords hang at heir sides held by silver belts. But as they move in a circle, behold the result--you see in imagination the whirling of a wheel, the work of a potter making trial of his wheel to see whether or not it turns with difficulty. And as they advance again in rows, a great crowd of men approaches, who show how merry they are; for some who here in the centre are turning somersaults and exhibiting sundry kinds of dancing seem to me evidently to fill the dancers with wonder. The image of the sea on the circle of the rim is not the sea, my boy, but you are to imagine that Okeanos is designed by the artist to represent the boundary of the land depicted upon the shield. Enough has been told you of the scenes in relief."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 106 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.):

"Thetis his [Akhilleus'] mother secured armour for him from Volcanus [Hephaistos], and the Nereides brought it to him over the sea. Wearing this, hew slew Hector."

Virgil, Aeneid 8. 372 ff (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.):

"I'm asking a deity whom I reverence for arms . . . You [Hephaistos] were moved by the tears of Thetis once, and the tears of [Eos] the wife of Tithonus [i.e. to provide arms for each of their sons]."

ARMOUR OF AENEAS[]

Virgil, Aeneid 8. 372 ff (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.):

"[After Aeneas arrives in Latium and is threatened with war:] Venus [Aphrodite], her mother's heat alarmed, as well it might be, perturbed by the threats [to Aeneas in Latium] and the fierce uprising of the Laurentines, spoke to her husband, Volcanos [Hephaistos], as they lay in their golden bed-chamber, breathing into the words all her divine allurement:--‘While Argive kings assaulted in war the foredoomed stronghold of Pergamum [Troy], the towers destined to fall in flames, I asked no help of you for my unhappy people. Made no demands on your skill and resource as a forger of weapons: I did not care to put you to work that was bound to be wasted, dearest husband, although I owed a great debt to the sons of Priam, and often had grieved at the ordeal Aeneas was suffering. Now, at the will of Jove [Zeus], he has set foot in Italia: yet it is now that I'm asking a deity whom I reverence for arms, appealing to you on my son's behalf. You were moved by the tears of Thetis once, and the tears of [Eos] the wife of Tithonus. See, what peoples are mustering, what cities have barred their gates and are sharpening weapons against me, to exterminate those I love!’

Since Volcanos [Hephaistos] complied not at once, the goddess softly embraced him in snowdrift arms, caressing him here and there. Of a sudden he caught the familiar spark and felt the old warmth darting into his marrow, coursing right though his body, melting him; just as it often happens a thunderclap starts a flaming rent which ladders the dark cloud, a quivering streak of fire. Pleased with her wiles and aware of her beauty, Venus [Aphrodite] could feel them taking effect. Volcanos, in love's undying thrall, said: ‘You need not delve in the past for persuasions. What has become of your trust in me, my goddess? If you had brought me your troubles that other time, then too I could rightfully have armed the Trojans; for neither the Father almighty nor fate's decrees forbade that Troy should stand or Priam survive another ten years. And now, if your purpose is to make all ready for warfare, any effort that's mine to give in the exercise of my craft, whatever can be done with iron and molten alloys, all work of furnace and bellows--nay, plead no more; why need you cast doubt upon your influence over me?’

Thus saying, he gave his wife the love he was aching to give her; then he sank into soothing sleep, relaxed upon her breast.

As soon as he'd woken, rested, requiring to sleep no longer in the small hours when night was waning . . . did the Fire-lord rise from his downy bed and go to his ironworks. Between the Sicilian coast and Aeolian Lipare there's an island, whose cliffs, sheer-rising, jet out smoke from their crannies: deep within it are vaults, a rumbling volcanic cavern scooped out by the action of the Cyclopes' fires; you can hear the clang of hard blows on the anvils, the roaring when masses of ore are smelted within, and a throbbing blast of flame form the furnaces. Here is Volcanos' [Hephaistos'] place; the island is called Volcania. Hither now the Fire-god repaired form heaven above. The Cyclopes were hard at work in this underground iron-foundry--Brontes and Steropes, Pyracmon stripped to the buff. They manufactured a thunderbolt, such as the Father of heaven [Zeus] shoots down in such great numbers at earth from all over the sky: part of it was already streamlined, part unfinished. They had given it three fins of twirling sleet, and three of cloudburst, three of russet fire and three of stormwind. Now they were putting in as components frightening flashes, the noise that creates panic, the piercing flames of wrath. Elsewhere, a job was being hurried on for Mars [Ares]--a chariot with swift wheels, such as he rides in to rouse up men and nations. Some busily burnished the aegis Athene wears in her angry moods--a fearsome thing with a surface of gold like scaly snake-skin, and he linked serpents and the Gorgon herself upon the goddess' breast--a severed head rolling its eyes. ‘Put all that work aside, pack in the jobs you're engaged on, you Cyclopes of Mount Aetna, and turn your attention to this--the making of arms for a hot-blooded hero! Now there is need for your strength, your speediest work and your master-craftmanship. Get bustling on it at once!’

That was all Volcanos said: quickly they set to the business, shared out the tasks among them equally. Rivers of molten bronze and gold are flowing; the deadly steel is smelted in an immense furnace. They fashion a shield of heroic size, to withstand by itself every missile the Latins can use, welding seven round of metal one on another to make it. Some pump away at the bellows, drawing in air and expelling it; some dip the hissing metal in troughs. The cavern groans under the stress of anvils. They raise their arms with the powerful alternate rhythm of cranks, they keep the iron-ore turning in the close grip of their tongs.

While on Aeolian shores the lord of Lemnos was hurrying forward his work, Evander was roused from his humble dwelling . . . Venus [Aphrodite] sent them a sign out of the clear sky. All of a sudden the heavens shook with a flash of lightning and thunder pealed: it seemed as if the whole universe suddenly tottered and Etruscan trumpets were bawling above them. They looked up: again and again a terrific crash resounded. Up there among the fleecy clouds in the fair-weather sky were arms, red-glinting and thunderously clashing through the clear air. The rest were stunned with amazement: but [Aeneas] the Trojan hero heard in the sound his divine mother keeping a promise she'd given. So then he exclaimed: ‘. . . My goddess mother foretold she would send this sign if war was looming close, and would come to my help through the air with arms of Volcanus' making.’"

Heracles stood tall as Zidine glared at him, realising this match would be incredibly difficult. Despite the equipment Heracles had, Zidine simply smiled, activating Mjolnir and clashing club-to-hammer, leading to massive explosions that threatened to destroy Olympus, to which Zidine felt himself being pushed back by his mere strikes; and even with the megingjörð and Járngreipr, his strength was still not enough. “Not bad.” Heracles said as he fired his arrows rapid-fire only for not a single one to get near Zidine. “That rune… meaning…” Heracles thought to himself, instinctively using his club to smash the ground as well as using his lyre to control Zidine, failing immediately by way of Zidine’s eye countering this. “So me and you are equal.” Heracles said confidently with a smile on his face as he saw his club being sent flying by one attack to which Zidine coupled that with ramming him with his shield and firing his thunderbolts point-blank range, dealing huge damage that destroyed all of Olympos casually. “You are a bastard.” Heracles said as he then fired two arrows into Zidine’s throat, causing him to feel as though he was set on fire. “This is nothing to what the Typhon will do.” Zidine said as he survived this, despite feeling the very concept of death wanting to devour him, it couldn’t, only for him to send Heracles a few steps away by using Mjolnir. “How are we still fighting on Olympus?” Zidine asked to which Heracles simply said “Platonic Form.” and upon learning this, Zidine smiled, knowing he had no reason to hold back as he let himself finally go all in and force his Berserker Mode to fully make itself manifest as Heracles felt a sense of madness befalling even him. “What is this feeling of madness?!” Heracles asked as he felt himself being sent flying back by one strike of Mjolnir. “He destroyed my club.” Heracles thought to himself as he ran forth, summoning the Nemean Cestus which are a set of gauntlets that take the appearance of a roaring, silverish gold lion, with black on the sides. The gauntlets also features spikes on it, some curving back and others curving forward to which Zidine had no choice but to use the Aegis to counter this, causing a huge amount of fear-bound backlash to send him back but Heracles simply then used his strength to smash the ground, forcing Zidine to jump upwards, allowing Heracles to grab his leg and send him onto the ground, kicking his leg and his shield away from him. “So your runes make you immune to arrows and cudgels alongside projectiles of all kind.” Heracles said, only for Zidine to immediately get up and use the Drigo Axe however Heracles passively used the Nemean Cestus, combining it with the Lion’s ability to be immune to all things manmade, causing the Axe’s orifice to become pierced ever so slightly. “His power is being amplified by way of rage.” Heracles thought to himself as he then held Zidine’s Drigo Axe-based arm, ultimately using his Nemean Cestus in his other arm and punching him so hard that blood spilled down his throat. “Hydra Poison.” He said, firing the arrows into his throat by using the Nemean Cestus. “Now, your runes are finished, Berserker.” Heracles thought to himself as he immediately saw Zidine getting near-death somehow. “I am impressed. You have survived for so long. Typhon may be on your way.” Heracles then said as he felt thunder rolling above him alongside mist. “Thou art a fool, Heracles. Thy shield, an item of physicality.” Zidine said with an air of authority as Heracles felt blindness consuming him. “You caused me immense pain… and now you will die.” Zidine said as Heracles fired arrows in every single direction. “Lightning of Jove!” Zidine thought to himself as he summoned two thunderbolts only for Heracles to use the Aegis to casually withstand it, however he felt himself being pulled in. “How am I being pulled in?!” Heracles thought to himself as he felt himself being smashed in the face by the full power of Mjolnir as blood devoured his face. “Damn fiend!” Heracles screamed as the mist effectively made Zidine completely invisible. “You have lost.” Zidine said, appearing behind him with glowing red eyes and smashing him in the head with the full physical power of Mjolnir, knocking him out cold. “Apotheosis!” Heracles screamed as Zidine’s true power manifested itself. He is then adopted by the theoi, ‘gods’, on Mount Olympus as one of their own. Here, then, is his moment of apotheosis. And now the goddess Hērā, who had persecuted Hēraklēs throughout his lifetime, changes identities: she proceeds to transform herself from stepmother, as it were, to mother. The procedure is specified by Diodorus, and I translate literally (4.39.2): ‘Hērā got into her bed and drew Hēraklēs close to her body; then she ejected him through her clothes to the ground, re-enacting [= making mīmēsis of] genuine birth’ (tēn de teknōsin genesthai phasi toiautēn: tēn Hēran anabasan epi klinēn kai ton Hēraklea proslabomenēn pros to sōma dia tōn endumatōn apheinai pros tēn gēn, mimoumenēn tēn alēthinēn genesin). Heracles’ true form surely manifested itself yea for this was also Platonic therein: perfect, transcendent, aspatial and atemporal along with it being a-mental, however the mist still surrounded Heracles’ body. “I have no choice.” Zidine thought to himself, knowing that a Platonic form couldn’t be destroyed although… he could access his true power with his Odin’s Eye seeing what appeared to be the future. “Olympus is a transcendent place, Zidine. I am now the Neoplatonic concept of the Ultimate warrior or Strength itself. From a Hellenic view: The soul of Herakles is divine, undefiled and pure, and emanated from the Creator, the Celestial Demiurge King Helios, through His mother Athene, the virgin Goddess of Forethought. He was begotten to be the saviour of the world and was sent by Helios to fulfill the tasks chosen for Him, with Athene acting as His protector. When His soul was sent, and while still in mere swaddling clothes, He strangled two serpents, and then opposed Himself to the very elements of nature; the extremes of heat, cold, lack of food and loneliness. The elements were controlled by His immaculate and most pure mind and divine body, which subdued the elements with a creative and perfecting force. In a notable example, Herakles had crossed the ocean by walking on water, as the Golden Cup of Helios is a mere allegory for the blessings of His Father, Helios, which allowed Herakles to control the elements. Herakles is the champion of our realm, His activity being in our own Sub-Lunar plane of existence and acting as our earthly receiver of Helios’ will, fulfilling His chosen tasks. While it is His father Helios who initiates policy, it is Herakles who executes it. While it is Helios who plans, it is Herakles who acts. It is Herakles who the divine commission to purge impiety in our realm of existence. Herakles is a God who embodies and enforces virtue, rejecting and subduing vice. He is among the greatest of Heroes. After fulfilling His chosen tasks with the help of His followers such as Lichas, Iolaus, Telamon, Hylas, and Abderos, it was then the will of the Celestial Demiurge to beckon Herakles back to His side through the flame of a thunderbolt, bidding His son to come to him by the divine signal of the ethereal rays of light. Herakles returned to His father, joining Him in His father’s halls of heavenly light on Olympus. The Roman poet Ovid describes the apotheosis of Herakles (Ov. Met. 9.172): “As a serpent, when it is revived from its old age, casts off the faded skin, and fresh with vigor glitters in new scales, so, when the hero had put off all dross, Himself appeared celestial, majestic, and of godlike dignity. And Him, the glorious father of the Gods in the great chariot drawn by four swift steeds, took up above the wide-encircling clouds, and set Him there amid the glittering stars. Thus, this form of mine is Platonic, yea… but also my true power in relation to my Orphic hymn.” Heracles explained as Zidine immediately used Mjolnir to try and crush his shield that had never been crushed, immediately failing as he was pushed back. “You may just rival Helio-!” Heracles was about to say as Zidine simply said “9th form of the Lightning of Elding!”, fully manifesting the true power of the Algiz rune in tandem with Thusarz alongside his true power for the briefest of moments… causing Hercules to look so fearful that he felt he could not fight anymore; with the two fighting equally prior to this. “You are indeed the strongest!” Heracles said as Zidine used the full power of his thunderbolts and struck Heracles’ form, shattering and annihilating it fully. “You have won… let Typhon lose.” Heracles said to Zidine, smiling as Zidine looked genuinely amazed, only to hear a mountain shatter as a massive beast showed itself. The old man revealed himself. “I wish you all the best.” He spoke as he began to scream and become this titanic creature who could overturn the boundless earth of Olympos. Strength was with his hands in all that he did and the feet of the strong god were untiring. From his shoulders grew a hundred heads of a snake, a fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and from under the brows of his eyes in his marvellous heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as he glared. And there were voices in all his dreadful heads which uttered every kind of sound unspeakable; for at one time they made sounds such that the gods understood, but at another, the noise of a bull bellowing aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and at anothers, sounds like whelps, wonderful to hear; and again, at another, he would hiss, so that the high mountains re-echoed. And truly a thing past help would have happened on that day, and he would have come to reign over mortals and immortals, had not the father of men and gods been quick to perceive it. But he thundered hard and mightily: and the earth around resounded terribly and the wide heaven above, and the sea and Ocean's streams and the nether parts of the earth. Great Olympus reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose and earth groaned thereat. And through the two of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea, through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt. Every single god that Zidine defeated rushed to Egypt except Athena.

The whole earth seethed, and sky and sea: and the long waves raged along the beaches round and about, at the rush of the deathless gods: and there arose an endless shaking. Hades trembled where he rules over the dead below, and the Titans under Tartarus who live with Cronos, because of the unending clamour and the fearful strife. So when Zeus had raised up his might and seized his arms, thunder and lightning and lurid thunderbolt, he leaped from Olympus and struck him, and burned all the marvellous heads of the monster about him. But when Zeus had conquered him and lashed him with strokes, Typhoeus was hurled down, a maimed wreck, so that the huge earth groaned. And flame shot forth from the thunder- stricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapour and melted as tin melts when heated by men's art in channelled crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is softened by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaestus. Even so, then, the earth melted in the glow of the blazing fire. And in the bitterness of his anger Zeus cast him into wide Tartarus. That was the past… and not now.

And from Typhoeus come boisterous winds which blow damply, except Notus and Boreas and clear Zephyr. These are a god-sent kind, and a great blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the seas. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts; for varying with the season they blow, scattering ships and destroying sailors. And men who meet these upon the sea have no help against the mischief. Others again over the boundless, flowering earth spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below, filling them with dust and cruel uproar. "The defeat of the Gigantes (Giants) by the gods angered Ge (Gaea, Earth) all the more, so she had intercourse with Tartaros and bore Typhon in Kilikia (Cilicia). He was a mixture of man and beast, the largest and strongest of all Ge's children." Typhon was described as being so tall his head often touched the stars, and his arms stretched to both east and west. He was said to have over a hundred serpent heads, and his eyes flashed fire. Instead of legs, he had twin serpents that served as legs. From Nonnus, Dionysiaca cont.: "He [Kadmos (Cadmus), future king of Thebes,] came to the bloodstained cave of Arima, when the mountains had moved from their seats and were beating at the gate of inexpugnable Olympos, when the gods took wing above the rainless Nile, like a flight of birds far out of reach, oaring their strange track in the winds of heaven, and the seven zones of the sky were sore assailed. “So he is likely more powerful than Fenrir.” Zidine thought to himself with slight fear. From the stories of Apollodorus, the Theogony and others:

"Typhon was a mixture of man and beast, the largest and strongest of all Ge's (Earth's) children. Down to the thighs he was human in form, so large that he extended beyond all the mountains while his head often touched even the stars. One hand reached to the west, the other to the east, and attached to these were one hundred heads of serpents. Also from the thighs down he had great coils of vipers, which extended to the top of his head and hissed mightily. All of his body was winged, and the hair that flowed in the wind from his head and cheeks was matted and dirty. In his eyes flashed fire. Such were the appearance and the size of Typhon as he hurled red-hot rocks at the sky itself, and set out for it with mixed hisses and shouts, as a great storm of fire boiled forth from his mouth." Hesiod, Theogony 820 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.): "Typhoeus; the hands and arms of him are mighty, and have work in them, and the feet of the powerful god were tireless, and up from his shoulders there grew a hundred snake heads, those of a dreaded drakon (dragon-serpent), and the heads licked with dark tongues, and from the eyes on the inhuman heads fire glittered from under the eyelids: from all his heads fire flared from his eyes' glancing; and inside each one of these horrible heads there were voices that threw out every sort of horrible sound, for sometimes it was speech such as the gods could understand, but at other times, the sound of a bellowing bull, proud-eyed and furious beyond holding, or again like a lion shameless in cruelty, or again it was like the barking of dogs, a wonder to listen to, or again he would whistle so the tall mountains re-echoed to it. "Typhoeus . . . yelled as his warcry the cries of all wild beasts together: the snakes that grew from him waved over his leopard's heads, licked the grim lions' manes, girdled with their curly tails spiral-wise round the bulls' horns, mingled the shooting poison of their long thin tongues with the foam-spittle of the boars . . . With trailing feet Typhoeus mounted close to the clouds: spreading abroad the far-scattered host of his arms, he shadowed the bright radiance of the unclouded sky by darting forth his tangled army of snakes . . . Typhoeus bowed his flashing eyebrows and shook his locks: every hair belched viper-poison and drenched the hills ... flinging the rocks about he leapt upon Olympos. While he dragged his crooked track with snaky foot, he spat out showers of poison from his throat; the mountain torrents were swollen, as the monster showered fountains from the viperish bristles of his high head; as he marched, the solid earth did sink, and the steady ground of Kilikia (Cilicia) shook to its foundations under those drakon-feet . . . many-armed Typhoeus roared for the fray with all the tongues of all his throats, challenging mighty Zeus. That sonorous voice reached [the distant streams of Okeanos (Oceanus)] . . . as the monster spoke, that which answered the army of his voices, was not one concordant echo, but a babel of screaming sounds [i.e. from his animal heads]: when the monster arrayed him with all his manifold shapes, out rang the yowling of wolves, the roaring of lions, the grunting of boars, the lowing of cattle, the hissing of serpents, the bold yap of leopards, the jaws of rearing bears, the fury of gods. Then with his midmost man-shaped head the Gigante yelled out threats against Zeus." "Men say that Typhaon the terrible, outrageous and lawless, was joined in love to her [Ekhidna (Echidna)], the maid with glancing eyes. So she conceived and brought forth fierce offspring; first she bare Orthos the hound of Geryones, and then again she bare a second, a monster not to be overcome and that may not be described, Kerberos (Cerberus) who eats raw flesh, the brazen-voiced hound of Haides, fifty-headed, relentless and strong. And again she bore a third, the evil-minded Hydra of Lerna, whom the goddess, white-armed Hera nourished, being angry beyond measure with the mighty Herakles . . . She was the mother of Khimaira (Chimera) who breathed raging fire, a creature fearful, great, swift-footed and strong, who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion; in her hinderpart, a drakon (dragon-serpent); and in her middle, a goat, breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire. Her did Pegasos and noble Bellerophontes slay." When he [Herakles] reached the mainland on the other side he killed with an arrow the Eagle on the Kaukasos (Caucasus), the product of Ekhidna (Echidna) and Typhon that had been eating the liver of Prometheus. [The Kholkian Drakon (Colchian Dragon)] a deathless and unsleeping beast, offspring of Gaia (Gaea, Earth) herself. She brought him forth on the slopes of Kaukasos (Caucasus) by the rock of Typhaon. It was there, they say, that Typhaon, when he had offered violence to Zeus and been struck by his thunder-bolt, dropped warm blood from his head. This was the reason. Zeus Kronides (Cronides) had hurried to Plouto's (Pluto's) bed, to beget Tantalos (Tantalus), that mad robber of the heavenly cups; and he laid his celestial weapons well hidden with his lightning in a deep cavern. From underground the thunderbolts belched out smoke, the white cliff was blackened; hidden sparks from a fire-barbed arrow heated the water-springs; torrents boiling with foam and steam poured down the Mygdonian gorge, until it boomed again.

Then at a nod from his mother, the Earth [Gaia], Kilikian (Cilician) Typhoeus stretched out his hands, and stole the snowy tools of Zeus, the tools of fire; then spreading his row of rumble-rattling throats [i.e. Typhoeus had a hundred animal heads], he yelled as his warcry the cries of all wild beasts together: the snakes that grew from him waved over his leopard's heads, licked the grim lions' manes, girdled with their curly tails spiral-wise round the bulls' horns, mingled the shooting poison of their long thin tongues with the foam-spittle of the boars.

II. TYPHOEUS ATTACKS THE HEAVENS AS A STORM[]

"Now he laid the gear of Kronides [Zeus] in a cubby-hole of the rock and spread the harvest of his clambering hands [his hands were as numerous as corn-stalks in a field] into the upper air. And that battalion of hands! One throttled Kynosouris (Cynosura) [i.e. the constellation Ursa Minor] beside the ankle-tip of Olympos; one gripped the Parrhasian Bear's mane as she rested on heaven's axis [i.e. the constellation Ursa Major]; another caught the Oxdrover [i.e. the constellation Bootes] and knocked him out; another dragged Phosphoros [the star Venus], and in vain under the circling turning-post sounded the whistling of the heavenly lash in the morning; he carried off the dawn, and held in the Bull, so that timeless, half-complete, horsewoman Hora (Season) rested her team. And in the shadowy curls of his serpenthair heads the light was mingled with gloom; Selene the Moon shone rising in broad day with Helios the Sun.

Still there was no rest. The Gigante (Giant) turned back and passed from north to south; he left one pole and stood by the other. With a long arm he grasped the Charioteer [constellation Auriga], and flogged the back of hailstorming Aigokeros (Aegocerus) [constellation Capricorn]; he dragged the two Fishes [constellation Pisces] out of the sky and cast them into the sea; he buffeted the Ram [constellation Aries], that midnipple star of Olympos, who balances with equal pin day and darkness over the fiery orb of his spring time neighbour. With trailing feet Typhoeus mounted close to the clouds: spreading abroad the far-scattered host of his arms, he shadowed the bright radiance of the unclouded sky by darting forth his tangled army of snakes.

One of them ran up right through the rim of the polar circle and skipt upon the backbone of the heavenly Serpent [constellation Serpens], hissing his mortal challenge. One made for Kepheus's (Cepheus') daughter [constellation Andromeda], and with starry fingers twisting a ring as close as the other, enchained Andromeda, bound already, with a second bond aslant under her bands. Another, a horned serpent, entwined about the forked horns of Taurus the Bull's horned head of shape like his own, and dangled coiling over the Bull's brow, tormenting with open jaws the Hyades opposite ranged like a crescent moon. Poison-spitting tangles of serpents in a bunch girdled Bootes the Ox-drover. Another made a bold leap, when he saw another Snake in Olympos, and jumped around the Ophiokhos's arm that held the viper [constellation Ophiochus]; then curving his neck and coiling his crawling belly, he braided a second chaplet about Ariadne's crown [constellation Corona].

Then Typhoeus manyarmed turned to both ends, shaking with his host of arms the girdle of Zephyros (the West Wind) and the wing of Euros (the East Wind) opposite, dragging first Phosphoros [the Dawn Star], the Hesperos [the Evening Star] and the crest of Atlas. Many a time in the weedy gulf he seized Poseidon's chariot, and dragged it from the depths of the sea to land; again he pulled out a stallion by his brine-soaked mane from the undersea manger, and threw the vagabond nag to the vault of heaven, shooting his shot at Olympos--hit Helios the Sun's chariot, and the horses on their round whinnied under the yoke. Many a time he took a bull at rest from his rustic plowtree and shook him with a threatening hand, bellow as he would, then shot him against Selene the Moon like another moon, and stayed her course, then rushed hissing against the goddess, checking with the bridle her bulls' white yoke-straps, while he poured out the mortal whistle of a poison-spitting viper.

But Titanis Mene [Selene the Moon] would not yield to the attack. Battling against the Gigante's heads, like horned to hers [i.e. Selene, whose horns held the lunar-disc, locked horns with one of Typhoeus' bull heads], she carved many a scar on the shining orb of her bull's horn [i.e the smooth white surface of the moon was scarred by this battle]; and Selene's radiant cattle bellowed amazed at the gaping chasm of Typhaon's throat.

The Horai (Horae, Seasons) undaunted armed the starry battalions, and the lines of heavenly Constellations in a disciplined circle came shining to the fray. A varied host maddened the upper air with clamour and with flame: some whose portion was Boreas, others the back of the Lips in the west, or the eastern zones or the recesses of the south. The unshaken congregation of the fixt stars with unanimous acclamation left their places and caught up their travelling fellows. The axis passing through the heaven's hollow and fixt upright in the midst, groaned at the sound. Orion the hunter [constellation], seeing these tribes of wild beasts, drew his sword; the blade of the Tanagraian brand sparkled bright as its master made ready to attack; his thirsty Dog [constellation Canis], shooting light from his fiery chin, bubbled up in his starry throat and let out a hot bark, and blew out the steam from his teeth against Typhaon's beasts instead of the usual hare. The sky was full of din, and, answering the seven-zoned heaven, the seven-throated cry of the Pleiades raised the war-shout from as many throats; and the Planetoi (Planets) as many again banged out an equal noise.

Radiant Ophiokhos [constellation Ophiochus], seeing the Gigante's direful snaky shape, from his hands so potent against evil shook off the gray coils of the fire-bred serpents, and shot the dappled coiling missile, while tempests roared round his flames--the viper-arrows flew slanting and maddened the air. Then the Archer [constellation Sagittarius] let fly a shaft--that bold comrade of fish-like Aigokeros [constellation Capricorn]; the Dragon [constellation Draco], divided between the two Bears [constellation Ursa Major and Minor], and visible within the circle of the Wain [part of Ursa Major], brandished the fiery trail of the heavenly spine; the Oxherd [constellation Boötes], Erigone's neighbour, attendant driver of the Wain, hurled his crook with his flashing arm; beside he knee of the Image [constellation Hercules] and his neighbour the Swan [constellation Cygnus], the starry Lyre [constellation Lyra] presaged the victory of Zeus to which Typhon watched

III. TYPHOEUS ATTACKS THE SEA AS A STORM

"Now Typhoeus shifted to the rocks, leaving the air, to flog the seas. He grasped and shook the peak of Korkykios (Corkykius) [a Kilikian mountain], and crushing the flood of the river that belongs to Kilikia (Cilicia), joined Tarsos and Kydnos (Cydnus) together in one hand; then hurled a volley of cliffs upon the mustered waves of the brine. As the Gigante advanced with feet trailing in the briny flood, his bare loins were seen dry through the water, which broke heavy against his mid-thigh crashing and booming; his serpents afloat sounded the charge with hissings form brine-beaten throats and spitting poison led the attack upon the sea. There stood Typhon in the fish-giving sea, his feet firm in the depths of the weedy bottom, his belly in the air and crushed in clouds: hearing the terrible roar from the mane-bristling lions of his giant's head, the sea-lion lurked in the oozy gulf. There was no room in the deep for all its phalanx of Leviathans, since the Earthborn monster (Gegenees) covered a whole sea, larger than the land, with flanks that no sea could cover. The seals bleated, the dolphins hid in the deep water; the manyfooted octopus, a master of craft, weaving his trailing web of crisscross knots, stuck fast on his familiar rock, making his limbs look like a pattern on the stone. All the world was a-tremble: the love-maddened murry herself, drawn by her passion for the serpent's bed, shivered under the god-desecrating breath of these seafaring serpents. The waters piled up and touched Olympos with precipitous seas; as the streams mounted on high, the bird never touched by rain found the sea his neighbour, and washed himself. Typhoeus, holding a counterfeit of the deep-sea trident, with one earthshaking flip form his enormous hand broke off an island at the edge of the continent which is the kerb of the brine, circled it round and round, and hurled the whole thing like a ball. And while the Gigante waged his war, his hurtling arms drew near to the stars, and obscured the sun, as they attacked Olympos, and cast the precipitous crag as Zidine glared at the beast whilst still in the 9th form of the Lightning of Elding.

IV. TYPHOEUS ATTACKS THE EARTH AS A STORM

"Now after the frontier of the deep, after the well-laid foundation of the earth, this bastard Zeus armed his hand with fire-barbed thunderbolt: raising the gear of Zeus was hard work for the monster Typhoeus with two hundred furious hands, so great was the weight; But Kronion (Cronion) [Zeus] would lightly lift it with one hand. No clouds were about the Gigante: against his dry arms, the thunder let out a dull-sounding note booming gently without a clap, and in the drought of the air scarcely did a thirsty dew trickle in snowflakes without a drop in them; the lightning was dim, and only a softish flame shone sparkling shamefacedly, like smoke shot with flame. As Zidine fired his thunderbolts, the thunderbolts felt the hands of a novice, and all their manly blaze was unmanned. Often they slipped out of those many many hands, and went leaping of themselves; the brands went astray, missing the familiar hand of their heavenly master. As a man beats a horse that loathes the bit . . . so the monster laboured with this hand or that to lift the fugitive flashing of the roving thunderbolt . . .

[Zeus, meanwhile, was distracted as he stole Europa from Phoenicia in the guise of a bull.] . . .

“So… what are you?” Zidine asked Athena, watching from above as Typhon did intense amounts of damage to Olympus.

“The gods in Neoplatonic thought are omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent.

They are omnipotent in that they are the source of all that exists. They are quite literally the force (potentia) responsible for all (omni). It does not mean they can do literally anything, rather it asserts that, unlike the physical, they have no restraints and are able to be themselves completely unhindered.

They are omniscient in the sense that all of the cosmos is contained within them: Everything that exists has an ontological cause in the gods, and, lacking in bodies, they are omnipresent and are aware of everything. It doesn't mean they know the future with certainty, rather that they are consciously aware of everything occurring in the universe and that both they and their providence are immanent to the universe.

They are omnibenevolent in that they cannot participate in evil, as evil is an absence of good caused by shortcoming and limitation, which the gods do not have, as they are not made of physical bodies. All good in the universe ultimately comes from the gods, who are wholly complete, lacking in nothing, and thus free of any capacity for evil. This goodness extends to all things that exist, though physical matter is flawed by nature and that good does not always accurately reflect 100% in our material world.

The gods can be thought of as impersonal by nature, but with personal features that make us able to communicate and connect with them through their daimons and prayers. Surely, we can't fully understand what it's like to exist in a state of perpetual bliss and stasis as wholly complete and perfect beings, but they understand us, and through worship and developing kharis, we open ourselves to their goodness and orient ourselves to be receptive to their blessings. (The Stoics say) that a god is an immortal, rational (logikon), perfect or intellective (noeron) living being (or ‘animal’, zōion) that is in a state of happiness (en eudaimonia) and does not admit of any evil, and which is providential over the cosmos and the beings in the cosmos. And it is not human-shaped (anthrōpomorphon).

For they say that Zeus (Dia) is that through which (di’ hōn) all things are, and they also call him Zēna* insofar as he is the cause of life (zēn), or because he spreads out life; and Athena in respect to its extension of this ruling faculty (hēgemonikon) across the ether; Hera, in respect to the air; Hephaestus, in respect to the extension into the creative (tekhnikon) fire; and Poseidon, in respect to that into water (to hygron); and Demeter, in respect to that into the Earth. And in the same manner, they have assigned the different appellations (prosēgoriai) by fastening onto a certain property (oikeiotēs). Zeno says that the substance (ousia) of God is the whole cosmos and heaven,* and likewise Chrysippus in the first book On the Gods and Posidonius in the first of his On the Gods. And Antipater, in the seventh book of On the Cosmos, says that his substance is aerial (aeroeidēs). Boethius, in On Nature, that the substance of God is the sphere of the fixed stars. The Greek poet Aratus of Soli (d. 240 BCE) is known to have written a number of poems on various subjects, only one of which, the Phaenomena, was widely read in antiquity; eventually the others dropped out of circulation. But for its part, the Phaenomena, a description of the heavens, and especially of the constellations, became canonical, receiving no less than four known ancient translations into Latin (by Cicero, partially extant; by Ovid, lost; by Germanicus Caesar, extant; by Avienius, extant; a fifth, in prose, was made in the early Middle Ages) and another into Arabic. It was also the focus of a lively commentary tradition, of which we have substantial remains, and even these were translated into Latin and Arabic. This is unparalleled. Here I translate the beginning of the poem, a sort of Stoic hymn to Zeus, together with ancient scholia (explanatory notes). In this hymnic opening, Aratus claims that the god ordered the constellations for our benefit. This is no doubt influenced, however indirectly, by the Babylonian epic Enūma Eliš, in which Marduk (~Zeus) orders the constellations. (Also cf. the esoteric cosmology of the Secrets of the Great Gods, and the MUL.APIN, which includes a catalogue of the constellations recognized by the Babylonians, which strongly influenced the constellations of the Greek astronomers.)

Out of Zeus let us begin, whom never we men leave

Unspoken; filled with Zeus are all streets,

All meeting places of humanity, filled is the sea

And the shores. We are all always in contact with Zeus.

For we too are of his kin. And he, gracious to humankind,

shows favorable signs, rouses people to work,

Reminding them of their livelihood. And he says when the soil is best

For kine and for the mattock, and says when the seasons are favorable

Both to set out plants and to scatter all seeds.

For it was he who fixed the signs in heaven,

Separating out the stars, and for the yearly round thought out

The stars which should especially give well-wrought signs

Of the seasons to mankind, in order that all things grow firm.

Therefore they always worship you first and last—

Hail, father, o great wonder, great boon for humanity.

Yourself and the Elder Generation! And hail, Muses,

So propitious all! But for me, who have prayed to speak of the stars

As is just, order ye my whole song!

Ek Diòs arkhṓmestha, tòn oudépot’ ándres eômen

árrhēton; mestaì dè Diòs pâsai mèn agyiaí,

pâsai d’ anthrṓpōn agoraí, mestḕ dè thálassa

kaì liménes; pántē dè Diòs kekhrḗmetha pántes.

toû gàr kaì génos eimén. ho d’ ḗpios anthrṓpoisi

dexià sēmaínei, laoùs d’ epì érgon egeírei

mimnḗskōn biótoio, légei d’ hóte bôlos arístē

bousí te kaì makélēisi, légei d’ hóte dexiaì hôrai

kaì phytà gyrôsai kaì spérmata pánta balésthai.

autòs gàr tá ge sḗmat’ en ouranôi estḗrixen

ástra diakrínas, esképsato d’ eis eniautòn

astéras hoí ke málista tetygména sēmaínoien

andrásin hōráōn, óphr’ émpeda pánta phýōntai.

tôi min aeì prôtón te kaì hýstaton hiláskontai.

khaîre, páter, méga thaûma, még’ anthrṓpoisin óneiar,

autòs kaì protérē geneḗ. khaíroite dè Moûsai

meilíkhiai mála pâsai. emoí ge mèn astéras eipeîn

êi thémis eukhoménôi tekmḗrate pâson aoidḗn.

Ἐκ Διὸς ἀρχώμεσθα, τὸν οὐδέποτ’ ἄνδρες ἐῶμεν

ἄρρητον· μεσταὶ δὲ Διὸς πᾶσαι μὲν ἀγυιαί,

πᾶσαι δ’ ἀνθρώπων ἀγοραί, μεστὴ δὲ θάλασσα

καὶ λιμένες· πάντη δὲ Διὸς κεχρήμεθα πάντες.

τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος εἰμέν. ὁ δ’ ἤπιος ἀνθρώποισι

δεξιὰ σημαίνει, λαοὺς δ’ ἐπὶ ἔργον ἐγείρει

μιμνήσκων βιότοιο, λέγει δ’ ὅτε βῶλος ἀρίστη

βουσί τε καὶ μακέλῃσι, λέγει δ’ ὅτε δεξιαὶ ὧραι

καὶ φυτὰ γυρῶσαι καὶ σπέρματα πάντα βαλέσθαι.

αὐτὸς γὰρ τά γε σήματ’ ἐν οὐρανῷ ἐστήριξεν

ἄστρα διακρίνας, ἐσκέψατο δ’ εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν

ἀστέρας οἵ κε μάλιστα τετυγμένα σημαίνοιεν

ἀνδράσιν ὡράων, ὄφρ’ ἔμπεδα πάντα φύωνται.

τῷ μιν ἀεὶ πρῶτόν τε καὶ ὕστατον ἱλάσκονται.

χαῖρε, πάτερ, μέγα θαῦμα, μέγ’ ἀνθρώποισιν ὄνειαρ,

αὐτὸς καὶ προτέρη γενεή. χαίροιτε δὲ Μοῦσαι

μειλίχιαι μάλα πᾶσαι. ἐμοί γε μὲν ἀστέρας εἰπεῖν

ᾗ θέμις εὐχομένῳ τεκμήρατε πᾶσαν ἀοιδήν.

‘Out of Zeus’: he begins out of Zeus because he endeavors to give an account of celestial phenomena, and Zeus is the king and father of everything. It is not pertinent at present to investigate the substance of Zeus, whether it is a body or a thing,1 and whether it is a soul or a mind, as being some greater power, supracelestial and unmoved, after its own manner. For Aratus used the name of Zeus in keeping with the shared belief of all people, in the sense of the king of everything. It is one of two things: either (Aratus is showing) that the providence of the divine applies throughout the cosmos, and that he4 moves through the whole cosmos, holding it together; or he is speaking enigmatically5 in reference to (Zeus’) bynames (epōnymiai), which were coined on the basis of each activity, since the ancients attributed (all) good events to a god, as, e.g., they say he is Ancestor (genetōr), ‘of the fraternity’ (phratrios), ‘of the tribe’ (hom*ognios), ‘of fellowship’ (hetaireios), ‘of friendship’ (philios), ‘of suppliants’ (hikesios), ‘of strangers’ (xenios), ‘of the marketplace’ (agoraios), ‘of councils’ (boulaios), Thunderer (brontaios), and the like. I wilt let thy father explain the rest.” Athena explained as Zidine was calm despite being a Berserker.

V. PAN & CADMUS RECOVER THE LIGHTNING-BOLTS & SINEWS OF ZEUS

"But Typhoeus was no longer to hold the gear of Zeus. For now Zeus Kronides along with Archer Eros (Love) left the circling pole, and met roving Kadmos (Cadmus) amid the mountains on his wandering search [i.e. Kadmos was searching for his abducted sister Europa]; then he devised with him an ingenious plan, and entwined the deadly threads of Moira's (Fate's) spindle for Typhon. And goat-herd Pan who went with him gave Zeus Almighty cattle and sheep and rows of horned goats. Then he built a hut with mats of wattled reeds and fixed it on the ground: he put on Kadmos a shepherd's dress, so that no one could know him in disguise, when he had clad his sham herdsman in this make-believe costume; he gave clever Kadmos the deceiving pan-pipes, part of the plot to pilot Typhaon to his death.

Now Zeus called the counterfeit herdsman and the winged controller of generation [Eros], and disclosed this one common plan: ‘Look alive, Kadmos, pipe away and there shall be fine weather in heaven! Delay, and Olympos is scourged! For Typhoeus is armed with my heavenly weapons. Only the aegis-cape is left me; but what will my aegis do fighting with Typhon's thunderbolt? I fear old Kronos (Cronus) may laugh aloud, I am shy of the proud neck of my lordly adversary Iapetos. I fear Hellas even more, that mother of romances--what if one of that nation call Typhon Lord of Rain, or Highest, and Ruling in the Heights, defiling my name! Become a herdsman for one day-dawn; make a tune on your mindbefooling shepherd's pipes, and save the Shepherd of the Universe, that I may not hear the noise of Cloud-gathering Typhoeus, the thunders of a new imposter Zeus, that I may stop his battling with lightnings and volleying with thunderbolts! If the blood of Zeus is in you, and the breed of Inakhian Io, bewitch Typhon's wits by the sovereign remedy of your guileful pipes and their tune! I will give you ample recompense for your service, two gifts: I will make you saviour of the world's harmony, and the husband of the Lady Harmonia. You also, Eros, primeval founder of fecund marriage, bend your bow, and the universe is no longer adrift. If all things come from you, friendly shepherd of life, draw one shot more and save all things. As fiery god, arm yourself against Typhon, and by your help let the fiery thunderbolts return to my hand. All-vanquisher, strike one with your fire, and may your charmed shot catch one whom Kronion did not defeat; and may he have madness from the mind-bewitching tune of Kadmos, as much as I had passion for Europa's embrace.’

With these words Zeus passed away in the shape of a horned bull, from which the Tauros Mountain [in Anatolia] takes its name. But Kadmos tuned up the deceitful notes of his harmonious reeds, as he reclined under a neighbouring tree in the pasturing woodland; wearing the country garb of a real herdsman, he sent the deluding tune to Typhaon's ears, puffing his cheeks to blow the soft breath. The Gigante loved music, and when he heard this delusive melody, he leapt up and dragged along his viperish feet; he left in a cave the flaming weapons of Zeus with Mother Gaia (Gaea, the Earth) to keep them, and followed the notes to seek the neighbouring tune of the pipes which delighted his soul. There he was seen by Kadmos near the bushes, who was sore afraid and hid in a cleft of the rock. But the monster Typhoeus with head high in air saw him trying to hide himself, and beckoned with voiceless signs, nor did he understand the trick in this beautiful music; then face to face with the shepherds, he held out one right hand, not seeing the net of destruction, and with his middle face, blood-red and human in shape, he laughed aloud and burst into empty boasts:

‘Why do you fear me, goatherd? Why do you cover your eyes with your hand? A fine feat I should think it to pursue a mortal man, after Kronion! A fine feat to carry off pan-pipes along with the lightning! What have reeds to do with flaming thunderbolts? Keep your pipes alone, since Typhoeus possesses another kind of organ, the Olympian, which plays by itself! There sits Zeus, without his clouds, hands unrumbling, none of his usual noise--he could do with your pipes. Let him have your handful of reeds to play. I don't join worthless reeds to other reeds in a row and wave them about, but I roll up clouds upon clouds into a lump, and discharge a bang all at once with rumblings all over the sky!

‘Let's have a friendly match, if you like. Come on, you make music and sound your reedy tune, I will crash my thundery tune. You puff out your cheek all swollen with wind, and blow with your lips, but Boreas (the North Wind) is my blower, and my thunderbolts boom when his breath flogs them. Drover, I will pay you for your pipes: for when I shall hold the sceptre instead of Zeus, and drive the heavenly throne, you shall come with me; leave the hearth and I will bring you to heaven pipes and all, with your flock too if you like, you shall not be parted from your herd. I'll settle your goats over the backbone of Aigokeros [the constellation Capricorn], one of the same breed; or near the Charioteer [constellation Auriga], who pushes the shining Olenian She-Goat [Amaltheia, a star group on the arm of Auriga] in Olympos [i.e. across the heavens] with his sparkling arm. I'll put your cattle beside the rainy Bull's [constellation Taurus] broad shoulder and make them stars rising in Olympos, or near the dewy turning-point [i.e. the spring equinox] where Selene's (the Moon) cattle send out a windy moo from their life-warming throats. You will not want your little hut. Instead of your bushes, let your flock go flashing with the ethereal Kids [stars within the constellation Auriga]: I will make them another crib, to shine beside the Asses' crib [constellation Cancer] and as good as theirs. Be a star yourself instead of a drover, where the Ox-Driver [constellation Bootes] is seen; wield a starry goad yourself, and drive the Bear's Lycaonian wain [constellation Ursa Major]. Happy shepherd, be heavenly Typhon's guest at table: tune up on earth today, tomorrow in heaven! You shall have ample recompense for your song: I will establish your face in the starlit circle of heaven, and join your tuneful pipes to the heavenly Harp. If you like, I will give you Athena for your holy bride: if you do not care for Gray-eyes [Athena], take Leto, or Kharis (Charis), or Kythereia (Cytherea) [Aphrodite], or Artemis, or Hebe to wife. Only don't ask me for my Hera's bed. If you have a horse-master brother who can manage a team, let him take Helios's (the Sun's) fiery four-in-hand. If you want to wield the goatskin cape of Zeus [the aegis], being a goatherd, I will make you a present of that too. I mean to march into Olympos caring nothing for Zeus unarmed; and what could Athena do to me with her armour?--a female! Strike up "See the Conquering Typhon comes," you herdsman! Sing the new lawful sovereign of Olympos in me, bearing the sceptre of Zeus and his robe of lightning!’

He spoke, and Adrasteia [Nemesis goddess of retribution] took note of his words thus far. But when Kadmos understood that the son of Gaia (the Earth) had been carried by Moira's (Fate's) thread into his hunting-net, a willing captive, struck by the delightful sting of those soul-delighting reeds, unsmiling he uttered this artful speech: ‘You liked the little tune of my pipes, when you heard it, what would you do when I strike out a humn of victory on the harp of seven strings, to honour your throne? . . . But if ever I find again the swelling sinews [i.e. which Typhon had torn from Zeus' limbs depriving him of his strength], I will strike up a tune with my quills [i.e. a lyre strung with the sinews of Zeus] to bewitch all the trees and the mountains and the temper of wild beasts [and call the rest of the universe in chaos during Typhon's war back into order] . . . But when you strike Zeus and the gods with your thunderbolt, do leave only the Archer [Apollon], that while Typhon feasts at his table, I and Phoibos (Phoebus) may have a match, and see which will beat which in celebrating mighty Typhon! And do not kill the dancing Pierides [Mousai (Muses)], that they may weave the women's lay harmonious with our manly song when Phoibos or your shepherd leads the merry dance!’

He finished; and Typhoeus bowed his flashing eyebrows and shook his locks: every hair belched viper-poison and drenched the hills. Quick he returned to his cave, took up and brought out the sinews of Zeus, and gave them to crafty Kadmos as the guest's gift; they had fallen on the ground in the battle with Typhaon.

The deceitful shepherd thanked him for the immortal gift; he handled the sinews carefully, as if they were to be strung on the harp, and hid them in a hole in the rock, kept safe for Zeus Giant-slayer. Then with pursed-up lips he let out a soft and gentle breath, pressing the reeds and stealing the notes, and sounded a tune more dainty than ever. Typhoeus pricked up all his many ears and listened to the melody, and knew nothing. The Gigante was bewitched, while the false shepherd whistled by his side, as if sounding the rout of the immortals with his pipes; but he was celebrating the soon-coming victory of Zeus, and singing the fate of Typhon to Typhon sitting by his side. So he excited him to frenzy even more; and . . . so Typhoeus yielded his whole soul to Kadmos for the melody to charm.

And so Kadmos Agenorides (Son of Agenor) remained there by the ankle of the pasturing woodland, drawing his lips to and fro along the tops of the pipes, as a pretended goatherd; but Zeus Kronides, unespied, uncaught, crept noiseless into the cave, and armed himself with his familiar fires a second time. And a cloud covered Kadmos beside his unseen rock, lest Typhoeus might learn this crafty plan, and the secret thief of the thunderbolts, and wise too late might kill the turncoat herdsman. But all the Gigante wanted was, to hear more and more of the mind-bewitching melody with its delicious thrill . . . so the monster, shaken by the breath of that deceitful tune, welcomed with delight the wound of the pipes which was his escort to death.

But now the shepherd's reed breathing melody fell silent, and a mantling shadow of cloud hid the piper as he cut off his tune. Typhoeus rushed head-in-air with the fury of battle into the cave's recesses, and searched with hurried madness for the wind-coursing thunderbolt, and found an empty cave!

V. TYPHOEUS STORMS ACROSS THE EARTH

"Too late he learnt the craft-devising schemes of Kronides [Zeus] and the subtle machinations of Kadmos: flinging the rocks about he leapt upon Olympos. While he dragged his crooked track with snaky foot, he spat out showers of poison from his throat; the mountain torrents were swollen, as the monster showered fountains from the viperish bristles of his high head; as he marched, the solid earth did sink, and the steady ground of Kilikia (Cilicia) shook to its foundations under those drakon-feet; the flanks of craggy Tauros crashed with a rumbling din, until the neighbouring Pamphylian hills danced with fear; the underground caverns boomed, the rocky headlands trembled, the hidden places shook, the shore slipt away as a thrust of his earthshaking foot loosened the sands.

Neither pasture nor wild beasts were spared. Rawravening bears made a meal for the jaws of Typhaon's bear-heads; tawny bodies of chest-bristling lions were swallowed by the gaping jaws of his own lion-heads; his snaky throats devoured the cold shapes of earthfed serpents; birds of the air, flying through untrodden space, there met neighbours to gulp them down their throats--he found the eagle in his home, and that was the food he relished most, because it is called the Bird of Zeus. He ate up the plowing ox, and had no pity when he saw the galled neck bloody from the yoke-straps. He made the rivers dust, as he drank the water after his meal, beating off the troops of Neiades from the river-beds . . .

The old shepherd, terrified to descry the manifold visage of this maddened monster, dropt his pipes and ran away; the goatherd, seeing the wide-scattered host of his arms, threw his reed flying to the winds; the hard-working plowman sprinkled not the new-scored ground with corn thrown behind him, nor covered it with earth, nor cut with earth-shaking iron the land furrowed already by Typhon's guiding hand, but let his oxen go loose. The earth's hollows were bared, as the monster's missile cleft it. He freed the liquid vein, and as the chasm opened, the lower channel bubbled up with flooding springs, pouring out the water from under the uncovered bosom of the ground, and rocks were thrown up, and falling from the air I n torrential showers were hidden in the sea, making the waters dry land: and the hurtling masses of earth rooted themselves firmly as the footings of new-made islands. Trees were levered up from the earth by the roots, and the fruit fell on the ground untimely; the fresh-flowering garden was laid waste, the rosy meadows withered; the West Wind (Zephyros) was beaten by the dry leaves of whirling cypresses. Phoibos [Apollon] sang a dirge in lamentable tones for his devastated iris, twining a sorrowful song, and lamenting far more bitterly than for his clusters of Amyklaian flowers, when the laurel by his side was struck. Pan in anguish uplifted his fallen pine; Grayeyes [Athena], remembering Moria [the sacred olive], groaned over her broken olive-tree, the Attic Nymphe who brought her a city. The Paphian [Aphrodite] also wept when her anemone was laid to dust, and mourned long over the fragrant tresses of flowercups from her rosebed laid in the dust, while she tore her hair. Deo [Demeter] mourned over the half-grown corn destroyed and no longer celebrated the harvest home. The Hadryas Nymphai (Hamadryad Nymphs) lamened the lost shade of their yearsmate trees . . .

While she spoke, Phaethon [Helios the Sun] had left the rounded sky . . . silent Nyx (Night) leapt up from earth . . . The immortals moved about the cloudless (River) Nile [i.e. where they hid from Typhoeus in the guise of animals], but Zeus Kronides on the brows of [Mount] Tauros (Taurus) awaited the light of toil-awakening Dawn.

VI. TYPHOEUS CHALLENGES ZEUS

"It was night. Sentinels stood in line around Olympos and the seven zones [of the stars], and as it were from the summit of towers came their nightly alarms; the calls of the stars in many tongues were carried all abroad, and Selene's (the Moon's) turning-mark received the creaking echo from Kronos' (Cronus') starting-point [i.e. the star Saturn--here the celestial watchword is passed from star to star through the seven zones of heaven to the lowest zone of the Moon]. Now the Horai (Horae, Seasons), guardians of the upper air, handmaids of Phaethon, and fortified the sky with a long string of covering clouds like a coronal. The stars had closed the Atlantean bar of the inviolable gates lest some stealthy troop should enter the heavens while the Blessed ones were away . . . Zeus was alone, when Nike (Victory) came to comfort him, scoring the high paths of the air with her shoe. She had the form of Leto; and while she armed her father, she made him a speech full of reproaches with guileful lips: ‘Lord Zeus! Stand up as champion of your own children! Let me never see Athene mingled with Typhon, she who knows not the way of a man with a maid! Make not a mother of the unmothered! Fight, brandish your lightning, the fiery spear of Olympos! Gather once more your clouds, lord of the rain! For the foundations of the steadfast universe are already shaking under Typhon's hands: the four blended elements are melted! Deo [Demeter] has renounced her harvests. Hebe has left her cup, Ares has thrown down his spear, Hermes has dropped his staff, Apollon has cast away his harp, and taken a swan's form, and flown off on the wing, leaving his winged arrows behind! Aphrodite, the goddess who brings wedlock to pass, has gone a wandering, and the universe is without seed. The bonds indissoluble of harmony are dissolved, leaving behind his generative arrows, the adorner of brides, he the all-mastering, the unmastered! And your fiery Hephaistos (Hephaestus) has left his favourite Lemnos, and dragging unruly knees, look how slowly he keeps his unsteady course! See a great miracle--I pity your Hera, though she hates me sure enough! What--is your begetter [Kronos] to come back into the assembly of the stars? May that never be, I pray! Even if I am called a Titenis (Titaness), I wish to see no Titan lords of Olympos, but you and your children. Take your lordly thunderbolt and champion chase Artemis . . .’

So she spoke: and Hypnos (Sleep) beating his shady wing sent all breathing nature to rest; but Kronion alone remained sleepless. Typhoeus stretched out his sluggish back and lay heavy upon his bed, covering his Mother Earth; she opened wide her bosom, and lurking lairs were hollowed out in a grinning chasm for the snaky heads which sank into the ground.

Helios the Sun appeared, and many-armed Typhoeus roared for the fray with all the tongues of all his throats, challenging mighty Zeus. That sonorous voice reached where the root-fixt bed of refluent Okeanos (Oceanus) surrounds the circle of the world and its four divided parts, girdling the whole earth coronet-wise with encircling band; as the monster spoke, that which answered the army of his voices, was not one concordant echo, but a babel of screaming sounds: when the monster arrayed him with all his manifold shapes, out rang the yowling of wolves, the roaring of lions, the grunting of boars, the lowing of cattle, the hissing of serpents, the bold yap of leopards, the jaws of rearing bears, the fury of gods. Then with his midmost man-shaped head the Gigante yelled out threats against Zeus: ‘Smash the house of Zeus, O my hands! Shake the foundations of the universe, and the blessed ones with it! Break the bar of Olympos, self-turning, divine! Drag down to earth the heavenly pillar, let Atlas be shaken and flee away, let him throw down the starry vault of Olympos and fear no more its circling course--for I will not permit a son of Earth to be bowed down with chafed shoulders, while he underprops the revolving compulsion of the sky! No, let him leave his endless burden to the other gods, and battle against the Blessed Ones! Let him break off rocks, and volley with those hard shots the starry vault which he once carried! Let the timid Horai (Seasons), Helios the Sun's handmaids, flee the heavens under the shower of mountains! Mix earth with sky, water with fire, sea with Olympos, in a litter of confusion!

‘I will compel the four Winds also to labour as my slaves; I lash Boreas the North Wind, I buffet Notos the South, I flog Euros the East; I will thrash Zephyros the West, with one hand I will mix night with day; Okeanos my brother shall bring his water to Olympos aloft with many-fountained throat, and rising above the five parallel circles he shall inundate the stars; then let the thirsty Bear [constellation Ursa] go wandering in the water with the Waggon's pole submerged!

‘Bellow, my bulls, shake the circle of the equator in the sky, break with your notched horns the horns of the fiery Bull [constellation Taurus], your own likeness! Let Selene the Moon's cattle change their watery road, fearing the heavybooming bellow of my heads! Let Typhaon's bear open wide his grim gaping jaws, and worry the Bear of Olympos! Let my lion face the heavenly Lion [constellation Leo], and drive him reluctant from the path of the Zodiac! Let the Waggon's Snake shiver at my serpents! Little do I care for Zeus, with only a few lightnings to arm him! Ah, but my swords are the maddened waves of the sea, the tors of the land, the island glens; my shields are the hills, the cliffs are my breastplates unbreakable, my halberts are the rocks, and the rivers which will quench the contemptible thunderbolt. I will keep the chains of Iapetos (Iapetus) for Poseidon; and the soaring round Kaukasos (Caucasus), another and better eagle shall tear the bleeding liver, growing for ever anew, of Hephaistos the fiery: since fire was the for which Prometheus has been suffering the ravages of his self-growing liver. I will take a shape the counterpart of the sons [the Aloadai giants] of Iphimedeia, and I will shut up the intriguing son of Maia [Hermes] in a brazen jar, prisoned with galling bonds, that people may say, "Hermes freed Ares from prison, and he was put in prison himself!" Let Artemis break the untouched seal of her maidenhood, and become enforced consort of [the giant] Orion; Leto shall spread her old bedding for [the giant] Tityos, dragged to wedlock by force. I will strip murderous Ares of his ragged bucklers, I will bind the lord of battle, and carry him off, and make the Killer the Gentle; I will carry off Pallas [Athena] and join her to [the giant] Ephialtes, married at last; that I may see Ares a slave, and Athena a mother. ‘Kronion [Zeus] also shall lift the spinning heavens of Atlas, and bear the load on weary shoulders--there shall he stand, and hear the song at my wedding, and hide his jealousy when I shall be Hera's bridegroom. Torches shall not lack at my wedding. Bright lightning shall come of itself to be selfmade torch of the bride-chamber; Phaethon [Helios the Sun] himself instead of pine-brands, kindled at the light of his own flames, shall put his radiance at the service of Typhoeus the Bridegroom; the stars shall sprinkle their bridal sparks over Olympos as lamps to my loves, the stars lights of evening! My servant Selene (the Moon), Endymion's bed-fellow, along with Aphrodite the friend of marriage, shall lay my bed; and if I want a bath, I will bathe in the waters of starry Eridanos. Come now, ye circling Horai (Seasons)! You prepared the bed of Zeus, build now the bower of love for Typhoeus; you also, Leto, Athenaia, Paphian [Aphrodite], Kharis (Charis), Artemis, Hebe, bring up from Okeanos his kindred water for Typhon the Bridegroom! And at the banquet of my table, with bridal quill Apollon my menial shall celebrate Typhoeus instead of Zeus.

‘I long for no stranger's demesne; for Ouranos (Uranus, the Sky) is my brother, a son of Gaia (Gaea, the Earth) like myself; the star-dappled heaven which I shall rule, the heaven which I shall live in, comes to me through my mother. And cannibal Kronos (Cronus) I will drag up once more to the light, another brother, to help me in my task, out of the underground abyss; I will break those constraining chains, and bring back the Titanes (Titans) to heaven, and settle under the same roof in the sky the Kyklopes (Cyclopes), sons of Gaia. I will make more weapons of fire; for I need many thunderbolts, because I have two hundred hands to fight with, not only a pair like Kronides [Zeus]. I will forge a newer and better brand of lightning, with more fire and flashes. I will build another heaven up aloft, the eight, broader and higher than the rest, and furnish it with brighter stars; for the vault which we see so close beside us is not enough to cover the whole of Typhon. And after those girl children and the male progeny of prolific Zeus, I will beget another multiparous generation of new Blessed Ones with multitudinous necks. I will not leave the company of the stars useless and unwedded, but I will join male to female, that the winged Virgin [constellation Virgo] may sleep with the Oxherd [Bootes] and breed me slave-children.’

So he shouted; Kronides [Zeus] heard, and laughed aloud.

VII. TYPHOEUS BATTLES ZEUS

"Then the din of battle resounded on both sides. Eris (Strife) was Typhon's escort in the mellay, Nike (Victory) led Zeus into battle. No herds of cattle were the cause of that struggle, no flocks of sheep, this was no quarrel for a beautiful woman, no fray for a petty town: heaven itself was the stake in the fight, the sceptre and throne of Zeus lay on the knees of Nike (Victory) as the prize of combat.

Zeus flogging the clouds beat a thundering roar in the sky and trumpeted Enyo's [the war-goddess'] call, then fitted clouds upon his chest as a protection against the Gigante's missiles. Nor was Typhoeus silent: his bull-heads were self-sounding trumpets for him, sending forth a bellow that made Olympos rattle again; his serpents intermingled whistled for Ares' pipes. He fortified the ranks of his high-clambering limbs, shielding mighty rock with rock until the cliffs made an unbroken wall of battlements, as he set crag by crag uprooted in along line. It looked like an army preparing for battle; for side by side bluff pressed hard on bluff, tor upon tor, ledge upon ledge, and high in the clouds one tortuous ridge pushed another; rugged hills ere Typhon's helmets, and his heads were hidden in their beetling steeps. In that battle, the Gigante indeed one body, but many necks, but legions of arms innumerable, lions' jaws with well-sharpened fangs, hairbush of vipers mounting over the stars. Trees were doubled up by Typhaon's hands and thrown against Kronides, and other fine leafy growths of earth, but all these Zeus unwilling burnt to dust with one spark of thunderbolt cast in a heavy throw. Many an elm was hurled against Zeus with firs coeval, and enormous plane-trees and volleys of white poplar; many a pit was broken in earth's flank. “So, everyone is gone. Let’s end this… Typhon!” Zidine said as Typhon looked hardly afraid, only for him to fire thunderbolt after thunderbolt as even Helena herself felt the power being thrown around as thunderstorms could be heard around the boundless world and earth itself. The whole circuit of the universe with its four sides was buffeted. The four Winds, allied with Kronion, raised in their air columns of sombre dust; they swelled the arching waves, they flogged the sea until Sikelia (Sicily) quaked; the Pelorid shores resounded and the ridges of Aitna (Etna), the Lilybaian rocks bellowed prophetic things to come, the Pakhynian (Pachynian) promontory crashed under the western wave. Near the Bear, the Nymphe of Athos wailed about her Thrakian glen, the forest of Makedon (Macedonia) roared on the Pierian ridge; the foundations of the east were shaken, there was crashing in the fragrant valleys of Assyrian Libanos (Lebanon). Aye, and from Typhaon's hands were showered volleys against the unwearied thunderbolts of Zeus. Some shots went past Selene's (the Moon's) car, and scored through the invisible footprints of her moving bulls; others whirling through the air with sharp whiz, the Winds blew away by counterblast. Many a stray shot from the invulnerable thunderbolts of Zeus fell into the welcoming hand of Poseidon, unsparing of his earthpiercing trident's point; old Nereus brought the brine-soaked bolts to the ford of the Kronion Sea, and dedicated them as an offering to Zeus.

Now Zeus armed the two grim sons of Enyalios [Ares], his own grandsons, Phobos (Rout) and Deimos (Terror) his servant, the inseparable guardsmen of the sky: Phobos he set up with the lightning, Deimos he made strong with the thunderbolt, terrifying Typhon. Nike (Victory) lifted her shield and held it before Zeus: Enyo [the war-goddess] countered with a shout, and Ares made a din. Zeus breasting the tempests with his aigis-breastplate swooped down from the air on high, seated in Khronos's (Time's) chariot with four winged steeds, for the horses that drew Kronion were the team of the Winds. “COME!” Zidine screamed in his Berserker Mode, having now fully activated the true power of his 8th Lightning of Elding, summoning the Aegis fully. Now he battled with lightnings, now with Levin; now he attacked with thunders, now poured out petrified masses of frozen hail in volleying showers. Waterspouts burst thick upon the Gigante's head with sharp blows, and hands were cut off from the monster by the frozen volleys of the air as by a knife. One hand rolled in the dust, struck off by the icy cut of the hail; it did not drop the crag which it held, but fought on even while it fell, and shot rolling over the ground in self-propelled leaps, a hand gone mad! As if it still wished to strike the vault of Olympos. “Die, boy.” Zidine said, brandishing his bolt which could burn the axle of Creation. “What is this growth?!” Typhon thought with slight fear. Then the sovereign of the heavens brandished aloft his fiery bolt, and passing from the left wing of the battle to the right, fought manifest on high. The many-armed monster hastened to the water torrents; he entwined his rows of fingers into a living mat, and hollowing his capacious palms, he lifted from the midst of the wintry rivers their waters as it came pouring down from the mountains, and threw these detached parcels of the streams against the lightning. But the ethereal flame blazed with livelier sparks through the water of the torrents which struck it; the thirsty water boiled and steamed, and its liquid essence dried up in the red hot mass. Yes--to quench the ethereal fire was the bold Gigante's plan, poor fool! He knew not that the fire-flaming thunderbolts and lightnings are the offspring of the clouds from whence the rain-showers come! “You can never harm me, wretched one!” Zidine screamed as his roar caused huge natural disasters on a universal scale as even the Olympus was being shattered. Again, he cut straight off sections of the torrent-beds, and designed to crush the breast of Zeus which no iron can wound; the mass of rock came hurtling at Zeus, but Zeus blew a light puff from the edge of his lips, and that gentle breath turned the whirling rock aside with all its towering crags. The monster with his hand broke off a rounded promontory from an island, and rising for the attack circled it round his head again and again, and cast it at the invincible face of Zeus; then Zeus moved his head aside, and dodged the jagged rock which came at him; but Typhon hit the lightning as it passed on its hot zigzag path, and at once the rock was white-patched at the tip and blackened with smoke--there was no mistake about it. A third rock he cast; but Kronion caught it in full career with the flat of his infinite open hand, and by a playful turn of the wrist sent it back like a bouncing ball to Typhon. The crag returned with many an airy twist along its homeward path, and of itself shot the shooter. A fourth shot he sent, higher than before: the rock touched the tassel-tips of the aigis-cape, and split asunder. Another he let fly: storm-swift the rock flew, but a thunderbolt struck it, and half-consumed, it blazed. The crags could not pierce the raincloud; but the stricken hills were broken to pieces by the rainclouds. Thus impartial Enyo held equal balance between the two sides, between Zeus and Typhon, while the thunderbolts with booming shots revel like dancers in the sky. Kronides fought fully armed: in the fray, the thunder was his shield, the cloud his breastplate, he cast the lightning for a spear; Zeus let fly his thunderbolts from the air, his arrows barbed with fire. For already from the underground abyss a dry vapour diffused around rose from the earth on high, and compressed within the cloud was stifled in the fiery gullet, heating the pregnant cloud. For the lurking flame crushed within rushed about struggling to find a passage through; over the smoke the fire-breeding clouds rumble in their agony seeking the middle path; the fire dares not go upwards; for the lightning leaping up is kept back by the moist air bathed in rainy drops, which condenses the seething cloud above, but the lower part is parched and gapes and the fire runs through with a bound. As the female stone is struck by the male stone, one stone on another brings lame to birth, while crushed and beaten it produces from itself a shower of sparks: so the heavenly fire is kindled in clouds and murk crushed and beaten, but from earthly smoke, which is naturally thin, the winds are brought forth. There is another floating vapour, drawn form the waters, which the sun shining full on them with fiery rays milks out and draws up dewy through the boiling track of air. This thickens and produces the cloudy veil; then shaking the thick mass by means of the thinner vapour, it dissolves the fine cloud again into a fall of rain, and returns to its natural condition of water. Such is the character of the fiery clouds, with their twin birth of lightnings and thunders together.

Zeus the father fought on: raised and hurled his familiar fire against his adversary, piercing his lions, and sending a fiery whirlwind from heaven to strike the battalion of innumerable necks with their babel of tongues. Zeus cast his bolt, and one blaze burnt the monster's endless hands, one blaze consumed his numberless shoulders and the speckled tribes of his serpents; heaven's blades cut off those countless heads; a writhing comet met him front to front discharging a thick bush of sparks, and consumed the monster's hair. “WRETCHED BITCH!” Typhon screamed as his heads were ablaze, the hair caught fire; with heaven's sparks silence sealed the hissing tresses, the serpents shrivelled up, and in their throats the poison-spitting drops were dried. The Gigante fought on: his eyes were burnt to ashes in the murky smoke, his cheeks were whitened with hoar-frost, his faces beaten with showers of snow. He suffered the fourfold compulsion of the four Winds. For if he turned flickering eyes to the sunrise, he received the fiery battle of neighbouring Euros (the East Wind). If he gazed towards the stormy clime of the Arkadian Bear [constellation Ursa Major in the north], he was beaten by the chilly frost of wintry whirlwinds. If he shunned the cold blast of snow-beaten Boreas (the North Wind), he was shaken by the volleys of wet and hot together. If he looked to the sunset, opposite to the dawn of the grim east, he shivered before Enyo and her western tempests when he heard the noise of Zephyros (the West Wind) cracking his spring-time lash; and Notos (the South Wind), that hot wind, round about the southern foot of Aigokeros (Aegocerus) [constellation Capricorn in the south] flogged the aerial vaults, leading against Typhon a glowing blaze with steamy heat. If again Rainy Zeus poured down a watery torrent, Typhoeus bathed all his body in trouble-soothing showers, and refreshed his benumbed limbs after the stifling thunderbolts. “GAEA!” Typhon screamed as now his thunder bolts would Jove wide scatter, but he feared the flames, unnumbered, sacred ether might ignite and burn the axle of the universe: and he remembered in the scroll of fate, there is a time appointed when the sea and earth and Heavens shall melt, and fire destroy the universe of mighty labour wrought. Such weapons by the skill of Cyclops forged, for different punishment he laid aside—for straightway he preferred to overwhelm the mortal race beneath deep waves and storms from every raining sky. As is said in Hesiod’s Theogony lines 630-820: "The hot vapour lapped round the Titenes Khthonios (Earthly): flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air (aither): the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized air (khaos): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth (Gaia) and wide Heaven (Ouranos) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth (Gaia) were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven (Ouranos) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war... And great Olympos was shaken under the immortal feet of the master as he moved, and the earth groaned beneath him, and the heat and blaze from both of them was on the dark-faced sea, from the thunder and lightning of Zeus and from the flame of the monster, from his blazing bolts and from the scorch and breath of his stormwinds, and all the ground and the sky and the sea boiled, and towering waves were tossing and beating all up and down the promontories in the wind of these immortals, and a great shaking of the earth. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Okeanos' streams and the unfruitful sea and even in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Book 8, Fable 2-3 and lines 229-264: “The everlasting universe contains four elementary bodies. Two of these, namely, earth and water, are heavy, and are borne downwards by their weight; and as many are devoid of weight, and air, and fire still purer than air, nothing pressing them, seek the higher regions. Although these are separated in space, yet all things are made from them, and are resolved into them. Both the earth dissolving distils into flowing water; the water, too, evaporating, departs in the breezes and the air; its weight being removed again, the most subtle air shoots upwards into the fires of the æther on high. Thence do they return back again, and the same order is unravelled; for fire becoming gross, passes into dense air; this changes into water, and earth is formed of the water made dense. Nor does its own form remain to each; and nature, the renewer of all things, re-forms one shape from another. And, believe me, in this universe so vast, nothing perishes; but it varies and changes its appearance; and to begin to be something different from what it was before, is called being born; and to cease to be the same thing, is to be said to die. Whereas, perhaps, those things are transferred hither, and these things thither; yet, in the whole, all things ever exist." as Helena was horrified, realising her plan would fail. Now as the son was scourged with frozen volleys of jagged hailstones, his mother dry Gaia (the Earth) was beaten too; and seeing the stone bullets and icy points embedded in the Gigante's flesh, the witness of his fate, she prayed to Titan Helios with submissive voice: she begged of him one red hot ray, that with its heating fire she might melt the petrified water of Zeus, by pouring his kindred radiance over frozen Typhon. She herself melted along with his bruised body; and when she saw his legion of highclambering hands burnt all round, she besought one of the tempestuous winter's blasts to come for one morning, that he might quench Typhon's overpowering thirst by his cool breezes as Zidine used Mjolnir at its full strength, crushing Typhon. Then Kronion inclined the equally balanced beam of the fight. But Gaia (the Earth) his mother had thrown off her veil of forests with her hand, and just then was grieving to behold Typhaon's smoking heads. While his faces were shrivelling, the Gigante's knees gave way beneath him; the trumpet of Zeus brayed, foretelling victory with a roll of thunder; down fell Typhoeus's high-uplifted frame, drunk with the fiery bolt from heaven, stricken with a war-wound of something more than steel, and lay with his back upon Gaia (the Earth) his mother, stretching his snaky limbs in the dust and belching flame.

VIII. ZEUS GLOATS OVER THE VANQUISHED TYPHOEUS

"Kronides [Zeus] laughed aloud, and taunted him like this in a flood of words from his mocking throat: ‘A fine ally has old Kronos found in you, Typhoeus! Gaia (the Earth) could scarcely bring forth that great son for Iapetos! A jolly champion of Titanes! The thunderbolts of Zeus soon lost their power against you, as I see! How long are you going to wait before taking up your quarters in the inaccessible heavens, you sceptred imposter? The throne of Olympos awaits you: accept the robes and sceptre of Zeus, God-defying Typhoeus! Bring back [the Titan] Astraios to heaven; if you wish, let [the Titanes] Eurynome and Ophion return to the sky, and Kronos (Cronus) in the train of that pair! When you enter the dappleback vault of the highranging stars, let crafty Prometheus leave his chains, and come with you; the bold bird who makes hearty meals off that rejuvenescent liver shall show him the way to heaven. What did you want to gain by your riot, but to see Zeus and Earthshaker [Poseidon] footmen behind your throne? Well, here you have Zeus helpless, no longer sceptre-bearer of Olympos, Zeus stript of his thunders and his clouds, holding up no longer the lightning's fire divine or the familiar thunderbolt, but a torch for Typhaon's bower, groom of the chamber to Hera the bride of your spear, whom he eyes with wrath, jealous of your bed: here you have Earthshaker with him, torn from the sea for a new place instead of the deep as waiter at your table, not trident in hand but a cup for you if you are thirsty! Here you have Ares for a menial, Apollon is your lackey! Send round Maia's son [Hermes], King's Messenger, to announce to the Titanes your triumph and your glory in the skies. But leave your smith Hephaistos to his regular work in Lemnos, and he can make a necklace to adorn your newly wedded bride, a real work of art, in dazzling colours, or a fine pair of brilliant shoes for your wife's feet to delight her, or he can build another Olympian throne of shining gold, that your golden-throned Hera may laugh because she has a better thrown than yours! And when you have the underground Kyklopes (Cyclopes) domiciled in Olympos, make a new spark for an improved thunderbolt. As for Eros (Love), who bewitched your mind by delusive hopes of victory, chain him with golden Aphrodite in chains of gold, and clamp with chains of bronze Ares the governor or iron!” Typhon spake to which Zidine swiftly said “f*ck thee!” as he then stated and gloated “the lightnings try to escape, and will now abide Enyo! How was it you could not escape a harmless little flash of lightning? How was it with all those innumerable ears you were afraid to hear a little rainy thud of thunder? Who made you so big a coward? Where are your weapons? Where are your puppyheads? Where are those gaping lions, where is the heavy bellowing of your throats like a rumbling earthquake? Where is the far-flung poison of your snaky mane? Do not you hiss any more with that coronet of serpentine bristles? Where are the bellowings of your bull-mouths? Where are your hands and their volleys of precipitous crags? Do you flog no longer the mazy circles of the stars? Do the jutting tusks of your boards no longer whiten their chins, wet with a frill of foamy drippings? Come now, where are the bristling grinning jaws of the mad bear?’

IX. ZEUS BURIES TYPHOEUS BENEATH MOUNT ETNA

"[Zeus speaks:] ‘Son of Gaia (Earth), give place to the sons of heaven! For I with one hand have vanquished your hands, two hundred strong. Let three-headland Sikelia (Sicily) receive Typhon whole and entire, let her crush him all about under her steep and lofty hills, with the hair of his hundred heads miserably bedabbled in dust. Nevertheless, if you did have an over-violent mind, if you did assault Olympos itself in your impracticable ambitions, I will build you a cenotaph, presumptuous wretch, and I will engrave on your empty tomb, this last message: "This is the barrow of Typhoeus, son of Gaia (the Earth), who once lashed the sky with stones, and the fire of heaven burnt him up."’

Thus he mocked the half-living corpse of the son of Gaia. Then Kilikian Tauros [Cicilian Mount Taurus] brayed a victorious noise on his stony trumpet for Zeus Almighty, while Kydnos danced zigzag on his watery feet, crying Euoi! In rolling roar for the victory of Zeus, [the river] Kydnos (Cydnus) visible in the midst, as he poured the flood upon Tarsos (Tarsus) which had been there ever since he had been there himself. But Gaia tore her rocky tunic and lay there grieving; instead of the shears of mourning, she let the winds beat her breast and shear off a coppice for a curl; so she cut the tresses from her forest-covered head as in the month of leaf-shedding, she tore gullies in her cheeks; Gaia (the Earth) wailed, as her river-tears rolled echoing through the swollen torrents of the hills. The gales eddying from Typhaon's limbs lash the waves, hurrying to engulf the ships and riding down the sheltered clam. Not only the surges they invade; but often over the land sweeps a storm of dust, and overwhelms the crops growing firm and upright upon the fields.

Then Physis (Nature), who governs the universe and recreates its substance, closed up the gaping rents in earth's broken surface, and sealed once more with the bond of indivisible joinery those island cliffs which had been rent from their bed as Mjolnir remained, binding Typhon’s hundred heads whilst using the weight of the universe . . . Zeus Kronides . . . swiftly turned his golden chariot toward the round of the ethereal stars, while Nike by his side drove her father's team with the heavenly whip. So the god came once more to the sky; and to receive him the stately Horai (Seasons) threw open the heavenly gates, and crowned the heavens. With Zeus victorious, the other gods came home to Olympos, in their own form come again, for they put off the winged shapes which they had taken on. Athena came into heaven unarmed, in dainty robes with Ares turned Komos (Comus, Revelry), and Nike (Victory) for Melos (Song); and Themis (Order) displayed to dumbfounded Gaia (the Earth), mother of the Gigantes (Giants), the spoils of the Gigante destroyed, an awful warning for the future, and hung them up high in the vestibule of Olympos." and he was of such prodigious bulk that he out-topped all the mountains, and his head often brushed the stars as Mjolnir became a mountain of non-existence, finally destroying Typhon, the creature who could perhaps end the universe. “Farewell.” Zidine coldly said as he bashed the mountain, crushing Typhon’s very soul and concept. “RELEASE PANDORA’S BOX!” Helena screamed, to which she smiled, realising everything was going to plan, even if Typhon and Gaea died.

With that, Zidine, heavily injured, used Mjolnir’s full power to heal himself and then teleported himself over to Abram.

The present

“Let us go to Hesperia…” Zidine spake as Abram looked down. “There’s something I must tell you. I suggest we take a month off… so the truth can consume you well and good.” Abram said as Zidine glanced at him, teleporting Sköll (Old Norse: Skǫll, "Treachery" or "Mockery") and Hati Hróðvitnisson over to himself, turned them into goats with his thoughts. “What?!” Abram asked with clear shock, if not a fraction of disdain sprinkled within his voice.

"Thor has two goats, by name Tangnjost and Tangrisner, and a chariot, wherein he drives. The goats draw the chariot; wherefore he is called Oku-Thor." In the Prose Edda's Gylfa*ginning - "Thor tarried there overnight; and in the interval before day he rose up and clothed himself, took the hammer Mjöllnir, swung it up, and hallowed the goat-hides; straightway the he-goats rose up, and then one of them was lame in a hind leg. Thor discovered this, and declared that the husbandman or his household could not have dealt wisely with the bones of the goat: be knew that the thighbone was broken.” Zidine asked as he was taken upon a chariot. “To Greece we go… Hesperia is ours for the taking soon.” Abram said as they flew. Unbeknownst to them, Helena, their mother of blood, watched them from below. In a day, Zidine and Abram flew into Greece and upon riding there, he saw an old man who had a very shaggy beard and looked as ugly as sin, whilst also seeing a statue of a man who was heavily clad and well-built. “Who is that?!” Abram as the elder man smiled at Zidine. “Thank you for saving me. I will take him. Speak to the statue and all wilt be revealed.” The old man said kindly, as there were several burn marks on his clothing, arms, legs, hands and face, taking Abram into the Acropolis.

The Chat with the Man Long Since Gone[]

The statue that Zidine once saw became animated. “Zidine?” The statue spoke to his horror, immediately recognising the voice, did he. “Father?” Zidine asked as the sun shone on the two, for King Helios stood over his dear boy and climbed down. “Zidine, how are you?” King Helios asked as he looked deeply saddened, his feelings ruminating with deep confusion. “Mother betrayed me and hath-!” Zidine was about to say only for Helios to smile. “I know. She broke our vow when married. There is more I must give, boy. What was at the very beginning cannot be explained or understood; it can only be spoken of indirectly because there is no way to comprehend something in which its points of differentiation have yet to be expressed. It is called the Beginning Which Cannot Be Spoken (Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή). It is not created; it did not come to be; it has always been. It is there before anything else; it is there at the beginning; it is now and will always be. Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς), the founder of Mysteries (Τελετάρχης), tells us that within this undifferentiated mixture are Earth and Water and it is from the dance of these two that everything which is comes to be. For Ageless (ἀγήραος) Time (Χρόνος) was moved by Necessity (Ἀνάγκη) and gave birth to Aithír (Αἰθήρ) and a limitless chasm (χάσμα) which extended in every direction, and everything was in tumult. In the Aithír, Time formed a silvery egg (ὠεόν or ᾠόν), the offspring of Aithír and Kháos (Χάος). And the egg began to move in an enormous and wondrous circle and from the egg Phánis (Φάνης) emerged, and as he was born, the Aithír and the Chasm were torn apart (ἐρράγη). Behold the son of Aithír! The First-Born (Πρωτογόνος)! The Shining One (Φαέθων)! Who by his nature illumines everything and was the first to appear in the Aithír! Witness his four eyes looking everywhere and marvel at his four horns! Behold his golden wings which flutter all about! He bellows like a massive bull and roars like a lion! He is Irikæpaios (Ἠριϰεπαῖος), both male and female , who harbors in his heart blind and swift Ǽrohs (Ἔρως)! He is Mítis (Μῆτις), the progenitor of the Gods, who call him the Revealer and First-born! He is the one with the mighty voice (Βρόμιος); he is all-seeing (πανόπτης) Zefs (Ζεύς)! He can be seen only by his daughter, but his effulgent light shining in the Aithír draws wonder for those who behold it, illuminating the world with great brilliance. Now Phánis caused many things to occur. He built an everlasting dwelling for the Immortal Gods. He brought forth the Moon, which Gods call Sælíni (Σελήνη) and mortals call Míni (Μήνη), with mountains, cities, and mansions. And for the ephemeral beings he made a world separate from the Immortals], with natural laws and a sun as their lord , neither too cold nor too hot, but appropriate for their needs. These things he, Irikæpaios the first king, made from his seat in the misty darkness of the Cave (Ἄντρον) of his daughter Nyx (Νύξ). Oh glorious Phánis! You are Justice (Δικαιοσύνη), Prudence (Σωφροσύνη), and Truth (Ἐπιστήμη), begotten of Night who shines with stars (ἀστεροφεγγής)! And thus did he divide the world between Gods and mortals. Nyx, the nurse of the Gods, made obvious those who were previously concealed: she gave birth to Yaia (Γαῖα), whose name means “earth,” and to Ouranós (Οὐρανός), the limits of the mind (ὅρια νοός), whose name means “sky,” and she gave the scepter of Phánis to Ouranós and thereby gave him the kingship. Ouranós and Yaia united and this is the first marriage. Now the royal couple produced children. Yaia gave birth to the three Cyclopes (Κύκλωπες) and the three giant Hundred-Handers (Ἑκατόγχειρες), but these were an unruly bunch and Ouranós cast them into the bowels of the earth (Τάρταρος), for he had received an oracle that his own children would overthrow him. But when Ouranós imprisoned her sons, Yaia was greatly distressed, so she then gave birth to seven lovely daughters and seven kingly sons, indeed, the great Titánæs (Τιτᾶνες) who are the powers of the natural world, they who drag or stretch. The seven Titanic daughters are law-giving (θεμιστοσύνη) Thǽmis (Θέμις) and gentle Tithýs (Τηθύς, the Sea) the mother of Kýpris (Κύπρις, O.H. 22.7), Mnimosýni (Μνημοσύνη) the mother of the fair-haired (καλλίκομοι) Mousai, and happy Theia (Θεία) the mother of light (εὐρυφάεσσα). And Yaia bore beautiful Dióhnî (Διώνη) the mother of procreation, radiant Phívi (Φοίβη) who held the seat at Dælphí (Δελφοί), and glorious Rǽa (Ῥέα) the mother of the aiyís-bearing Olympian king of all. The seven Titanic sons are querying Kíos (Κοῖος) the father of Litóh (Λητώ) and Astæría (Ἀστερία), Kreios (Κρεῖος) the lord of the vast constellations, mighty Phórkys (Φόρκυς) who rules the great depths of the Sea, light-giving Ypæríohn (Ὑπερίων) the father of the Sun and the Moon, genial Iapætós (Ἰαπετός) the father of the race of men, Okæanós (Ὠκεανός) who encircles and envelops the earth with his many streams, and greatest of all, kingly Krónos (Κρόνος), he who strikes (awakens) the mind (κρούων τον νοῦν), father of glorious children. Of all these mighty sons and daughters of Earth it was Krónos who Nyx cherished and cultivated. Yaia pleaded with the Titánæs to overthrow their father for having cast her progeny into Tártaros (Τάρταρος). All the siblings rallied to her supplication with the exception of Okæanós who brooded darkly in the halls of his palace trying to decide what to do. The plot angered the mighty God against his mother and even more so against his siblings, so he declined to join them. Yaia gave Krónos an adamantine sickle (δρεπάνη) and when Ouranós came to lie with her, the Titánæs overtook and bound him while Krónos cut off his genitals. The members of Ouranós flew through the air into the wine-dark (οἶνοψ) sea and swirled about in the restless blue waters forming a wondrous foam out of which emerged beautiful Heavenly Aphrodíti (Ουρανíα Ἀφροδίτη), the mother of Harmony (Ἁρμονία), and as she was born, Zílos (Ζῆλος) and Apáti (Ἀπάτη) took her into their care. These things having been accomplished, Krónos assumed the kingship; he deserved this by his very nature and for having borne the greatest weight of the deed done to his father. He married his sister Rǽa, and the other siblings married one another, Tithýs and Okæanós, Phívi and Kíos, Theia and Ypæríohn, Thǽmis and Iapætós, and the others. Krónos and Rǽa now produced glorious children: Æstía (Ἑστία) and Íra (Ήρα), as well as Ploutôn (Πλούτων) and Poseidóhn (Ποσειδῶν). But Krónos also had been given an oracle that his rule would be usurped by one of his children, so he swallowed them, one by one, as they came into the world, but Rǽa despised this and contrived a plan. The next child came forth, glorious Zefs (Ζεύς), and at the birth of Zefs, Rǽa became the Earth-Mother (Δημήτηρ). She deceived Krónos by presenting him with a rock around which she wrapped swaddling clothes. Krónos promptly swallowed the rock, thinking it was his newborn son. This caused him to vomit up all the Titanic children. Ploutôn now took his seat on Earth wielding his Cap of Invisibility (Ἄϊδος κυνέην), the symbol of his power. Poseidóhn took residence in the Sea, wielding the Trident (Τρίαινα). The other son of Krónos too was destined for great things, but the time was not yet ripe. Zefs was rushed to the cave of starry-eyed (ἀστεροόμματος) Nyx in great secrecy and placed under the care of Adrásteia (Ἀδράστεια) and her sister Ídi (Ἴδῃ), the daughters of Mælliséfs (Μελλισεύς) and Amáltheia (Ἀμάλθεια). To prevent Krónos from hearing the cries of the child, Adrásteia stood in front of the cave and loudly clashed brazen cymbals and beat a goat-skin drum (τύμπανον) while the bronze-rattling (χαλκόκροτοι) Kourítæs (Κουρῆτες), the three handsome sons of Rǽa, shared in this clamorous labor and protected them all. Meanwhile, Zefs grew in strength and when the time was ripe, blessed Nyx instructed him, “When your father is in the oaken wood and drunk with the fruit of bees, then bind him!” Zefs told his mother all that which the Goddess decreed and, acting upon her advice, Rǽa threw a magnificent banquet and, along with course after course of delicious amvrosía (ἀμβροσία), she gave Krónos great drafts of golden honey. Soon the powerful Titan became inebriated; the room of the great hall began spin all around him and he longed for the open air. Krónos left the banquet and wandered about; at last he laid down and fell asleep, snoring loudly. Zefs and his confidants went in search of him, and, just as Nyx had foretold, they found him in the oaken wood, oblivious to their actions. They bound the God and Zefs castrated him, just as Krónos had previously castrated his own father. And then Zefs went to the Sacred Cave and asked, “Mother, supreme of all the Gods, immortal Nyx, how am I to proceed? How can I inaugurate my rule with the immortal Gods? How can I keep all things as one, yet separate?” And blessed (μάκαιρα) Nyx, gleaming with the blue of dawn (κυαναυγής), answered him saying, “Surround everything in the Aithír …the heavens, the earth, the sea, and the stars… and bind them all with a golden aithirial chain.” Thus mighty Zefs engulfed and swallowed Irikæpaios, employing all of his power, and drew everything that existed into the hollow of his belly. And now all things in Zefs were created anew: the sky, the sea, the earth, and all the blessed and immortal Gods and Goddesses, all that was then, and all that will be, all mingled in the belly of Zefs. Zefs is the first and the last, the lord of lightning. 1 Zefs is the head and center, for all things are from Zefs. Zefs is born male; immortal Zefs comes forth a nýmphi (νύμφη/female). Zefs is the foundation of earth and starry heaven. Zefs is sovereign of all for he is the first cause of all things. In one divine power, emerging one divinity, the commander of the world. One regal body in which everything revolves: Fire and Water and Earth and Aithír, and both Night and Day, and Mítis (Μήτις), the first-begotten one and lovely Ǽrohs (Ἔρως). For these are all in the mighty body of Zefs. Behold his head and handsome countenance, the radiant sky. Around his golden hair are the gleaming stars twinkling beautifully. And there are great golden bull’s horns on either side of his head, the rising and setting (sun), the heavenly pathway of the Gods. His eyes are Ílios (Helios), reflected in the Moon. His mind is kingly truth itself, the immortal Aithír, hearing and considering all: nothing which is, no word nor cry nor noise nor voice, escapes the ear of the mightiest son of Krónos. Thus indeed his immortal head and mind, now then his radiant body, boundless, undisturbed. His fearless, strong limbs, exceedingly mighty are formed thus:the shoulders and chest and broad back of the God, formed of the air all surrounding. He generates wings whereupon he flies everywhere. His divine belly is Earth, the mother of all, with her imposing hills and mountain peaks. The belt about his middle is a wave of the deep-voiced sea and ocean! His feet, the foundation of earth, are dank Tártaros and earth's furthermost limit! Hiding all things yet causing them to newly emerge into delightful light, he brings them forth again from his heart, acting in divine wonderment!.

Orphic Fragment 169:

ὅτι ὁ Συριανὸς ἐν τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ πονήμασιν (test. 238) ἀναφέρει χρησµὸν τοιοῦτον·

| 110 Bur. Ἓν κράτος, εἷς δαίµων, γενέτης µέγας, ἀρχὸς ἁπάντων,

ἓν δὲ δέµας βασίλειον, ἐν ᾧ τάδε πάντα κυκλοῦται,

πῦρ καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γαῖα καὶ αἰθήρ, νύξ τε καὶ ἦμαρ

ϰαὶ Μῆτις, πρῶτη γενέτις ϰαὶ Ἔρως πολυτερπής.

5 πάντα γὰρ ἐν Ζηνὸς μεγάλωι τάδε σώματι κεῖται,πάντα μόνος δὲ νοεῖ πάντων προνοεῖ τε θεουδῶς·

πάντῃ δὲ Ζηνὸς καὶ ἐν ὄµµασι πατρὸς ἄνακτος

ναίουσ’ ἀθάνατοί τε θεοὶ θνητοί τε ἄνθρωποι,

θῆρές τ’ οἰωνοί θ’ ὁπόσα πνείει τε καὶ ἕρπει.

10 οὐδὲ ἕ που λήθουσιν ἐφήμερα φῦλ’ ἀνθρώπων,

ὅσσ' ἀδίκως ῥέζουσί περ, οὐδ’ εἰν οὔρεσι θῆρες

ἄγριοι, τετράποδες, λασιότριχες, ὄμβριμόθυμοι.

καὶ οὐκ ἂν θαυμασαίμεθα τῶν Ὀρφικῶν ἀκούοντες ἐπῶν, ἐν οἷς φησιν ὁ θεολόγος·

αὕτη δὲ Ζηνὸς καὶ ἐν ὄµµασι πατρὸς ἄνακτος

ναίουσ’ ἀθάνατοί τε θεοὶ θνητοί τε ἄνθρωποι,

ὅσσα τ’ ἕην γεγαῶτα καὶ ὕστερον ὁππόσ’ ἔμελλεν (fragment 167 b verse 6)

πάντων γὰρ ἐστι πλήρης τῶν νοητῶν καὶ πάντων ἔχει τὰς διηιρημένας αἰτίας, ὥστε καὶ ἀνθρώπους καὶ τἆλλα πάντα γεννᾶι κατὰ τὰς αὐτῶν ἰδιότητας, οὐ καθόσον ἕκαστον θεῖόν ἐστιν ὥσπερ ὁ πρὸ αὐτοῦ πατὴρ ὁ νοητός.

“Syrianós in his books (test. 238) reports this oracle: ‘One power, one daimôn, mighty ancestor, ruler of all, and one royal body, in whom he encircles all these, fire, water, earth, and aithír (αἰθήρ), night and day and Mítis (Μῆτις), first mother and much-delighting Ǽrôs (Ἔρως). 5 For all this is laid up in the vast body of Zefs (Ζεύς), and he alone conceives everything and divinely foreknows all things; and everything is from Zefs, and under the watch of their father and lord the immortal Gods and mortal men dwell, and the beasts, the birds, and as many as breathe and walk. 10 But the ephemeral tribes of men do not escape his notice - how many unjust things they all do - nor the beasts in the mountains wild, the four-footed ones, hairy and strong of spirit.’ ”

“And we should not marvel hearing (the words) of Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς), in which the theologian says: ‘And this is (all) from Zefs (Ζεύς); and under the watch of their father and lord the immortal Gods and mortal men dwell, as in what has come to be already and as in what is destined to come later.’ “For he is filled with all intelligible things and has the distinguishing causes of all things, so that he generates both men and all other things according to their specific characteristics, not in so far as each one is divine, even as his intelligible father before him.”

Orphic Fragment 177:

177. (133) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Πολιτείας Πλάτωνος I 102, 11 Dr. de Minerva:

δεινὴ γὰρ Κρονίδαο νόου κράντειρα τέτυκται φησὶν Ὀρφεύς

“For terrible is she who accomplishes (Ἀθηνᾶ), who has herself brought forth the mind of the son of Krónos (Ζεύς), says Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς)

Orphic Fragment 184:

εἰ δὲ καὶ πρὸ τούτον τὴν ὑπερκόσμιον εὑρήσεις καὶ παρὰ τοῖς θεολόγοις αὐτὴν ὑμνημένην· τὴν γὰρ Ἀφροδίτην παρήγαγεν ὁ δηµιουργός, ἵνα κάλλος ἐπιλάµπηι <καὶ add. Diehl> τάξιν καὶ ἁρμονίαν καὶ κοινωνίαν πᾶσι τοῖς ἐγκοσμίοις͵ καὶ τὸν Ἔρωτα ὀπαδὸν αὐτῆς, ἑνοποιὸν ὄντα τῶν ὅλων. ἔχει δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν ἑαυτῶι τὴν τοῦ Ἔρωτος αἰτίαν· ἔστι γὰρ καὶ Μῆτις πρώτος γενέτωρ καὶ Ἔρως πολυτερπής. fr. 168 vs. 9. “If also together with these, you are willing to survey the supermundane cause of friendship, you will find this likewise celebrated by theologists. For the Demiurgus produced Venus (Ἀφροδίτη), in order that she might beautifully illuminate all mundane natures, with order, harmony, and communion. And he also produced Love (Ἔρως) as her attendant, who is the unifying cause of wholes. The Demiurgus however, likewise possesses in himself the cause of Love. For he is ‘Metis the first generator, and much­pleasing Love.’ ”

Orphic Fragment 205:

205. (191. 206) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 41 d (III 241, 5 Diehl):

τελευτᾶι δὴ καλῶς ἡ δημιουγία τῶν νέων θεῶν κατὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς βούλησιν εἰς τὴν παλιγγενεσίαν· [τὸ γὰρ ‘τὰ φθίνοντα δέχεσθαι πάλιν’ ουδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ τὸ τὴν γένεσιν ἀνανεοῦν καὶ τὴν φθορὰν ἐπανάγειν εἰς τὴν γένεσιν· διὰ γὰρ τοῦτο καὶ οὐδὲν εἰς τὸ μηδαμῶς ὂν ὅλον ἄπεισιν, ὅτι δὴ οἱ προεστῶτες θεοὶ τῆς γενέσεως συνάπτουσι ταῖς ἑαυτῶν περιόδοις τὰς τῆς γενέσεως μεταβολὰς καὶ συνεχῆ ποιοῦσι τῇ φθορᾷ τὴν γένεσιν, τὸ μὴ ὂν τῆς φθορᾶς εἰδοποιοῦντες καὶ τὴν στέρησιν εἰς μορφὴν περιάγοντες.] ἐν τοῖς νέοις ἄρα θεοῖς καὶ τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς δημιουργίαν τῶν θνητῶν καὶ τὴν τῆς παλιγγενεσίας αἰτίαν ὁ δημιουργὸς ἐνέθηκεν, ὥσπερ ἁπάντων τῶν ἐγκοσμίων ἐν τῆι μονάδι τῶν νέων θεῶν, ἣν καὶ αὐτὴν νέον θεὸν προσηγόρευσεν Ὀρφεύς ὁρᾶις οὖν, ὅπως καὶ ἑνοποιοὺς αὐτοῖς καὶ <ἐκ>θεωτικὰς δυνάμεις ἐνδέδωκε θεοὺς θεῶν ἀποκαλέσας, καὶ συνεκτικὰς καὶ μονίμους διὰ τῆς τοῦ λυτοῦ καὶ ὰλύτου μεσὀτητος καὶ γνωστικὰς διὰ τῆς μαθήσεως καὶ τελειωτικὰς διὰ τοῦ τελειοῦν τὸν κόσμον ταῖς προσθήκαις τῶν θνητῶν καὶ δημιουργικὰς διὰ τῆς δημιουργικῆς <καὶ> κινητικἀς καὶ ἀφομοιωτικὰς διὰ τῆς μιμήσεως τοῦ πατρός, καὶ πάλιν, εἰ βούλει λἐγειν, Ἡφαιστιακὰς μὲν διὰ τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἐνεργείας, Ἀθηναϊκὰς δὲ διὰ τῆς τοῦ προσυφαίνειν τῶι ἀθανάτωι τὸ θνητὸν παρακελεύσεως, Δημητριακὰς δὲ καὶ Κορικὰς διὰ τοῦ γεννᾶν καὶ τρέφειν, Τιτανικὰς δὲ διὰ τοῦ θνητὰ καὶ ἐπίκηρα παράγειν, Διονυσιακὰς δὲ διὰ τῆς παλιγγενεσίας· ἃ γὰρ γεννῶσι, φθίνοντα δέχονται πάλιν εἰς τὰς ὁλότητας αὐτῶν ἀναπέμποντες καὶ ἕκαστα τοῖς οἰκείοις διανέμοντες καὶ ἐκ τούτων ἄλλα πάλιν λαμβάνοντες καὶ συντιθέντες εἰς ἄλλον γενέσεις· πάντα γὰρ | 242 Diehl αὐτοῖς ὑπόκειται τὰ στοιχεῖα πρὸς τὰς γεννήσεις τῶν θνητῶν ζώιων καὶ τὸν κύκλον ἀεὶ πληροῦσιν ἀπαύστως τῶν γενέσεων καὶ φθίσεων. δέχονται οὖν φθίνοντα, ὅσα ἔδοσαν γιγνομένοις καὶ προστιθέασι τοῖς ὅλοις ὅσα ἀφαιροῦσι τῶν ὅλων, καὶ τοῦτο ἀπέραντον ἔχει τὴν ἀμοιβὴν διὰ τὴν ἀεικινησίαν τῶν δημιουργούντων τὰ θνητὰ θεῶν πάντων, οἷς ἐπέτρεψε τὴν δημιουργίαν ὁ πατήρ.

“The fabrication (ed. of nutriment for the animals) also of these Gods beautifully ends, according to the will of the father, in regeneration (παλιγγενεσία, i.e. reincarnation).

[For to receive back again things which are corrupted, is nothing else than a renewal of generation, and a revocation of corruption to generation. For through this, nothing departs into that which has no existence whatever; because the Gods who preside over generation, conjoin the periods of it with their own periods, and make generation to be in continuity with corruption, giving form to the non-being of the latter, and circularly leading privation into morphe.] The Demiurgus therefore, inserted in the junior (νέος, younger) Gods the fabrication of mortal natures from the beginning, and the cause of regeneration; just as he inserted the fabrication of all mundane natures in the monad of the junior Gods, [i.e. in Bacchus,] which also Orpheus denominates the Juvenile God. You see therefore, how the Demiurgus imparts to them unifying and deifying powers, by calling them Gods of Gods; connective and stable powers, through the medium of the dissoluble and indissoluble; gnostic powers through discipline; perfective powers, through giving perfection to the world by the addition of mortals; demiurgic powers, through fabrication; and motive and assimilative powers, through the imitation of the father. And again, you may say that he imparted to them Vulcanian (Ἡφαιστιακὰς) powers, through the energy according to nature; Minerval (Ἀθηναϊκὰς) powers, through the command to weave together the mortal with the immortal nature; Cerealian (Δημητριακὰς) and Coric (Κορικὰς) powers, through the command to generate and nourish; Titanic powers, through ordering them to produce mortal and perishable natures; and Dionysiac (Διονυσιακὰς) powers, through regeneration (παλιγγενεσία). For the things which they generate they receive back again, when they are corrupted, returning them to the wholes from which they were derived, and distributing each to its proper source; from these wholes again receiving other parts, and compounding them into the generation of other things. For all the elements are spread under them, in order to the generation of mortal animals, and they perpetually and without ceasing, give completion to the circle of generations and corruptions. Hence, they receive such things as they imparted to generated natures, when they are corrupted, and deliver to wholes that which they took from them. This likewise has an infinite permutation, through the immobility [i.e. immutability] of all the Gods that fabricate mortal natures. ‘These things spake the father to those to whom he committed the fabrication [of mortal natures].’ ”

Orphic Fragment 214:

ἐθέλω δὲ ὑμῖν, ὦ φίλοι, διήγημά τι πρὸς τὸ συμβὰν ὑπαινίξασθαι. ἦν νέος ἔτι Διόνυσος καὶ κατὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸ τῶν Τελχίνων γένος ἐφύετο· ηὐξάνετο Βάκχος καὶ Τιτάνες πάντες διερρήγνυντο φθόνωι· τέλος δέ, μὴ στέγειν δυνάμενοι, διασπάσαι τοῦτον ἠθέλησαν, τέχνας δ' ἐμελέτων καὶ φάρμακα καὶ κέντρα διαβολῆς καὶ φύσεως μαγγανεύματα. ἐμίσουν δὲ ὡς οἶμαι τὸν Σειληνὸν καὶ τὸν Σάτυρον καὶ γόητας τούτους ἐφθέγξαντο, ὅτι τῶι Βάκχωι ἠρέσκοντο. τί οὖν ἐπὶ τούτοις Διόνυσος; ἔκειτο μὲν οἶμαι βληθεὶς καὶ τὴν πληγὴν καιρίαν ἐστέναζεν· ἄμπελος δ' ἦν κατηφής καὶ σκυθρωπὸς οἶνος, καὶ βότρυς ὥσπερ δακρύων καὶ Βάκχος οὐκέτι σφυρὸν εἰς τὴν κίνησιν εἶχεν εὐάρμοστον. ἀλλ’ οὐ διὰ τέλους τὸ δάκρυον οὐδὲ πολεμίων τὸ τρόπαιον. ὁ γὰρ Ζεὺς ἐποπτεύων ἑώρα πάντα καὶ τὸν Διόνυσον ἐγείρας, ὡς λόγος, Τιτᾶνας ἐποίει παρὰ τῶν μύθων ἐλαύνεσθαι. “I wish, friends, to mention a tale which has relevance to what happened. Diónysos was yet young, and the race of Tælkhínæs (Τελχῖνες) sprung forth against the God; Vákkhos (Βάκχος) grew in strength and all the Titánæs (Τιτάνες) were bursting with envy; but finally, unable to endure his daring, they wished to cut him up, and pursued wiles, poisons, daggers of slander, and deceptions of nature against him. They were filled with hatred for Seilînós (Σειληνός) and Sátyros (Σάτυρος), calling them sorcerers, because they delighted Vákkhos. But what indeed became of Diónysos? He lie wounded, I think, being struck, and lamenting the serious blow; the grape-vine became downcast, the wine now full of gloom, the bunches of grapes in tears, and Vákkhos not able to move his ankle well. But weeping did not persevere to the end, nor defeat in war. For Zefs (Ζεὺς), watching and seeing all, raised up Diónysos, thus the saying, that he caused the Titánæs to be expelled, in accordance with the myths.” (trans. by the author)

Iulius Firmicus Maternus De errore profanarum religionum 6 p. 15, 2 Ziegler:

sed adhuc supersunt aliae superstitiones, quarum secreta pandenda sunt: Liberi et Liberae, quae omnia sacris sensibus vestris specialiter intimanda sunt, ut et in istis profanis religionibus sciatia mortes esse hominum consecratas. Liber itaque Iovis fuit filius, regis scilicet Cretici (v. fr. 156). hic cum fuisset adultera matre progenitus, nutriebatur apud patrem studiosius quam decebat. uxor Iovis cui Iunoni fuit nomen, novercalis animi furore commota ad necem infantis omnifariam parabat insidias. proficiscens peregre pater quia indignationes tacitas sciebat uxoris, ne quid ab irata muliere dolo fieret, idoneis sicut sibi videbatur custodibus tutelam credidit filii. tunc Iuno opportunum insidiarum nancta tempus, et ex hoc fortius inflammata, quia proficiscens pater et sellam regni puero tradiderat et sceptrum, custodes primum regalibus praemiis muneribusque corrupit, deinde satellites suos qui Titanes vocabantur, in interioribus regiae locat partibus, et crepundiis ac speculo adfabre facto animos ita pueriles inlexit, ut desertis regiis sedibus ad insidiarum locum puerilis animi desiderio duceretur. illic interceptus trucidatur, et ut nullum possit necis inveniri vestigium, particulatim membra concisa satellitum sibi dividit turba. tunc ut huic facinori aliud facinus adderetur, quia vehementer tyranni crudelitas timebatur, decocta variis generibus pueri membra consumunt, ut humani |16 Ziegl. cadaveris inauditis usque in illum diem epulis vescerentur. cor divisum sibi soror servat, --- cui Minerva fuit nomen ---, quia et ipsa sceleris fuit particeps, et ut manifestum delationis esset indicium, et ut haberet unde furentis patris impetum mitigaret. reverso Iovi filia ordinem facinoris exponit. tunc pater funesta calamitate cladis et acerbi luctus atrocitate commotus Titanas quidem vario genere excruciatos necat, nec praetermissum est in ultione filii aut tormentum aliquod aut poena, sed per omnia poenarum genera bacchatus necem qualiscumque filii vindicavit, affectu quidem patris sed tyrannica potestate. tunc quia diutius pater ferre lugentis animi tormenta non poterat, et quia dolor ex orbitate veniens nullis solaciis mitigabatur, imaginem eius ex gypso plastico opere perfecit et cor pueri ex quo facinus fuerat sorore deferente detectum, in ea parte plastes conlocat qua pectoris fuerant liniamenta formata. post haec pro tumulo exstruit templum, et paedagogum pueri constituit sacerdotem. huic Silenus fuit nomen. Cretenses ut furentis tyranni saevitiam mitigarent, festos funeris dies statuunt, et annuum sacrum trieterica consecratione conponunt, omnia per ordinem facientes quae puer moriens aut fecit aut passus est. vivum laniant dentibus taurum, credeles epulas annuis commemorationibus excitantes, et per secreta silvarum clamoribus dissonis eiulantes fingunt animi furentis |17 Ziegl. insaniam ut illud facinus non per fraudem factum, sed per insaniam crederetur. praefertur cista in qua cor soror latenter absconderat, tibiarum cantu et cymbalorum tinnitu crepundia, quibus puer deceptus fuerat mentiuntur. sic in honorem tyranni a serviente plebe deus factus est qui habere non potuit sepulturam. Outline of the passage by the translator: This quotation comes from Julius Firmicus Maternus, the astrologer and Christian apologist from the reign of Constantine I. There is nothing new here, and, since the passage is long and my Latin is weak, I will simply summarize. Julius is trying to degrade the religion by telling the story of Zagreus and the Titans, but euhemeristically. It is ironic that he describes the Mysteries of Liber (Dionysos) as impious, but actually his words are entirely impious, ugly, and insensitive to all those who practice the religion. Julius says that Jupiter was actually a king of Crete, whose wife was Juno. The king had a lover by whom he had a son, and Juno was jealous and plotted with her trusted men, who were called the Titans. These men tricked the boy with rattles and a mirror. The child was slain by the Titans and cut up, but they feared the wrath of the king, so they ate the body-parts to conceal the crime, but the boy’s sister, Minerva, kept the heart and revealed everything to the king, to conceal her own involvement in the crime. The king then tortured and killed the Titans. After these events, he had a temple constructed so as to worship the boy, making the boy’s teacher, Silenus, his priest, and honoring him with rites which lasted a year and then commemorated every three years. The submissive people believe that the crime was committed out of madness, and the rites are celebrated with a basket containing the heart, rattles, and music.

Orphic Fragment 220:

παρὰ τῶι Ὀρφεῖ τέσσαρες βασιλεῖαι παραδίδονται· πρώτη μὲν ἡ τοῦ Οὐρανοῦ, ἣν ὁ Κρόνος διεδέξατο ἐκτεμὼν τὰ αἰδοῖα τοῦ πατρός· μετὰ δὲ τὸν Κρόνον ὁ Ζεὺς ἐβασίλευσεν καταταρταρώσας τὸν πατέρα· εἶτα τὸν Δία διεδέξατο ὁ Διόνυσος, ὅν φασι κατ’ ἐπιβουλὴν τῆς Ἥρας τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν Τιτᾶνας σπαράττειν καὶ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτοῦ ἀπογεύεσθαι. καὶ τούτους ὀργισθεὶς ὁ Ζεὺς ἐκεραύνωσε, καὶ ἐκ τῆς αἰθάλης τῶν ἀτμῶν τῶν ἀναδοθέντων ἐξ αὐτῶν ὕλης γενομένης γενέσθαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. οὐ δεῖ οὖν ἐξάγειν ἡμᾶς ἑαυτούς, οὐχ ὅτι, ὡς δοκεῖ λέγειν ἡ λέξις, διότι ἔν τινι δεσμῶι ἐσμεν τῶι σώ|3 Norv.ματι, τοῦτο γὰρ δῆλόν ἐστι, καὶ οὐκ ἂν τοῦτο ἀπόρρητον ἔλεγεν, ἀλλ' ὅτι οὐ δεῖ ἐξάγειν ἡμᾶς ἑαυτοὺς ὡς τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν Διονυσιακοῦ ὄντος· μέρος γὰρ αὐτοῦ ἐσμεν, εἴ γε ἐκ τῆς αἰθάλης τῶν Τιτάνων συγκείμεθα γευσαμένων τῶν σαρκῶν τούτου. Τιτῆνες, Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀγλαὰ τέκνα, ἡμετέρων πρόγονοι πατέρων, γαίης ὑπένερθεν οἴκοις Ταρταρίοισι μυχῶι χθονὸς ἐνναίοντες, ἀρχαὶ καὶ πηγαὶ πάντων θνητῶν πολυμόχθων εἰναλίων, πτηνῶν τε καὶ οἳ χθόνα ναιετάουσιν· ἐξ ὑμέων γὰρ πᾶσα πέλει γενεὰ κατὰ κόσμον. ὑμᾶς κικλήσκω μῆνιν χαλεπὴν ἀποπέμπειν, εἴ τις ἀπὸ χθονίων προγόνων οἴκοις ἐπελάσθη.

“Four kingly reigns are transmitted from (the teachings of) Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς). The first is the reign of Ouranós; Krónos receives this kingdom by cutting off the generative organs of his father. Following Krónos, Zefs (Ζεὺς) becomes king after hurling down his father to Tártaros. Next, receiving the kingdom from Zefs, Diónysos, who, they say, by means of a plot of Íra (Ἥρα), was tore apart by the Titans, who also tasted his flesh. And, Zefs, thus angered, struck them with thunderbolts, and from out of the soot of the vapors rising up was produced the mud from which men are born. Therefore, it is absolutely not allowed to commit suicide. This is not, as the dialogue seems to say, because the body is bondage, for that is obvious, and he (Σωκράτης) would not have spoken of it as esoteric teaching, but, rather, we are not permitted to commit suicide because our body is from Diónysos; we are a part of him, certainly, that is to say, composed from the soot of the Titans who had tasted of his flesh.”

(trans. by the author)

O Mighty Titans, who from heav’n and earth Derive your noble and illustrious birth, Our fathers sires, in Tartarus profound Who dwell, deep merg’d beneath the solid ground: Fountains and principles, from whom began Th’ afflicted, miserable, race of man: Who not alone in earths retreats abide, But in the ocean and the air reside; Since ev’ry species from your nature flows, Which all prolific, nothing barren knows: Avert your rage, if from th’ infernal seats One of your tribe should visit our retreats.

Orphic Fragment 222:

ἐπεὶ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα παρ’ Ὀρφέως (sc. ὁ Πλάτων) ἐμυθολόγησεν λαβών οἷον ὅτι ἐν τῶι Ἀχέροντι καθαίρονται καὶ τυγχάνουσιν εὐμοιρίας τινός· οἳ μέν κ’ εὐαγέωσιν ὑπ’ αὐγὰς ἠελίοιο, αὖτις ἀποφθίμενοι μαλακώτερον οἶτον ἔχουσιν ἐν καλῶι λειμῶνι βαθύρροον ἀμφ' Ἀχέροντα καὶ ὅτι κολάζονται ἐν τῶι Ταρτάρωι· οἱ δ’ ἄδικα ῥέξαντες ὑπ’ αὐγὰς ἠελίοιο ὑβρισταὶ κατάγονται ὑπὸ πλάκα Κωκυτοῖο Τάρταρον ἐς κρυόεντα. διὰ γὰρ τούτων σαφώς τὰς Πλατωνικὰς διατάξεις περὶ τῶν ὑπὸ γῆς λήξεων φαίνεται παραλαβών, ὥσπερ καὶ τὰς περὶ τῶν μετεμψυχώσεων. εἰ δὲ ταῦτα ἑπόμενος Ὀρφεῖ διατάττει Πλάτων, ἆρ’ οὐ γελοῖόν ἐστιν --- ἀφίημι γάρ θεμιτὸν λέγειν --- τὸν τῶν τοιούτων ἡγεμόνα δογμάτων, οἷς ἡ Πλάτωνος φιλοσοφία διαφέρει τῶν ἄλλων ἁπασῶν, εἰς ἄλογα ζῶια κατάγειν καὶ κύκνου ψυχὴν ποιεῖν (X 620 a test. nr. 139); οὗ καὶ τὴν περὶ τῶν θείων ὑφήγησιν αὐτὸς ἐν Τιμαίωι (40 e) πιστὴν εἶναί φησιν καίπερ ἄνευ τε εἰκότων λόγων καὶ ἀποδείξεων λεγο|341 Kr.μένην, ὡς δι’ ἐνθεασμὸν εἰδότος μάλιστα τὰ τῶν θεῶν πατέρων ὄντων, εἴ τις ἔστιν τῆς θεογονίας τοῖς Ἕλλησιν πατήρ, ἣν αὐτὸς παραδοῦναι προθέμενος ἐπὶ τοὺς παραδόντας πρώτους ἀνάγει τὴν περὶ αὐτῆς ἀλήθειαν.

“Since, also, he told mythic tales (himself), having taken other things from the Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς) such as that they who purify themselves in Akhǽrôn (Ἀχέρων) also meet with good fortune: ‘Those who live free of stain beneath the light of the sun, hereafter, when they die, have a more gentle fate in a beautiful pasture beside deep-flowing Akhǽrôn.” “and that the others are punished in Tártaros: ‘But those who are unjust beneath the light of the sun, the contemptuous, are led down below the expanse of Kôkytós (Κωκυτός) to frozen Tártaros.’ “For through these clearly Platonic testimonies, he (Πλάτων) brings to light what he acquired concerning the allotments in the underworld, and even of things concerning the transmigration of souls (μετεμψύχωσις). But if Plátôn arranges this following (the teachings of) Orphéfs, is it not consequently ludicrous---for I refrain to say licit---that he makes the founder of opinions such as these---in which the philosophy of Plátôn differs from the others altogether---to descend into irrational animals and the soul of a swan? [1] And he says in the Tímaios (Τίμαιος)[2] that his (Ὀρφεύς) guidance on divine things is trustworthy, although he (Ὀρφεύς) says such without providing either likely reasoning or bringing forward proof. Thus he knew divine things about the Gods very well, from their being his parents, if (we consider that) he is the father of the theogony to the Greeks, setting out to hand this knowledge down, he brought back (to us) the first transmission of the truth.”

Orphic Fragment 236:

postremo potentiam solis ad omnium potestatum summitatem referri indicant theologi, qui in sacris hoc brevissima precatione demonstrant dicentes Ἥλιε παντοκράτορ, κόσμου πνεῦμα, κόσμου δύναμις, κόσμου φῶς. solem esse omnia et Orpheus testatur his versibus: κέκλυθι τηλεπόρου δίνης ἑλικαύγεα κύκλον οὐρανίαις στροφάλιγξι περίδρομον αἰὲν ἑλίσσων, ἀγλαὲ Ζεῦ Διόνυσε, πάτερ πόντου, πάτερ αἴης, Ἥλιε παγγενέτορ πανταίολε χρυσεοφεγγές. “At last, the theologians proclaim that the power of the sun is ascribed as the summit of all abilities, in sacred (liturgies) they indicate such, saying in this brief prayer: ‘Oh Sun ruler of all, breath of the kózmos, might of the kózmos, light of the world!’ “And indeed, the sun is everything, as Orpheus testifies in his verses: ‘Hear (oh, Sun), spinning ‘round in a circle of distant revolving rays, Ever turning ‘round the orbit in heavenly whirls. Oh shining Zefs-Diónysos (Ζεὺς Διόνυσος), father of the sea, father of the earth, Oh Sun, father of all, all radiant, and glittering like gold!’ ”

Orphic Fragment 240:

240. (206) Macrobii Ambrosii Theodosii In somnium Scipionis I 12, 11, compare to fragment 213: haec est autem hyle, quae omne corpus mundi, quod ubicumque cernimus, ideis inpressa formavit. sed altissima et purissima pars eius, qua vel sustentantur divina vel constant, nectar vocatur et creditur esse potus deorum, inferior vero atque turbidior potus animarum. et hoc est quod veteres Lethaeum fluvium vocaverunt. ipsum autem Liberum patrem Orphici νοῦν ὑλικὸν suspicantur intellegi qui ab illo individuo natus in singulos ipse dividitur. ideo in illorum sacris traditur Titanio furore in membra discerptus et frustis sepultis rursus unus et integer emersisse quia νοῦς, quem diximus, mentem vocari, ex individuo praebendo se dividendum et rursus ex diviso ad individuum revertendo et mundi inplet officia et naturae suae arcana non deserit. “However, this is matter, cast with ideas, which has fashioned the whole body of the world, wherever we see it. But its highest and purest part, whereby the divine realms are either sustained or by which they stand firm, is called nectar and is supposed to be the drink of the Gods, while the lower and turbid, in truth, is called the drink of souls. And this is what the ancients called the River Lethe. But it is suspected by the Orphics that by “the mind of matter”(νοῦν ὑλικὸν), what is meant is Father Liber (Διόνυσος) himself, who, born an undivided being, divides itself into single parts. For that reason, in their sacred rites, it is handed down that he, having been torn into pieces by the rage of the Titans, the parts buried, came back again, one and unhurt, because νοῦς, which, as we have said, is called mind, offering itself undivided to division, and having been divided, coming back undivided, fulfills its worldly functions and does not forsake its secret nature.” I wilt give ye the rest of this divine knowledge in sure time. But I leave you with this:

The primordial state of the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος) is called Unutterable or Ineffable, consisting of unexpressed material substances: Earth and Water. From this primeval situation, Time (Χρόνος) united with Necessity (Ἀνάγκη). Time then gave birth to unbounded Kháos (Chaos, Χάος), moist Aithír, and misty Ǽrævos (Erebos = Darkness, Ἔρεβος). In the Aithír, Khrónos (Time) wrought a silvery egg from which Phánîs leapt forth, and at the birth of Phánîs, the First-born (Πρωτόγονος) of the Gods, the chasm and the aithír were torn apart. Phánîs has many names; he is also called Mítis, Irikæpaios (Ericapaeus, Ἠρικεπαῖος), Prôtógonos, Ǽrôs (Eros, Ἔρως), Diónysos (Dionysus, Διόνυσος), Zefs (Ζεύς), and Pan (Πᾶν). Phánîs made the imperishable house of the Immortals, the sun, the earth, and the moon . He gave his scepter, the Kirýkeion (Caduceus, Κηρύκειον) which unites the three worlds and emanates prophecy, to Nyx (Night, Νύξ), who gave birth to Yaia (Gaia, Γαῖα) and Ouranós (Uranus, Οὐρανός). "The Triple God born from the Egg was called Phanis, and also Metis and Ericapæus, the three being aspects of one Power." "Of the three aspects, Phanis is said to be the 'father', Ericapæus the 'power', and Metis the 'intellect', in Platonic terms (see Δαμάσκιος Quæst. p. 380)." The Orphic hymn to Phánîs calls him Prôtógonos, the First-Born, and states that Phánîs is the origin of both Gods and mortals. He is called Antavyís (Antaugês, Ἀνταυγής) in the poem, "he who reflects the Light."

O Mighty first-begotten, hear my pray'r, Two-fold, egg-born, and wand'ring thro' the air,

Bull-roarer, glorying in thy golden wings, From whom the race of Gods and mortals springs.

Ericapæus, celebrated pow'r, Ineffable, occult, all shining flow'r. From eyes obscure thou wip'st the gloom of night, All-spreading splendour, pure and holy light; Hence Phanes call'd, the glory of the sky, On waving pinions thro' the world you fly. Priapus, dark-ey'd splendour, thee I sing, Genial, all-prudent, ever-blessed king, With joyful aspect on our rights divine And holy sacrifice (τελετή) propitious shine.

I repeat what I spoke: "Phanes, or Protogonus, who subsists at the extremity of the intelligible triad, and is therefore νοῦς νοητός, or intelligible intellect, and the exemplar of the universe, is denominated by Plato in the Timæus (Τίμαιος) τό αὐτοζῷον, animal itself, as being the primordial cause of all animal life, and was symbolically represented by Orpheus as adorned with the heads of a ram, a bull, a serpent, and a lion. But Jupiter (Ζεὺς), or the Demiurgus (Δημιουργός) of the universe, is in the intellectual what Phanes is in the intelligible order of Gods; and hence he is said by Orpheus to have absorbed Phanes prior to his fabrication of the world; the Theologist (Orpheus) indicating by this his participation of all the primary paradigmatic causes of things which subsist in Phanes. As Porphyry, therefore, in his treatise De Antro Nympharum, informs us, 'that the Persian deity Mithra, as well as the bull, is the Demiurgus and lord of generation,' the reason is obvious why Protogonus is called in this hymn bull-roarer, the roaring signifying the procession of ideas to the formation of the world. And this is conformable to what is asserted respecting ideas in the Chaldæan Oracles, viz. Νοῦς πατρός ἐρροίζησε νοήσας ἀκμάδι βουλή Παμμορϕοῦς ἰδέας = "The intellect of the father made a crashing noise, understanding with unwearied counsel omniform ideas." ...for the crashing noise indicates the same thing as the roaring of Protogonus." Phánîs is the first constituent of the evolutionary progression of Aithír known as the dynasty of the Six Vasileis (Basileis = Kings, Βασιλεῖς [Βασιλεύς is singular]): Phánîs, Nyx, Ouranós, Krónos, Zefs, and Diónysos. From Phánis comes Nyx, then Ouranós, Krónos, and Zefs. Zefs enters the Cave (Ántron, Ἄντρον) of Nyx, "swallows" (utilizes, controls) Phánîs, and renews or re-orders the universe: And then Zefs went to the Sacred Cave and asked, “Good mother, highest of the Gods, immortal Nyx, show me this, how am I to set up my stout-hearted rule among the Deathless Ones? How can I have all things one yet each one apart?” And blessed (μάκαιρα) Nyx, gleaming with the blue of dawn (κυαναυγής), answered him saying, “Take hold round about all things with the unutterable Aithír, and in its midst place the vault of heaven, the immense earth, the sea, and all the constellations crowning heaven… and bind them all with a golden aithirial chain.” Thus then taking hold of the power of first-born Irikæpaios (Ἠρικεπαῖος) He carried the form of all things in the hollow of his own belly, He mingled his own limbs with the power and strength of the God, for that reason with him all things within Zefs were made new. I suspect Helena is scheming against ye by using George as a medium.

Nyx is one of the greatest deities of mystical Orphism and Ællînismόs (Hellênismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. Nyx is a field of reality, a field in the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος), which cannot be understood. Therefore in mythology, Nyx is called Night. The "darkness" of Night has nothing to do with anything sinister, but, rather, refers to her character as being unknown or hidden. It is generally said of the divine that "there is nothing dark" in the Gods...they are beings of great light...so, we do not use darkness to symbolize them, but Nyx is an exception. In this case, darkness does not symbolize "evil" or delusion, but here darkness simply means "unknown." Similarly, the Goddess Ækáti (Hecate, Ἑκάτη) is also associated with darkness, and this is often misunderstood to mean evil, but Ækáti, like all the Gods, is a being of great light. Her parents are stars, which are actually suns, great bodies of light. She abounds in virtue, and her darkness, like that of Nyx, refers to a field of reality which is unknown or hidden, not evil. Similarly, Nyx is known by the epithet astæroómmatos (asteroömmatus, ἀστεροόμματος), "with eyes of stars," for there is light within her "darkness" as the evening sky is filled with stars.

Like Phánîs (Phanês, Φάνης), Nyx is not a personal deity; in other words, she has no consciousness. The mythology describes her dwelling in a dark Cave (ἄντρον or σπέος). You cannot see in the dark. The darkness of the Cave of Nyx is symbolic of a field of reality in which the potential of everything exists, but has yet to become manifest.

Nyx is called the nurse (τροφός) of the Gods for she holds a significant position in nurturing the Six Kings, of which she is the second. Although there is not a great deal of mythology concerning her reign as one of these Kings, Nyx plays pivotal roles in the mythology of those who follow her.

The Orphic Hymn to Nyx [16]

3. Νυκτός, θυμίαμα δαλούς.

Νύκτα θεῶν γενέτειραν ἀείσομαι ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν.

Νὺξ γένεσις πάντων, ἣν καὶ Κύπριν καλέσωμεν

κλῦθι, μάκαιρα θεά, κυαναυγής, ἀστεροφεγγής,

ἡσυχίῃι χαίρουσα καὶ ἠρεμίῃι πολυύπνωι,

εὐφροσύνη, τερπνή, φιλοπάννυχε, μῆτερ ὀνείρων,

ληθομέριμν' ἀγαθή τε πόνων ἀνάπαυσιν ἔχουσα,

ὑπνοδότειρα, φίλη πάντων, ἐλάσιππε, νυχαυγής,

ἡμιτελής, χθονία ἠδ' οὐρανία πάλιν αὐτή,

ἐγκυκλία, παίκτειρα διώγμασιν ἠεροφοίτοις,

ἣ φάος ἐκπέμπεις ὑπὸ νέρτερα καὶ πάλι φεύγεις

εἰς Ἀίδην δεινὴ γὰρ ἀνάγκη πάντα κρατύνει.

νῦν δε, μάκαιρα, (καλ)ῶ, πολυόλβιε, πᾶσι ποθεινή,

εὐάντητε, κλύουσα ἱκετηρίδα φωνὴν

ἔλθοις εὐμενέουσα, φόβους δ' ἀπόπεμπε νυχαυγεῖς.

Night, parent Goddess, source of sweet repose, From whom at first both Gods and men arose, Hear, blessed Venus, deck'd with starry light, In sleep's deep silence dwelling Ebon night! Dreams and soft case attend thy dusky train, Pleas'd with the length'ned gloom and feastful strain. Dissolving anxious care, the friend of Mirth, With darkling coursers riding round the earth. Goddess of phantoms and of shadowy play, Whose drowsy pow'r divides the nat'ral day: By Fate's decree you constant send the light To deepest hell, remote from mortal sight; For dire Necessity which nought withstands, Invests the world with adamantine bands. Be present, Goddess, to thy suppliant's pray'r, Desir'd by all, whom all alike revere, Blessed, benevolent, with friendly aid Dispell the fears of Twilight's dreadful shade.

And Gaea’s own Orphic Hymn:

O Goddess, Earth, of Gods and men the source, Endu'd with fertile, all destroying force; All-parent, bounding, whose prolific pow'rs, Produce a store of beauteous fruits and flow'rs, All-various maid, th' eternal world's strong base Immortal, blessed, crown'd with ev'ry grace; From whose wide womb, as from an endless root, Fruits, many-form'd, mature and grateful shoot. Deep bosom'd, blessed, pleas'd with grassy plains, Sweet to the smell, and with prolific rains. All flow'ry dæmon, centre of the world, Around thy orb, the beauteous stars are hurl'd With rapid whirl, eternal and divine, Whose frames with matchless skill and wisdom shine. Come, blessed Goddess, listen to my pray'r, And make increase of fruits thy constant care; With fertile Seasons in thy train, draw near, And with propitious mind thy suppliant hear.

Zefs is the source of all prophecy and Apóllôn (Apollô, Ἀπόλλων) speaks his oracles.

Zefs rules the sky, lightning and thunder and tempest, which he produces by shaking his mighty Aiyís (Aegis, Αἰγίς). Zefs cares for all the affairs and sufferings of man and punishes those who commit injustice. He presides over the entire state and every family and person. His dominion is that of Justice, Law and Order. Zefs is God of hosts and God of guests who protects travelers and strangers and presides over hospitality (Xænía, Ξενία) and the rights and sanctity of suppliants. Zefs presides over oaths, which are sworn to his name. Zefs is accompanied by the Goddesses Vía (Βία, Power) and Níkî (Nike, Νίκη, Victory), along with their brothers Krátos (Cratus, Κράτος, Authority) and Zílos (Zêlos, Ζῆλος, Competition); these four siblings all being progeny of the Titánæs (Titans, Τῑτᾶνες) Styx (Στύξ) and Pállas (Πάλλας), this according to Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 383-388. According to the same source, they fought beside him in the Titanomakhía (Battle of the Titans, Τιτανομαχία) in which Zefs ascended to the throne of Gods and men forever and ever, and they never leave his side (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 389-405. Cf. above The Mythology of Zef's Rise to Supremacy). There is no mention of the Titanomakhía in the Orphic fragments as the mythological defeat of Krónos is told differently.” Helios explained as Zidine was genuinely amazed, only for him to reveal something else. “I believe what Athena said to you. It is correct in truth. “He (Olympian Zefs) is also the summit of the three, has the same name with the fontal (he who is the source) Jupiter (Ζεύς), is united to him, and is monadically called Jupiter. But the second is called dyadically, marine Jupiter and Neptune (Ποσειδῶν). And the third is triadically denominated, terrestrial Jupiter, Pluto (Πλούτων) and Hades (Ἅιδης). The first of these also preserves, fabricates, and vivifies summits, but the second, things of a second rank, and the third those of a third order. Hence this last is said to have ravished Proserpine (Περσεφόνη), that together with her he might animate the extremities of the universe." Zefs wields the Keravnós (Thunderbolt, Κεραυνός); Poseidóhn wields the Tríaina (Trident, Τρίαινα); Ploutohn possesses the Áïdos kynǽin (Dog-skin Cap, Ἄϊδος κυνέην), which renders the wearer invisible. All these weapons and symbols of power were created by the Kýklôpæs (Cyclôpes, Κύκλωπες).”

The concept of a Creator-God within Ællînismόs (Hellênismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion, is one of some debate. What is this debate? It involves questions concerning the primordial state of the Kόzmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος). In particular, was the universe created, or did it emerge spontaneously? If the universe was created by a God, did this deity always exist? If not, what came before and how did he or she come to be? If this deity “came to be,” then the idea of a creator has one meaning; if this deity always existed, the idea of a creator has another meaning. These are the questions we will be considering here, but actually there are a great host of questions brewing underneath these ideas. The purpose of this too brief essay is to simply introduce the ideas.

Creator-God in Greek is Piitís-Thæόs (Ποιητής Θεός). The word ποιητής means “maker, author,” or “workman.” More commonly we use the word Dîmiourgόs (Dêmiurge, Δημιουργός), a word which means “worker” or “artisan” but in the context of religion, it is the God who creates everything. The word Dîmiourgόs is often associated with Tímaios (Timaeus, Τίμαιος), the dialogue of Plátôn (Plato, Πλάτων), and the Platonists generally. It has the connotation of a craftsman-deity who creates or puts the Kόzmos in order. The word Dîmiourgόs has been given other meanings by Christian and Gnostic theologians, meanings which are, for the most part, unrelated to this discussion. Ancient Greek religion talks about creation primarily through the use of theogony, stories of the genesis of the Gods. Although there are others worthy of consideration, we are only going to discuss the three most prominent theogonies, and these only briefly and, for the most part, in their very earliest sections. First we will consider the beginning of the Theogony (Θεογονία) of Isíodos (Hesiod, Ἡσίοδος), after this we will examine more deeply the Orphic view, and finally the Tímaios (Timaeus, Τίμαιος) of Plátôn (Plato, Πλάτων).

The Theogony of Isíodos

Isíodos states that Kháos (Chaos, Χάος) was the first to arise, with the implication that it issued from something, but he does not explain what that something is. After Kháos, the emergence of the race of Gods commences. We can make three statements concerning this: 1. According to Isíodos, the universe emerges from something. 2. The universe is self-arising. 3. There is no Dîmiourgόs directing the genesis of the universe, at least not overtly stated. This is all we have to say concerning Isíodos in this essay.

The Theogony of Orphéfs

From the perspective of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς), the universe originates from the Ineffable or Unutterable Beginning (Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή), a primordial undifferentiated state from which its constituent parts are yet to be expressed. From this pregnant circ*mstance, the Gods, in reality everything, are born. What are they born from? They are born from the interaction of its constituent parts. What are the constituent parts?

Pre-existent within the Unutterable Beginning are the two cosmogonic material substances. Orphéfs calls them Earth and Water. Earth is a divisible or particulate substance. Water is not divisible and is continuous. There are other fundamental elements discussed in ancient philosophy, Aithír and Fire, but these two are also continuous substances like Water. According to Plátôn, the cosmogonic Water, Fire, and Aithír can transform into each other. From this perspective, there are only two basic cosmogonic substances: Earth and Water-Fire-Aithír. Earth is receptive to the formative nature of Aithír, which draws the particles of Earth and unites with them, creating, or rather, revealing forms, creating souls, creating the universe. Since these forms derive from pre-existent material, this genitive action, revealed by the light of Phánis, is not a creation from nothing. The Aithír cannot "create" without Earth. A universe comes about of its own accord, by Necessity (Ἀνάγκη) through Time (Χρόνος), and develops through natural processes, natural laws. This is told mythologically in the theogony with the emergence of the Golden Age [4] of Phánis (Φάνης) and Nyx (Νύξ) and then continuing with the birth of Ouranós (Οὐρανός) and Yaia (Γαῖα), and then progressing to the Silver Age of Krónos (Κρόνος) and Rǽa (Ῥέα).

The Titanic Age begins when Zefs takes control with Íra (Ἥρα). This is the age we are now living in. But next the theogony describes something extraordinary. With the ascendancy of Zefs, the God uses the power of Phánis (Φάνης), his own essence. Phánis is a more evolved form of Aithír. The fully evolved form of Aithír is Zefs. Thus, Zefs is the Aithír. He then swallows everything, and creates the Kόzmos anew. Therefore, Zefs is the Dîmiourgόs who puts the universe in order.

"And then Zefs went to the Sacred Cave and asked, ‘Mother, supreme of all the Gods, immortal Nyx, how am I to proceed? How can I inaugurate my rule with the immortal Gods? How can I keep all things as one yet separate?’ And blessed Nyx, gleaming with the blue of dawn, answered him saying, ‘Surround everything in the Aithír …the heavens, the earth, the sea, and the stars… and bind them all with a golden aithirial chain.’

“Thus mighty Zefs engulfed and swallowed Irikæpaios (Φάνης), employing all of his power, and drew everything that existed into the hollow of his belly. And now all things in Zefs were created anew, the sky, the sea, the earth, and all the blessed and immortal Gods and Goddesses, all that was then and all that will be, all mingled in the belly of Zefs.”

Hence, Zefs is the creator, or as is commonly said, the "Father of Gods and Men" (Πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε Θεῶν τε). Yet something predates Zefs and the forms before him. Zefs is the Father, but he is the natural progression of Aithír, a form of Water or in Greek, Ýdohr (Hydor, Ὕδωρ). Ýdohr "pre-dates" the more complex form who is the God Zefs, so therefore Zefs cannot be a creator that always existed from time immemorial, only in that the Aithír has existed since time immemorial, as well as the Water. But all of creation consists of Earth and Water, not just Zefs. The Orphic Materialism is the view that the Kόzmos consists of material substances. This material is primordial and does not arise out of "nothing." As is said in the Dærvǽni Papyrus (Δερβένι βύβλος), that what is now, comes from existing (ὄντα) things. Thus, the Orphic position is creatio ex materia, i.e. creation from (existing) material. There is no creation from nothing (creatio ex nihilo).

In the dialogue Tímaios, Plátôn speaks extensively of a creator. He puts these words, not in the mouth of Sôkrátis (Socrates, Σωκράτης), but in that of the Pythagorean, Tímaios of Lokrós (Timaeus of Locri, Τίμαιος ὁ Λοκρός).

"… I am asking a question which has to be asked at the beginning of an enquiry about anything---was the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created, and had it a beginning? Created, I reply, being visible and tangible and having a body, and therefore sensible; and all sensible things are apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and created. Now that which is created must, as we affirm, of necessity be created by a cause. But the father and maker of all this universe is past finding out; and even if we found him, to tell of him to all men would be impossible. And there is still a question to be asked about him: Which of the patterns had the artificer in view when he made the world---the pattern of the unchangeable, or of that which is created? If the world be indeed fair and the artificer good, it is manifest that he must have looked to that which is eternal; but if what cannot be said without blasphemy is true, then to the created pattern. Every one will see that he must have looked to, the eternal; for the world is the fairest of creations and he is the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind and is unchangeable, and must therefore of necessity, if this is admitted, be a copy of something." [8]

From the above passage, we can assume that Tímaios is speaking of an archetypal form when the text uses the term unchangeable pattern (εἶδος) as primordial. He says that the world must of necessity be a “copy of something.” The universe was created, and that which is created must have a cause, which he calls “father and maker of all this universe,” but that the father is inscrutable. Whether the Tímaios believes this creator to have consciousness is not clear.

According to the Neoplatonist Próklos (Proclus, Πρόκλος), the Dîmiourgόs of the Tímaios is Zefs (Ζεύς):

"Very properly therefore do we say that the Demiurgus in the Timæus is the mighty Jupiter (Ζεύς). For he it is who produces mundane intellects and souls, who adorns all bodies with figures and numbers, and inserts in them one union, and an indissoluble friendship and bond." [9]

But why then did this Creator-God, this kozmic craftsman, create or order the universe? The Tímaios says:

"Let me tell you then why the creator made this world of generation. He was good, and the good can never have any jealousy of anything. And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should be as like himself as they could be. This is in the truest sense the origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on the testimony of wise men: God desired that all things should be good and nothing bad, so far as this was attainable. Wherefore also finding the whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly fashion, out of disorder he brought order, considering that this was in every way better than the other.” [10]

The Tímaios calls this creator intelligence, but also describes the role of Anángi (Ananke, Ἀνάγκη), the force of Necessity or Need:

"Thus far in what we have been saying, with small exception, the works of intelligence have been set forth; and now we must place by the side of them in our discourse the things which come into being through necessity---for the creation is mixed, being made up of necessity and mind. Mind, the ruling power, persuaded necessity to bring the greater part of created things to perfection and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when the influence of reason got the better of necessity, the universe was created. But if a person will truly tell of the way in which the work was accomplished, he must include the other influence of the variable cause as well."

The view of Isíodos seems to imply that the universe emerges spontaneously from something which, for whatever reason, he does not explain, with Kháos the first to arise.

The Orphic view presents a universe emerging spontaneously, due to natural forces, emerging from something which cannot be described (Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή), but which consists of material substances. Gods and worlds come forth which are later put in order by Zefs, who, at that point, plays the role of creator, not creatio ex nihilo, but, rather, he re-creates the universe from pre-existent things. The Platonic view is that the universe is created, or that it has an origin, and that this creation is a copy of something. So we have here an expression which the later so-called Neoplatonists developed and refer to as “the One” (Τὸ Ἕν). What is unclear is the relationship of the Dîmiourgόs to that which the universe is a copy of. Is he himself a copy of this? In any case, the Dîmiourgόs is part of the Tímaios, whether he be a sentient being or whether the dialogue is using such a figure as a teaching tool. From this perspective, the universe originates as a copy of a form which is unchangeable (while the universe is changeable). This concept is, in a way, similar to monotheistic ideas about God, that the Creator has always existed and is perfect and unchangeable. Also, this idea which is perfect and unchangeable, of which the universe is a copy of, predates the creation. The dialogue represents the Dîmiourgόs as ordering this process, so, if the dialogue is to be taken literally on this point, creation, or the emergence of the universe, is not entirely spontaneous, yet the dialogue acknowledges the role of necessity or spontaneity. This author is inclined to the Orphic view. The idea of a creator-God who has existed eternally and never changes is rejected. Something which does not change must be a concept or an abstraction. The universe, it would seem, arises spontaneously, created by necessity through time, from the interaction of pre-existent material. The tradition, the mythology, gives us a creator-God, the Dîmiourgόs, who plays a role in the emergence of this universe, for he is the Aithír which causes its characteristics to be revealed, interact, and progress. And that once this universe has arisen, the Aithír has evolved into a sentient divine being who plays a role in putting the universe in order as a creative act.

Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 116 says that Kháos comes to be (γένετ'), not that it pre-exists everything else. It is clear in his choice of the word:

Ἦ τοι μὲν πρώτιστα Χάος γένετ' "Verily first of all chaos came to be...." (trans. by the author)

ὁ λόγος σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος (trans. Thomas Taylor): "That Orpheus greatly availed himself of the licence of fables, and manifests every thing prior to Heaven (Οὐρανός) by names, as far as to the first cause. He also denominates the ineffable, who transcends the intelligible unities, Time; whether because Time pre-subsists as the cause of all generation, or because, as delivering the generation of true beings, he thus denominates the ineffable, that he may indicate the order of true beings, and the transcendency of the more total to the more partial; that a subsistence according to Time may be the same with a subsistence according to cause; in the same manner as generation with an arranged progression. But Hesiod venerates many of the divine natures in silence, and does not in short name the first. For that what is posterior to the first proceeds from something else, is evident from the verse, 'Chaos of all things was the first produced.' For it is perfectly impossible that it could be produced without a cause; but he does not say what that is which gave subsistence to Chaos. He is silent indeed with respect to both the fathers of intelligibles, the exempt, and the co-ordinate; for they are perfectly ineffable. And with respect to the two co-ordinations, the natures which are co-ordinate with the one, he passes by in silence, but those alone which are co-ordinate with the indefinite duad, he unfolds through genealogy. And of this account Plato now thinks Hesiod deserves to be mentioned, for passing by the natures prior to Heaven, as being ineffable. For this also is indicated concerning them by the (Chaldean) Oracles, which likewise add "they possess mystic silence," σῖγ᾽ ἔχε μύστα. And Socrates himself in the Phædrus, calls the intellectual perception of them μύησις (initiation) and ἐποπτεία (highest grade of initiation), in which nearly the whole business is ineffable and unknown."

My own power is beyond the traditional part of Zeus-Helios and infinitely beyond the Platonic variation of it. It is that you will inherit, in the form of the Demiurgos.

“(183) There, she beheld a kind of ship,² which governed with varying desire the courses of all of nature, and entirely filled with the every mass of flames, it encompassed all goods.³ Over it presided seven sailors, brothers and wholly alike each other.⁵ On the prow, the shape of a cat was depicted,⁶ on the mast, that of a lion,⁷ and on the stern, that of a crocodile could be seen.⁸ (184) On this ship, a kind of fount of etherial light,⁹ flowing in hidden streams, poured forth into the lights of the entire cosmos.¹⁰

“When Philologia saw this, she rose up and with complete devotion, she supplicated the god with her eyes half-shut, speaking the following prayer:¹¹

“(185) ‘The unknown Father’s lofty power or first descendant,¹²

Mind-creating kindling, fount of intellect, origin of light,¹³

Rulership of nature, ornament and utterance of the gods,¹⁴

Cosmic eye,¹⁵ splendor of shining Olympus,

To whom it is allowed to perceive the Father beyond the cosmos,¹⁶

And to see the great god;¹⁷ whom the sphere of ether

Obeys, and who govern the orbs with their immeasurable rushes,

(186) For you alone go the middle course, bestowing benign

Temperateness to those above, urging on and restraining

The sacred stars of the gods, when you impose a rule on their courses.¹⁸

(187) Hence, it is the law that you run in the fourth sphere,¹⁹

So that this number, by its perfect proportion, may be shown as yours;

Do you not give the double tetrachord out of this principle?²⁰

(188) Latium calls you Sol because solely²¹ you are by honor

The summit of the light after the Father,²³ and your sacred head,

They say, bears golden lights from twice six rays,²⁴

Because you bring about as many months,as many hours.²⁵

(189) They say that you drive four wing-footed (horses) with your whips,

Because solely you can tame the four-yoked chariot that the elements bring about.²⁶

(190) For by restraining the darkness, you reveal the light of the heavens,²⁷

When they call you Phoebus, who gives forth the secrets of the future.²⁸

(191) Or, because you dissolve the crimes of the night, Lyaeus.²⁹

The Nile venerates you as Serapis, Memphis as Osiris,³⁰

Divergent rites as Mithras, Dis, Horus and Typhon.³¹

(192) Also beautiful Attis, and the nourishing youth of the curved plough,³²

Hammon of arid Libya,³³ and Byblian Adon;³⁴

Thus, the whole globe calls you by varying name.

(193) Greetings, true face of the gods and paternal countenance,³⁵

Whose three letters, with the number eight and six hundred,³⁶

Forms the sacred denomination and sign of Intellect.³⁷

Father, grant my mind to ascend to the aetherial assemblies

And to know the starry heaven through your sacred name!’

“(194) After the Sun had heard this, she was commanded to pass through the seat of the gods.”

Plato (says The God) is the One, the Single (monophués), the monadic, real Being (tò óntōs òn), the Good: but all such names refer to the Mind (noûn). Now Mind is The God, a separate form.

And let the separate be understood as what is not mixed with any matter, and (which is) entangled with none of the corporeal things, and which has no share in the passivity of nature.

The other divine things are intelligible (noētà) offspring of this father and maker. They are the so-called intelligible cosmos <and the ideas>, and they are the models (paradeígmata) of the visible cosmos. In addition to these, there are certain powers (called gods) in the ether (enaithérioi) – but lógoi are incorporeal – and in the air (enaérioi) and in the water (énydroi). And the visible (gods) are Sun, Moon, Stars, Earth, and the cosmos which contains all things.

“The principle (arkhē) and the first of all beings is unmoved, both essentially and accidentally, and it brings about the first eternal and unitary movement; for it is necessary that what is moved is moved by something, and that the first mover is essentially unmoved, and also that eternal motion is moved by something eternal, and what is unitary (or ‘one’) by some one thing. “But we see that, beside the unitary (or ‘simple’) movement of the universe, of which we say that the first and unmoved substance moves it, there are other eternal movements, namely those of the planets […] and it is necessary that each of these movements is also moved by a substance that is essentially unmoved and eternal. For the eternal nature of the stars is a certain substance, and that which moves is eternal and prior to that which is moved, and it is also necessary that what is prior to substance is a substance. So, it is evident that there necessarily substances which by their nature are eternal, essentially unmoved and without extension […]. “That (these Movers) are substances, and that there is a certain first and second one (and so on), according to the same orders of the motions (phorai) of the stars, is evident” (Metaphysics 10723ab). Here we see that, while the Movers are ordered hierarchically, the First Mover is commensurate with the others; and when Aristotle goes on to argue for the unity of the cosmos (or ‘heaven’, ouranos, which here refers especially to the outermost sphere), and for the unity of its First Mover, he immediately follows this by arguing that all the Movers are gods: “That there is only one heaven is evident. For if there were many heavens, like there are humans, the principle of each would be one in species, but many in number. But whenever there are many in number (of something), they have matter; […] but the first essence (ti ēn einai) does not have matter; for it is an actuality (or ‘entelechy’). So, since the First Mover, which is unmoved, is one in pattern (logos) and in number, that which is eternally and continuously moved is likewise; and so, there is only one heaven. “It has been handed down, in the form of a myth, as a tradition from the ancients and those of the oldest times to those after them, that these (Movers) are gods, and that the divine encompasses all of nature. The rest has been added later, in a mythical manner so as to persuade the masses, and because of the usefulness (of mythical narratives) for the laws and expedience (eis tous nomous kai to sympheron); for they say that that they are human-shaped (anthrōpoeideis) and like certain other animals, and other things that follow from these things or are related to the aforementioned. “If, setting all these things aside, one takes only this first (opinion), that the first substances are gods, one should regard it as divinely said, and that – since in all probability, every art and philosophy has been fully explored and lost in turn many times over – these opinions have survived as a kind of remnant of them until now. And it is to this extent only that the view of our ancestors and the earliest (writers?) is clear to us” (Metaphysics 1074ab). This does not necessary entail that the Movers are the only gods (although it might), but it certainly does entail that all of them are gods. And this provides the crucial context for interpreting the more famous passage, slightly earlier in the Metaphysics, where Aristotle discusses the nature of ho theos, ‘the god’. This not “God”, as Christian readers would have it, but ‘the god’ in the sense of ‘the gods as a genus’, just as ho anthrōpos means both ‘the human being’ and, in an abstract sense, ‘humankind’. (Compare the obsolete English ‘man’ for ‘mankind’, i.e., ‘human’ for ‘humanity’.) So, let us see how Aristotle understands ‘godkind’: The First Mover (or the god more generally?) “is life; for the actualization (energeia) of mind (nous) is life, and he is actuality (energeia); but his the essential actuality is a most excellent and eternal life. For of course we call the god an eternal and most excellent living being (zōion aïdion ariston), so that life and aiōn (‘lifetime; eternity’) are continuous and eternal for the god; for that is the god” (Metaphysics 1072b). (Note that I have omitted the preceding, more famous passage about “thought thinking itself” or “intellect cognizing the intelligible”, since it is about the First Mover, not ‘the god’.) According to the conventional, monotheistic reading of this passage, Aristotle is supposed to have introduced the radical opinion that there is only one god by nothing more than the phrase “that is is the god”, while presupposing it elsewhere. But from context, it is much more natural to read this as meaning “this is what the gods are like”. Firstly, we know from 1074b that Aristotle believes there to be many gods; secondly, the definition of gods as eternal and most excellent living beings accords perfectly with Greek tradition; and thirdly, Aristotle introduces this definition with the particle dē, which I translate “of course”: this can only mean that he is relying on a view that is already shared by his audience, and is now being applied to one god in particular, the First Mover. "Zeus, therefore, is the whole world, animal of animals, and God of Gods; but Zeus, that is, inasmuch as he is the mind from which he brings forth all things, and by his thoughts creates them. When the theologians had explained the nature of God in this manner, to make an image such as their description indicated was neither possible, nor, if any one thought of it, could he show the look of life, and intelligence, and forethought by the figure of a sphere. But they have made the representation of Zeus in human form, because mind was that according to which he wrought, and by generative laws brought all things to completion; and he is seated, as indicating the steadfastness of his power: and his upper parts are bare, because he is manifested in the intellectual and the heavenly parts of the world; but his feet are clothed, because he is invisible in the things that lie hidden below. And he holds his sceptre in his left hand, because most close to that side of the body dwells the heart, the most commanding and intelligent organ: for the creative mind is the sovereign of the world. And in his right hand he holds forth either an eagle, because he is master of the Gods who traverse the air, as the eagle is master of the birds that fly aloft - or a victory, because he is himself victorious over all things.”

Thus, I must speak about the Hellenic version of myself and a mingling arm of my power.

Helios (also named Zeus, Iuppiter, and Iovis) is the King of Heaven and the All, fathering our existence as we know it. He is the Celestial Demiurge, and as the Supreme Sovereign He is set over the whole order; singular in highest divinity; He is both the progenitor and the highest creator of all. His act of creation took place prior to the creation of time, and therefore creation is beyond the limits of time and is ultimately eternal; meaning the universe has no beginning or end in time. As our universe was created by Him, who is perfect, it was created perfect, and nothing may be added to it as that would be excess.

All the cosmos, Intelligible, Intellective and Generation, are ruled by a sun represented in three Hypostases respectively, starting with Aion as the Transcendent Sun (Intelligible), Zeus-Helios as the invisible Celestial Sun (Intellective), and finally, the Visible Helios which acts as the Celestial Demiurge’s material body (Encosmic). Zeus is not merely the highest divinity of Hellenism, but He is the highest and most supreme divinity in the entire Cosmos. Underneath Zeus-Helios are other individual Gods, also created by Him, who aid in the ontological hierarchy of the universe by participating in His divine essence, not being His competitors but rather His assistants.

Zeus-Helios is the God of creation and generation, the immaterial and material, the soldier and mystic, the simple and wise, the peasant and king, the mortals and Gods below Him. He is King of Olympus, Father of Gods and men, averter of evil. He is both a personal and impersonal God: a universal God who can still listen to and answer individual needs. Without the King of the Gods, practice and worship is not complete, for He is the one whom we naturally stretch out our hands towards when we turn to the heavens when we pray. If we have any notion at all of the divine, we turn heavenward. And it was very natural that men should feel this. Without Him, Hellenism is not complete. Hellenism is not Hellenism without the King of the Gods. The One is the cause of beauty, existence, perfection, and oneness among the Intelligible Gods, also called the henads, which is the highest essence of the Gods’. The One connects these gifts and illuminates the Gods with a power which works for good (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 361). Through Aion, the One gives rise to the Celestial Demiurge, Zeus-Helios, who came into Being (Ousia, meaning “Substance” or “Essence”) along with the rest of the Gods (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 361). He is the principle of Intellect, where Intelligible reality is grasped by Him, the divine mind, also called Nous, meaning “Mind” or “Intellect.” He is the God behind our visible sun. He is a divine mean, connecting the Intelligible and Physical Realms. Zeus-Helios is appointed by Aion as ruler of the Gods (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 361), and illuminates the same gifts that Aion grants the henads upon the Intellective Gods. This bestows upon them the faculty of thought and being comprehended by thought (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 397). This was done so the cause which resembles the Good may guide the Intellective Gods “to blessings for them all, and may regulate all things according to pure reason” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 361). He is described as “creator of the cosmos.” Prior to Him, there was chaos, and everything was disorganized. It was only through Zeus-Helios, who received through Aion the creative power to shape the cosmos, that the cosmos were properly crafted. As such, He is a God of order and formation, being the one who fashions the World Soul (the literal soul of our Realm which connects all living beings) and the one who mixes the souls of the Phenomenal Gods, the Greater Kinds and humanity while also (through the divine Athene) ordering the Gods to place the physical realm in its proper order. Furthermore, while it is the One who creates matter (hylē), it is the Demiurge who directs the Logoi (lower manifestations of the Forms as the Demiurge’s thoughts) to inform and give shape to the hylē, an empty receptive substance which forms into matter as we know once engage with the logoi, hence forming the cosmos.. There was no creatio ex nihilo (“creation from nothing”), but rather the ordering of the cosmos was creatio ex materia (“creation from [pre-existent] matter”) since the universe is infinite and there cannot be nothing. Zeus reigns as the King of the Gods and Heavens, and though there are a plethora of deities who partake in the divine act of creation, it is all under His direction.

The visible disc in our own skies is known as the “Eye of Zeus,” “Visible Helios,” “Encosmic Demiurge,” and the “Seven Rayed God.” Here the Celestial Demiurge acts through His pneumatic vehicle in the Intellective Realm and appears visible in the Encosmic Realm, our material universe, as our visible sun. The status and functions of the Visible Sun here in the Sensible Realm is analogous to those of the Celestial Demiurge in the Intellective Realm: this is the expression of Helios that is visible and known for His centrality among the planets, giving us sustained life with His warmth, giving us sight which grants us clearance and mirrors goodness, and governs our Encosmic Realm by embracing matter within Himself to impose order on it. Through His radiance He blesses the Encosmic Gods with the same Intelligible gifts as He does the Intellective Gods, perfecting them and allowing them to be made visible in the universe (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 367). His divine rays, undefiled incarnations of pure Nous (Flavius Claudius Iulianis, I 363), illuminate the universe and bring the souls of those who achieve henosis into union with the One. He is described by Hesiod as Zeus’ eye whose vision is divine (Hesiod, Work and Days, 267), and it is this aspect of the Demiurge who we pray to when we turn towards the heavens. He produces for us “rain and wind and the clouds in the skies, by employing, as though it were matter, the two kinds of vapour,” for when He “heats the earth he draws up steam and smoke, and from these there arise not only the clouds but also all the physical changes on our earth, both great and small” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 415-417).

In total, Julian writes of King Helios that His functions are (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 367):

  1. “First His power to perfect, from the fact that He makes visible the objects of sight in the universe, for through His light He perfects them.”
  2. “Secondly, His creative and generative power from the changes wrought by Him in the universe.”
  3. “Thirdly, His power to link together all things into one whole, from the harmony of His motions towards one and the same goal.”
  4. “Fourthly, His middle station we can comprehend from Himself, who is midmost.”
  5. “Fifthly, the fact that He is established as king among the Intellective Gods, from His middle station among the planets.”

My epithets are:

O All-ruling Sun!

Spirit of the World,

Power of the World,

Light of the World.

Epithets[]

Iovis has many epithets under many names, though His most notable are:

  • Pater, meaning Father
  • Invictus, meaning Unconquerable
  • Basileus, meaning King

Continuing on, The One (Greek: Hen), which is also the Good (Greek: tou agathon), is the ultimate and true unknowable Godhead and reality. It has an utterly singularly unitary nature (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2-3) as one of its most defining characteristics is the sum of all things in existence. The One is utterly immovable, abiding in the solitude of its own unity. Plato tells us that even to give it a name or speak of it places limiting labels and definitions, writing that “you cannot say that it ‘has’ anything or that there is anything ‘of’ it. Consequently, it cannot have a name or be spoken of, nor can there be any knowledge or perception or opinion of it. It is not named or spoken of, not an object of opinion or of knowledge, not perceived by any creature” (Plato Parmenides, 142a). This is because the One is not only the sum of everything, but transcends and lays beyond each thing as the ultimate source of the all, manifesting multiplicity through the overflowing emanation of its superabundant goodness (Uždavinys 2009, 27). It is without beginning or end, and is even beyond the Gods which manifest from it. It is also infrequently called God (Greek: Theos, Latin: Deus), but it is important to stress that the One is an apophatic God, existing wholly supra-essentially (Hyparxis) and completely beyond Being or Substance (hyperousios), thus existing completely within in a negative reality; and because of this it is not directly knowable. It can only really be understood, as little as it can, by negation, where one only speaks in terms of what may not be said about its perfectness. Damascius calls it the Unutterable Principle, or Árritos Arkhí (Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή), made out of the words árritos, meaning “that which cannot be expressed” or “not to be divulged,” and arkhí, meaning “beginning” (Damascius, De Princ., 123.2). Though the One is singular, it may paradoxically be best understood (as best as we can understand it, that is) triadically, “all contained within itself transcendentally and immanently throughout the realms and cosmos” (Theourgia.org Catechism, 2). These three moments of the One are the Ineffable One, the Simply One and the One-Being. Here the One in all of its ways exists beyond Being (On), beyond Life (Zoe), and beyond Mind (Noesis) (Theourgia.org Catechism, 2). These all derive from the One but the One is simultaneously beyond them, for “as the senses of the physical body cannot grasp nor even perceive the realities of the mind, as image cannot take hold in what is absolutely simple and shapeless, and as the bodily cannot approach the incorporeal so too is the mind incapable of gazing upon that which is beyond intellect and beings are to be found inferior to that which is infinitely prior to being” (Theourgia.org Catechism, 2). The Ineffable One, also called the Absolute One, is the unparticipated One (Finamore 1985, 41). The Ineffable One has a singular nature, encompassing but laying beyond all things. It is eternal, existing ungenerated and without Being (Ousia). The One does not exist as we understand existence, instead existing in a negative reality outside of Being (Ontas). As such, the Ineffable One is none and is found nowhere at all, with Plato writing that it “neither is, nor is one” (Plato Parmenides, 141e), but simultaneously it is also the first of a series of things which are different from, but dependent upon, the One for their Being. It is the principle beyond all Being, beyond all participation, totally imparticipable and transcendent, beyond all knowledge, and “unmoved in the singularity of its own unity” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2-3) for “no object of intellection is linked to him, nor anything else” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2-3). It not only transcends physical reality, but transcends the mind. It is passive, laying in ultimate repose. All things exist because of the Ineffable One, though the Ineffable One is beyond all things. The Ineffable One is the ultimate and true reality, participating in nothing, prior and superior to everything else. The Ineffable One is simply the One in-and-of itself, being unconnected to anything after it. It is the first principle from which everything else (i.e., the Many) proceeds. The One can be identified as the First Cause. This is because:

If the First Cause were Mind, then all things would possess mind…

If the First Cause were Soul, then all things would possess soul…

If the First Cause were Being, then all things would partake in Being…

Some people may come to think that the First Cause is Being, as they see this quality in all things. Now if things had nothing but Being, and did not also possess goodness, this assertion would be true; but if beings subsist through goodness, and participate in the Good, it is necessary that the First Cause should be the supra-essential Good (Sallustius, V).

Evidence of this is most obvious in souls endued with virtue, seen when they expose themselves to the most imminent dangers for their country or friends, or virtue itself; through Good neglecting the care of their own Being (Sallustius, V). Thus, the One can be identified as the First Cause – as unity precedes the multitude, surpassing all things in power and goodness. Consequently, all things must partake of it, and the One is the primordial active source of Being from which all things emanate, though it does not actually create itself. Its existence, however, is necessary for there to be anything else, and this we must understand this Intelligible Triad of Being, Life and Mind is not the First Cause and lies after the One (Sallustius, V). This is important as it means that the One, and with that the Gods who spawn from it who are not “separated from the first cause, or from each other” (Sallustius, II), are in every way axiomatic. When we discuss Being, we are discussing ontology, which is a space of argument. We establish the existence of the ontic hypostases through dialectic. However, the Gods’ existence is simply fact: it exists no matter what, regardless of speculation. As the divine Iamblichus says, the existence of the Gods is not something you can “either grant or not grant, nor admit to it as ambiguous (for it remains always uniformly in actuality), nor should we examine the question as though we were in a position either to assent to it or to reject it; for it is rather the case that we are enveloped by the divine presence, and we are filled with it, and we possess our very essence by virtue of our knowledge that there are Gods.” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.3). The Ineffable One as the First Cause is important, as it means in Orphism the Ineffable One is understood as the deity Khronos (Latin: Chronus), a God with wings and the heads of “a lion, a bull, and a God” (146). Proclus explains this identification (Proclus in Cratylus, 66.28): “Orpheus . . . has assigned names to all the entities prior to Ouranos all the way up to the first cause, and that which is ineffable itself and has proceeded forth from the Intelligible henads he calls Chronos, either because it is a pre- existing cause of all generation or [because] he is portraying the things that really exist as being generated, in order to show their organization and the primacy of the more universal entities in relation to the more particular, and so that temporal succession should be identified with causal succession, just as generation is identified with ordered procession.” Meisner elaborates on Proclus’ explanation (Meisner 2018, 188): “Proclus claims that all of the gods in the Rhapsodies before Ouranos represent different metaphysical entities “all the way up to the first cause.” Chronos is this first cause, both as a “pre-existing cause of all generation” and in the sense that “temporal succession should be identified with causal succession.” Here Proclus touches upon the idea that what appears as a “temporal succession” of events in a poetic narrative is actually a “causal succession” of metaphysical principles that is perpetually occurring. In the same sense, acts of “generation” in the narrative represent processes of “ordered procession” from the One to the Many, and from the higher levels of the Neoplatonic universe to the lower levels. Chronos is the first cause from which everything flows, and this is seen as an eternal process, not a single event. Chronos as the One is the most universal entity from which the more particular entities are generated.” In the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony, Khronos gives birth to Aither and Khaos. This act of giving birth can be allegorically understood as the Simply One (ho haplos hen), also called That Which is Before Duality (pro tos duados). The Simply One is derived from Iamblichus’ reading of the second hypothesis of Plato’s Parmenides (Dillon 2009, 30). Whereas the first hypothesis concludes that a One cannot be, the second hypothesis begins by saying that “[i]f a one is, it cannot be, and yet not have existence” (Plato Parmenides, 142a). This second One is necessary because the first moment of the One, the Ineffable One, is completely contained within itself and eternally Ineffable, meaning there can be nothing outside the One. However, we know there are things outside of the One, evidenced by how I wrote this and you’re reading this. As a result, we have the Simply One, which is the creative first principle, or the One in activity. One might be wondering why there are things outside of the One. This is explained by Plotinus’ description of the activity of the One. Here, he describes that the One overflows of its own superabundance (Uždavinys 2009, 27). It gains nothing from this overflowing, nor has any need to overflow. Rather, it is simply its nature, and hence in turn it is also simply in the nature of the divine. Based on all of this information, all we can say about the Simply One is that it exists, and its nature is that it is pre-existing everywhere. In Pythagorean theological arithmetic the monad is not the same as the number “1” in contemporary math (Kupperman 2014, 91). Instead, a monad transcends number, being the “non-spatial source of number” (Waterfield 1988, 35). Because of this, numbers only come into existence with the Dyad, “where there are two things, or difference” (Kupperman 2014, 91). This is because without difference there are no numbers; the number one is distinct from the number two, the number two is distinct from the number three, and so forth. Even though the Simply One is beyond duality, duality comes as a result of it as the Dyad. The Dyad is between singularity and multiplicity and has characteristics of both, representing “Limit and the Unlimited, or if one wishes, One and Many” (Dillon 2009, 31). Here “One” and “Many” are understood as the existence of opposites: while the One represents unification, the Dyad represents separation. These concepts are understood in Orphism as the Gods Aither (Latin: Aether) and Khaos (Latin: Chaos) respectively, who come forth from Khronos. Proclus explains that (Proclus In Timaeus, 1.385.17 ): “Just as Plato derived two causes, Limit and Unlimited, from the One, so also did the theologian bring Aither and Chaos into existence from Chronos, Aither as the cause of limit everywhere, and Chaos [as the cause] of unlimitedness; and from these two principles he generates both the divine and visible orders.” Proclus further explains this in his commentary of the Parmenides, writing that (Proclus In Parmenides, 1121.27 ): “The infinite is Chaos, insofar as it is receptive of every power and every type of unlimitedness, and insofar as it encircles everything else. . . . Aither is limit because this [visible] aither too limits and measures all things.” Plato who makes it clear that plurality must exist if there is a One that is (“is” as in “is existing“), so the One and Many are not only opposites but the beginning of number in the Platonist system— after all, what would the One be the source of if there is nothing which follows? (Plato Parmenides, 144a-e) The introduction of the Dyad here is a logical necessity stemming from Plato’s Parmenides, specifically the second hypothesis. In placing the Dyad ontologically after the Simply One, rather than simultaneously, Iamblichus tells us that duality is a natural result of the existence of the Simply One. The level or mode of reality may be described as “ontological.” The root of the word ontology is ontos, meaning “that which is real.” Ontology is the study of real things, and ontologically prior things are “more real” than what comes after them. Iamblichus tells us that the Parmenidean hypotheses aren’t just mere logical propositions; rather they represent something ontological, something very literally real. Furthermore, Iamblichus tells us about necessity. The One is as real as reality gets, and as such the One is necessary in a way that nothing else is. If there isn’t a One, there is nothing; however there is clearly something. You, me, whatever you’re reading this from, etc. These things are, and they are because the Simply One is. What Iamblichus conveys is that at this level things that must be are. If something must logically follow from a proposition such as the Simply One, then that something exists. Not only does it exist, but it exists ontologically posterior to that which it must follow. The Dyad must exist, and it must exist after the Simply One, and following the Dyad is the One-Being. Finally, following the Dyad is the One-Being (alternatively called One-Extant), the final moment of the One. The One-Being sits at the lowest point of the realm of the One, and as the lowest the One-Being acts as a bridge between the realm of the One and the Intelligible realm, simultaneously existing in both as a mediate (this is part of an Iamblichean axiom: the lowest principle of one realm is also the highest principle of the next). The One-Being is prior to both oneness and Being, existing in all its ways beyond being, beyond life, and beyond mind; though it is the source of it all, giving it all to the Intelligible Realm, the highest realm directly below the non-realm of the One. Because of this, the One-Being can be identified with the cosmic egg from Khronos created after Duality that births Phanes. This is explained by Meisner as such (Meisner 2018, 189-190): “In its initial creation, the cosmic egg allegorically represents the Mixture that results from Limit (Aither) and Unlimited (Chaos). Limit and Unlimited, occupying the next level of the Neoplatonic metaphysical scheme after the One, correspond to Chronos creating the cosmic egg after the birth of Aither and Chaos. . . Damascius quotes Orpheus narrating that “great Chronos fashioned with the divine Aither / a silver- shining egg” in order to demonstrate that “everything that is unified is mixed.” He adds that “the word ‘fashioned’ shows that the egg is an artifact and not naturally conceived,” which means that it “is mixed from two things at least, matter [Unlimited] and form [Limited].” Likewise, Proclus argues that “if the first thing [to issue] from Limit and the Unlimited is primal Being, Plato’s Being and the Orphic egg will be the same thing.” The cosmic egg was a particularly useful allegorical image of the One and the Many. An egg has a simple shape and one simple colour, so it is unified but it contains potential multiplicity within itself. Olympiodorus explains how the egg can be used as a metaphor for Intelligible Being: “for as in [the egg] every part is undifferentiated and not the head or the foot, so also in the Intelligibleall Forms that are united are undiffentiated from one another.” . . . This image of the egg was attractive to commentators as a simple object containing the potential diversity of the entire creation inside its shell. The image of multiplicity within unity was useful for illuminating the concept that the first level of Intelligible Being contains the (Platonic) Forms of all subsequent levels, but these Forms are not yet differentiated from one another.” Imagine something beautiful, such as a breathtaking waterfall. Now, instead of pausing and focusing on that experience alone, lift your mind higher and consider that this sight is not the only beautiful thing. There are many other experiences equally or more beautiful as this one. Now, we must consider that there is something in common amongst all these experiences — in exactly the same way that there is something in common for all circles, all homes, or all dogs. That is, each of these things has some defining principle or principles: some unchangeable, transcendent, universal essence. However, this universal essence is not the only essence. We may conceive of the abstract “Form” of a circle, which would exist even if somehow we were able to remove all physical circles from the world. There are also things such as Truth, Excellence, and Virtue— which we also consider to be good and beautiful without even giving it a second thought. And thus we may suppose that there is some Form for each of these other things: a Form of Truth, of Virtue, of Excellence, of Justice, etc. With these universal essences in mind, we may also deduce that there is some Form of Beauty, which is the principle that all beautiful things have in common, and that this may potentially exist independently of all beautiful things. And connected to this Form of Beauty, we may consider an overarching principle or essence which all these different Forms of good things have in common. Something beyond these things closely connected to the Form of Beauty which all can ultimately trace their source from. This essential and primordial good would be the Form of the Good, (tou agathou idean), which is that “which just things and all the rest become useful and beneficial” (Plato Republic, 505a). The ultimate source of this Form is the Good itself, also known as the One. But why are the One and the Good the same, and what exactly is the Good? The Good is that “which every soul pursues” for the sake of all that it does (Plato Republic, 505e). It’s not possible to describe it in any useful way, because not only is it beyond the mind, but it’s beyond Being and essence themselves, and thus there isn’t any singular thing we can point to so that one may describe it. Hence, Plato turns to analogy to describe the Good (Plato Republic, 507c-509a). In the Republic, Socrates discusses the nature of one of the five senses, sight. Sight isn’t possible if there is merely eyes and an object to be seen, as “vision will see nothing and the colors will remain invisible” (Plato Republic, 507e). For us to have sight, we require the thing “that you call light” (Plato Republic, 507e), and the source of light is ultimately linked to a divine source, the sun (Plato Republic, 507d-e). In Platonism, the planets and stars are the bodies of the Encosmic Gods. Particularly, the sun is the body of Zeus-Helios, the Divine Mind and Creator (myself). When our sights look upon objects fully illuminated by the benevolent sun, we have full, sharp, clear vision. The Form of the Good is akin to the sun, which is itself “a visible reflection of the invisible Good” (Kupperman 2014, 97). When the soul looks upon the Intelligible Realm, “where truth and reality shine resplendent” (Plato Republic, 508d), it can grasp knowledge of those things “and attain to reason” (Kupperman 2014, 97). However, if the soul should avert their eyes from the Intelligible Realm and towards our realm of generation, its vision of truth will be dulled, “just as though the eye were turned away from illuminated objects” (Kupperman 2014, 97). It’s important to note, however, that while light and vision are like the sun that they are not the all-ruling sun itself, rather the sun is the cause of vision (Plato Republic, 508b). Likewise, this is also true for the Good. The Good is “beyond that which it allows us to know” (Kupperman 2014, 97), and like the One, while we may never know it, we may know of it. This is because the Good is the One (Kupperman 2014, 97). The Good being synonymous with the One is fundamental to Platonism. Proclus writes that “all things desire the Good” (Dodds 1963, 35, C Prop. 31), and hence the Good must be beyond everything since “all appetite implies a lack of, and a severance from, the object craved” (Dodds 1963, 11, B Prop. 8). As such, because the Good illuminates the entirety of the Intelligible Realm, it consequently must exist before that realm, and hence it isn’t merely beyond entities but beyond Being (Ousia) (Kupperman 2014, 97). Furthermore, the Good is wholly self-contained. Nothing can be added to it that would make it better, because “if something can be added to the Good to improve it, then that thing would be the Good all things desire” (Kupperman 2014, 97). All things derive from the One, and the One is the Good because the Good is the best thing possible; for if something else were superior to the Good, the soul would turn to that instead. Additionally, the nature of the Good is to “unify things and perfect them,” (Kupperman 2014, 98) which is illustrated in the Republic where the Good makes all things beneficial and useful, and hence beautiful. However, the principle of unity belongs to the One-Being as Aion, the Monad above the Intelligible Realm. This ultimately means that anything which fails to participate the Good also “ceases having the power of unity, and anything that ceases to have the power of union ceases participating the Good” (Kupperman 2014, 98). “Goodness, then, is unification, and unification goodness; the Good is one, and the One is primal good” (Dodds 1963, 17, C Prop. 13). The One is the highest divinity, but in all of its modes, it is not directly knowable. Just like the analogy of the sun in Plato’s Republic, we’re able to see truth by the One’s divine light, but we should not mistake the truth for “that which illuminates it” (Kupperman 2014, 98). And without the One, there is no truth. The use of this knowledge regarding this unknowable One is practical. The One is the foundation of all things, existing beyond everything and, but at the same time, existing “in or to all things” (Kupperman 2014, 98). The divine Iamblichus writes of this principle that “in the highest levels of beings, the abundance of power has this additional advantage over all others, in being present to all equally in the same manner without hindrance; according to this principle then, the primary beings illuminate even the lowest levels, and the immaterial are present immaterially to the material” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, V.23, 267). The One is always with us. The unity and goodness which it brings are what we all strive for, even if we don’t always succeed in our goals. All acts of love (eros) are imitations of the Good, for Eros is “the perpetrator of unions” (Kupperman 2014, 98). And finally, as the source of unions, the presence of the Good in the material cosmos is what allows us for the practice of virtue, theourgia, theosis, and ultimately henosis (Kupperman 2014, 98). Bursting forth from the cosmic egg is who Orpheus calls Protogonos or Phanes. Protogonos is depicted as both male and female, whose name means “to bring light” or “to shine,” as it is from Him all life emanates. However, the Supreme God is both nameless and many-named. To the divine Iamblichus He is called Aion, meaning Eternity. Iamblichus also calls Him the “Pre-Essential” (proousios), “Father of Himself” (autopater), “Principle of Himself” (autarchis), “God of Gods” (theos theon), “Father of Essence” (ousiopator), “Principle of Intellection” (noetarchis prosagoreoetai), and “Monad springing from the One” (monas ek tou enos) (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2). To the blessed Julian He is called Hyperion, meaning “The High-One” or “He who Watches from Above.” Julian also calls Him the “Supra-Intelligible” (epekeina tou nou) and “Idea of Being” (idean ton onton) (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 359). To the inspired Hesiod, Aion is called Metis, who Zeus must swallow to gain the intellect to become supreme Lord of the Kosmos. Aion can be understood as the One-Being once it’s reflected into the Intelligible Realm (i.e., the first realm of Being which is immediately after the non-realm of the One), autonomously shining forth from it (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2). For this Iamblichus calls Him “the self-sufficient God, for which reason He is termed “father of Himself” and “principle of Himself”; for He is first principle and “God of Gods” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2), and Julian calls Him the “first and greatest” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 361). Plato writes that “eternity [aion] remains in the One” (Plato Timaeus, 37d5), which tells us that Aion is a horizontal extension of the One, i.e., existing within the same level and occupying the same ontological place as the One-Being; however, as He exists at the top of the Intelligible Realm as its first principle and cause, rather than at the bottom of the non-realm of the One, He is functionally different, and acts as a medium between the two realms. He is called the “Monad . . . from the One” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2), being pre-essential and the first principle of essence and source of essentiality and essence (i.e., ousia), for which reason he is termed “father of essence” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2). He is thus the supreme genus who allows for all levels of the ontological hierarchy to participate in His divine essence. As the Monad from the One who is the pre-essential first principle of the Intelligible Realm He is the “Principle of Intellection” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.2), the source of that which is thought, who thinks the Gods under Him (out of the pre-essential henads He pluralizes from Himself as the One-Being, who are unfolded into His unity, monoeides), and Being itself, into existence, springing forth the entirety of the Intelligible Cosmos, the Intelligible Gods, and His vertical emanation the Celestial Demiurge (the Nous, i.e., Zeus-Helios), all of whom surround Him (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 377). As the Good made manifest as a God, Aion is the source of Being, Life, and Intellect who unifies and rules over Them (Iamblichus In Timaeus, fr. 54). He also holds the role of organizing His domain, the Intelligible Realm, and all its inhabitants (i.e., the Gods) according to the impulses given by the One, bestowing upon the Intelligible Gods the life-light which sustains and nourishes Them, granting Them their beauty, existence, perfection, and oneness (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, I 361) and allowing Them to think in a unitary mode. As the One-Being, Aion’s existence is beyond all things and prior to the Gods under Him, being alone in the singularity of the highest divinity, governing apart over the universe. He is so sublime and transcendental that even the Gods intimately connected and inseperable from Him are simultaneously under Him, unable to know Him, as admitted by Clarian Apollo at His oracle (Smith 1995, 98): “There exists a fire (phlogmos) which has occupied a vessel above the heavens – a fire infinitely in motion, a boundless eternity. It is not within the grasp of the blessed Gods, unless the mighty Father should plan His purposes so that He Himself might be looked upon: in that place the ether does not bear the radiant stars; nor is the luminous moon raised up there. No God meets Him [the Father, who is fire] on His path, nor am I myself [solar Apollo] spread out so far as to reach Him, though I whirl through the ether in company with my light-rays. God is fire, a vast channel moving in a spinning motion with a whirring sound. But if someone touched that ethereal fire, he would not feel fear in his heart, for it has not power to burn. Through an unceasing care that derives from God Himself, eternity mingles with eternities. Self-begotten, untaught, without a mother, unshakeable, nameless, many-named, and dwelling in fire – that is God; we are messengers (angeloi), only a small part of God.” Aion is the creative power the Celestial Demiurge draws from to create and shape the cosmos. Matter (hylē) is also created by Aion, and is thus eternal. Hylē is initially vacant though, being an empty receptive substance which forms into matter as we know it once the Celestial Demiurge directs the Logoi to give hylē shape. This informs matter and gives it shape, turning it from an empty substance into the matter we understand. Aion is also the model upon which the Cosmos are based on, for which reason He is called “the Paradigm” (Iamblichus, De Mysteriis VIII.2) and the “the Essence of Being” (Iamblichus In Timaeus, fr. 35) from which all Being stems. Here, the divine Zeus, Demiurge of the Kosmos, “unpacks” a paradigm for the cosmos (i.e., a soul-formula) from all the Kings of the Kosmos before Him, who are His pre-forms. It is described in Orphic fragments that Zeus does so by swallowing Phanes (Orphic Fragments (Kern) 58, 164, 165, and 167. Loosely trans. by HellenicGods.org, Edited): “Thus mighty Zeus engulfed and swallowed Erikapaios [Phanes], employing all of His power, and drew everything that existed into the hollow of His belly. And now all things in Zeus were created anew, the sky, the sea, the earth, and all the blessed and immortal Gods and Goddesses, all that was then and all that will be, all mingled in the belly of Zeus.” The philosopher Damascius tells us there there is a distinctly tripartite quality of power from Aion that Zeus attains by engulfing Him (Damascius, De Principiis 123):

By swallowing Phanes, the Father, Zeus gains the generative capacity needed to create and shape the kosmos.

By swallowing Metis, Zeus attains the intellect to create the kosmos by design and manage it.

By swallowing Erikpaios, Zeus attains the very power to rule.

In Platonism, Aion is identified as the Third Intelligible Triad/Intelligible Intellect/The Paradigm/The Living-Thing-Itself/Animal Itself. Phanes is also identified as Eros in the Orphic Rhapsodies (Meisner 2018, 193). This can be taken as a way to understand how the Form of Beauty is formed within Aion. “This form is contained within the higher sub- levels of the metaphysical system, but Phanes is the first god to “participate” or “to have been filled with” Beauty. Phanes, the god who appears and makes things appear, becomes the first god in whom Beauty appears, both in the Rhapsodic narrative and in the Neoplatonic allegory, and thus he is assimilated to Eros” (Meisner 2018, 193). Aion being the cosmic model Zeus draws from the shape creation is important, because it tells us that the kosmos and its nature are modeled by the Celestial Demiurge based upon something that is eternal, unchangeable, good, and beyond generation, as Plato writes: “Everyone will see that [the Celestial Demiurge] must have looked to the eternal, for the world is the fairest of creations, and He is the best of causes” (Plato Timaeus, 29a). The Demiurge gives order to the disorderly motion of the cosmos by creating Soul as an image of Phanes, the paradigm, who is Animal Itself. Iamblichus states that the Gods are monoeides, meaning “in the form of singularity” (Clark 2010, 56-57), a term which Plato uses for the Good. This means that the Gods share a single unity as emanatory manifestations within Their singular divine source, the One Supra-Essential Godhead (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 379), as unity precedes the existence of multiplicity (Sallustius, V). They derive from the One through simple multiplication of itself into a multitude (and thus preserving most of its attributes, as everything is multiplied oneness) and functioning as horizontal extensions of the same power, which leads back to that unity. In doing so, the Godhead provides access to all His capabilities to all Gods via Himself and doesn’t ask for a exclusive pedestal of superiority, because all manifestations are treated as equal to Him. It allows Himself to be accessed by one manifestation via another manifestation indirectly. This is all-pervasiveness. Each God is not “separate from the first cause, or from one each other” (Sallustius, II), and as such the One “neither is, nor is one” (Plato Parmenides, 141e). Each God, as a multiplication of the Good, is the center of all. This provides a case for a plurality of worship, as it means there are many ways to approach and worship God. While the Gods are united within the One as monoeides, each of the Gods, insofar as They are a God, are henads (meaning “unities”), supra-essential ineffable unities. Though They are beyond Being (hyperousios), the bottom level of one hypostasis is considered to be the top level of the next, and thus the Gods are simultaneously understood to possess substance (Ousia) at the summits of Being, in which through Aion They are illuminated from the One and communicated into Being as its first principles. Existing in the Intelligible Realm, They hold no need to strive upwards, for as the first principles of Being They are already at the summit of existence and fully participate in the One. The Gods concern themselves with things of this world and perform activities, however They do not perform these activities out of need because They are perfect and thus are without needs. This nature links back to the One and Plotinus’ description of its activity as an overflow of its superabundance. It gains nothing from this overflowing, nor has any need to overflow. Rather, it is simply its nature. Hence in turn, it is also simply in the nature of the divine. Need/necessity isn’t to be confused with want and nature.

“Every good tends to unify what participates it; and all unification is a good; and the Good is identical with the One.” -Proclus (Dodds 1963, 15, B Prop. 13.)

“Everything comes to be out of One and is resolved into One.” -Musaios (Guthrie 1935, 74-75)

“Prior to the true beings and to the universal principles [or principles that rank as wholes] there is the one God, prior cause even of [that deity who is generally believed to be] the first God and King, remaining unmoved in the singularity of His own unity. For no object of intellection is linked to Him, nor anything else. He is established as a paradigm for the self-fathering, self-generating and only-fathered God who is true Good; for it is something greater, and primary, and fount of all things, and basic root of all the first objects of intellection, which are the forms. From this One there has autonomously shone forth the self-sufficient God, for which reason He is termed “father of himself” and “principle of himself”; for He is first principle and God of Gods, a monad springing from the One, pre-essential and first principle of essence. For from Him springs essentiality and essence, for which reason He is termed “father of essence”; He Himself is pre-essential being, the first principle of the intelligible realm, for which reason He is termed “principle of intellection.” -Iamblichus, De Mysteriis VIII.2 [Edited]

“[The] first and greatest, namely, [is] the Idea of the Good.” -Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus (I 361)

“This divine and wholly beautiful universe, from the highest vault of heaven to the lowest limit of the earth, is held together by the continuous providence of the God, has existed from eternity ungenerated, is imperishable for all time to come, and is guarded immediately by nothing else than the Fifth Substance [Aithir] whose culmination is the beams of the sun; and in the second and higher degree, so to speak, by the intelligible world; but in a still loftier sense it is guarded by the King of the whole universe, who is the centre of all things that exist. He, therefore, whether it is right to call Him the Supra-Intelligible, or the Idea of Being, and by Being I mean the whole intelligible region, or the One, since the One seems somehow to be prior to all the rest, or, to use Plato’s name for Him, the Good; at any rate this uncompounded cause of the whole reveals to all existence beauty, and perfection, and oneness, and irresistible power” -Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus (I 359)

Your mother was the embodiment of beauty once, Helena of Troy. Thus, I speak:

Beauty & Love are two concepts that are frequently tied together in the dialogues as the basis of much of Platonism. They serve as important, driving theological and theurgic factors. Beauty and Love are ultimately a gateway & key respectively, which when combined leads us on the path of achieving union with the divine.

Beauty

The Greek word usually translated as “beautiful” is kalon, but they don’t mean precisely the same thing. While there are times in the dialogues where there’s congruence between the words, it’s not a constant. Plato is more likely to describe a work of art or the beauty of a face as kalon than the stuff found in nature. There are many possible translations of kalon, from “fine,” to “delightful,” to “loveliest,” etc. Generally, broadly translating kalon as “beautiful” is problematic. Sometimes kalon has the translation of “commendable” or “noble.” In Plato’s Symposium, wisdom is described as kalon (Plato Symposium, 204b), which gives the word a meaning beyond mere conceptions of material beauty by assigning it to a virtue.

Thus, we speak on the Form of Beauty:

In the dialogue, the Greater Hippias (also appropriately named “What is Beauty?“), the divine Plato puts forward the idea of Beauty being an Intelligible Form.

The Forms are an integral part of metaphysics, representing elements of idealized, archetypal, or divine reality. For instance, there is a Form of Virtue, Wisdom, and Justice, and these Forms are these things in their truest form. Human virtue, wisdom, and justice as seen in our material realm are but mere shadows of the Forms, instead participating in them to varying degrees. For example, if someone is Just, it is because they participate in the Form of Justice; when someone is Wise, it is because they participate in the form of Wisdom, etc. The Forms, while ultimately originating from the Intelligible Realm, are only realized and found by the Celestial Demiurge in the Intellective Realm, who as the Divine Mind (Nous) realizes the Forms and brings them to life. The Forms are, in short, truly real and existent things (Plato Greater Hippias, 287d), rather than merely metaphorical or psychological constructs.

As a Form, Beauty is understood as having an existence outside of any beautiful thing. Instead, everything that has beauty (which is to say everything to some degree) participates the Form of Beauty, and it is this way we know what things are ugly and which things are beautiful (Plato Greater Hippias, 286d). However, the Form of Beauty holds a unique position. Plato’s Symposium describes wisdom, which is itself the product of a Form, as beautiful. This explicitly implies that Beauty is somehow greater than, or ontological prior to, Wisdom; otherwise, Wisdom would have no need to participate in Beauty as it apparently does. Furthermore, Plato writes that unlike all the other Forms, “only the Form of Beauty is sensibly revealed, and therefore it is Beauty that instigates man’s anamnesis [memory] of the Gods” (Shaw 2014, 185) (Plato Phaedrus, 250 b-d). The reason Beauty is superior is due to its connection to the Good. This connection is found in the nature of beautiful things also being beneficial or good (Plato Greater Hippias, 286d):

Socrates: So we reach the conclusion that beautiful bodies and beautiful rules of life, and wisdom, and all the things we mentioned just now, are beautiful because they are beneficial?

Hippias: Evidently.

Socrates: Then it looks as if beauty is the beneficial, Hippias.

Hippias: Undoubtedly.

In essence, would the powerful and the useful be beautiful? Sort of. While they certainly hold that potential, in and of themselves they aren’t beautiful. Only when they are also beneficial or good are they beautiful. Because Beauty is connected to the Good, which in its lowest extreme is located at the height of the Intelligible Realm as Aion, Beauty is superior to all other Forms.

Symmetry’s connection to the Form of Beauty

Although beauty’s cause is the Form of Beauty, Plato provides another, though unusual, definition of beauty, in his dialogue the Philebus: “The beauty of figures which I am now trying to indicate is not what most people would understand as such, not the beauty of a living creature or a picture; what I mean, what the argument points to, is something straight, or round, and the surfaces and solids which a lathe, or a carpenter’s rule and square, produces from the straight and the round. . . . Things like that, I maintain, are beautiful not, like most things, in a relative sense; they are always beautiful in their very nature, and they carry pleasures peculiar to themselves which are quite unlike the pleasures of scratching. And there are colours too which have this characteristic” (Plato Philebus, 51c-d).

From this, Socrates’ examples of beautiful things include (Plato Philebus, 51c-d):

Plane figures, which have high levels of symmetry.

The Platonic solids (the elements fire, air, water, earth, and aether), which have high levels of symmetry.

The round object a lathe produces, which implies cylindrical symmetry.

This is all reflected in Plato’s Greater Hippias, where beauty is described to be that which is “appropriate” (Plato Greater Hippias, 290c-d). Appropriateness’ relation to symmetry is an element that’s common to Hellenic aesthetics, and is itself inherent with the Greek language:

The most common word used for describing the world or universe is kosmos, which holds a meaning of organization or arrangement. This indicates that the universe has a particular arrangement to it.

Furthermore, the kosmos are ordered by the Celestial Demiurge through logoi. Logos has several meanings, including “word,” “reason,” “intelligence,” and “proportion.” These words, especially the last, suggest a kind of symmetry or harmony (harmonia).

Harmonia comes from a root word that means “to join,” which suggests an intelligent and proportional joining of parts into an appropriately arranged whole: the kosmos. The use of proportion and harmony are also found, in detail, in the Demiurge’s creative powers through the logoi. Ultimately, we receive an idea of beauty as appropriate from Plato’s Greater Hippias (Plato Greater Hippias, 290c-d).

This view on Beauty being a Form also being symmetry or proportion might initially seem contradictory to Beauty being a Form; based on these two assertions:

A Form has no dependency on anything physical for its existence. Whether or not a physical window is made, the Form of Windows would exist regardless. After all, a window is merely an imperfect image of the Form of Window.

Proportion or symmetry, however, typically requires physical things.

This seeming issue is quickly addressed, however, once Platonism’s inherent ties to Pythagoreanism are realized. Pythagoreanism is notable for its use of numbers to understand reality, most notably the decads. As already noted, Plato’s application of geometric figures relates to the five Platonic solids. However, by using geometric figures, Plato connects the ideas of harmony and symmetry inherent in the Platonic solids to numbers, the basis of geometry (O’Meara 1990, 46). In addition, according to Iamblichus, there are several kinds of numbers, one of which are “idea numbers,” which explicitly means the decads are the Forms (O’Meara 1990, 78). While symmetry and proportion are properties of physical things, their bases, where they ultimately originate from, are in the world of Forms. The essence of what is beautiful, which is proportion and harmony, trace their source in the Form of Beauty.

Beauty in the Sensible Realm

It’s now been established that beauty ultimately has its origins from the Form of Beauty, and that which is beautiful is that which has harmony, proportion, and symmetry. However, this doesn’t give us an understanding on beauty in the material world. Things such as wealth, health, fame, to reach old age, etc., is of the physical beauty that will now be discussed. It is important to note that these are not Beauty itself, as that is the Form of Beauty, but they are, however, beautiful; for they participate in Beauty, as do all things. In Plato’s Symposium, a discussion is had where Diotima discusses a “hierarchy of beauty” regarding the beauty of bodies (Plato Symposium, 210a-b), in relation to the role of poets and artists in their search for beauty:

First is the beauty of a particular body

Further up is the beauty within all bodies.

This cultivates when the love of the beauty in all bodies becomes expressed as a beautiful verse (Plato Symposium, 209b-c).

However, although poetry and art are related to beauty in Plato’s Greater Hippias, it isn’t noted as such in the divine Plato’s other writings. Instead, it’s near-fully reversed. In Plato’s Republic, poetry and all mimetic (imitative) art are outright banned from Kalliopolis, the ideal city thought of by Plato. The reasoning is because mimetic art is deceptive, appearing to be something that it’s not. Such creations not only fall beneath the Form employed by the Demiurge, but they also fall beneath an object based on the Form created by a craftsman. They are shadows of a shadow; or an image of an image. For example:

A drawing of a table is not a real table, it simply looks like a real table, which is itself based on the Form of Table (Plato Republic, 597d-598d).

Likewise, tragedies and comedies don’t honestly present the actual people involved, but rather “surface versions” of them, taken out of context and with their natures blown up, acting contrary to reason (Take the horrible Troy movie from 2004, for example). Worst of all is when these performances present themselves as being the actual activities and words of real people in such a way that they may be emulated, bringing their irrationality (Plato Republic, 603e-605e), which opposes philosophy and wisdom, into an individual’s daily life.

Appealing to the Irrational Soul and so far removed from the truth, these things don’t carry any real beauty… Right? Wrong. It’s outright impossible for these things, or anything really, to be absolutely ugly. While mimetic art may be further removed from the beautiful and good work of the benevolent Celestial Demiurge (Plato Timaeus, 29e), it’s still something based on a Form. It’s clear from people’s reaction to various beautiful artworks, such as songs, poems, films, sculptures, and paintings, that Beauty is present in these things (e.g., when I saw the 1997 adaption of Homer’s Odyssey, I saw beauty). Plato can, at most, just point out ways where there’s a greater privation of Beauty in mimetic art. We can, at the very least, make a provisional statement as to what is beautiful: The Forms, which participate the Form of Beauty, are beautiful, and as such anything and everything posterior to (after) the Forms also contains some amount of beauty. Plato’s Timaeus gives us a clue as to what is the most beautiful: In describing the creation of the physical world, the Timaeus says the Demiurge, intending “to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of intelligible beings” (Plato Timaeus, 30d), creates the “Essential Living Being” (Iamblichus In Timaeus, fr. 43), or the Whole Soul, in the likeness of the beings of the Intelligible Realm. The Whole Soul, as an image of the beauty of the Intelligible Realm, and as a direct creation of the Demiurge, is the most beautiful of things, as well as everything contained within it, which is “all the other living beings” (Iamblichus In Timaeus, fr. 43). This means that the most beautiful of all things in creation are us, living beings. Returning to the topic of art and beauty, Plato provides plenty of examples where he thinks mimetic art does harm:

Poems cause emotional outbursts, with their strings over your heart,

Plays cause people to imitate irrational activities, as people present themselves repeating the words and actions of heroes,

Songs encourage one’s emotions to take control from their rationality,

Paintings pretend to be what they aren’t,

Etcetera. In essence, Plato describes imitative art as bad because he believes no good can come from it. This is because it pretends to be something other than what it is, and because of this deception it capitalizes on and strengthens the Irrational Soul while weakening and suspending the Rational Soul.

This might be problematic since we find examples of imitation that don’t have derision heaped upon them. For example:

The carpenter fails to reproduce the Form of Chair in the creation of their particular chair. A particular chair is merely an imitation, or an image of the Form of Chair (Plato Republic, 596b). It isn’t the Chair we’re looking for, although it may pretend to be so.

However, there is a difference. The carpenter, in this case, is an imitator of the forms, while someone merely engaging in the mimetic art is an imitator of an imitator. Understand the difference:

Imitator of the Forms: The carpenter in the previous example is an imitator of the Forms. They have their eyes “fixed” on the Form, (Plato Republic, 596a) and through producing imitations on the Form, can be said to have a more intimate knowledge or relation with the Form from which the chair is derived. Their practice is anagogic; as in ascends us upwards, because it is based on something universal and eternal.

Imitator of the Imitator: None of this is true of the imitator of the imitator, however, who only knows the surface of a particular imitation and never the universal Form (Plato Republic, 601e-602b). This form of imitation allows for no knowledge or experience of the Forms, instead affecting the irrational souls of its audience, because it is based solely on the material realm. These are images of an image; and while these things contain a beauty, their beauty is greatly hindered by the accretions of the irrational. Corrupted by irrationality, this sensible beauty has a negative effect. While outwardly alluring, the attraction is katagogic, meaning it binds us down to generation because it’s solely based on the sensible realm.

However, certain kinds of poetry, such as hymns to the Gods or praise poems to heroes, are allowed by Plato (Plato Republic, 607a) (Plato Ion, 533d-534e). Why these forms of poetry differ from the other prohibited types lie beyond Plato:

Philostratus, a Sophist, provides the reasoning that fine art is not the product of mimesis (imitation), but rather of phantasia (imagination) (Finberg 1926, 150).

Plotinus expands on this, explaining that phantasia, in its intelligible aspect, connects the artist to the Forms instead of the material realm, and thus allows art to make a connection to the Forms. He also provides a few more reasons why we shouldn’t condemn art when referring to fine art:

Firstly, fine art works with the Forms or logoi, and is thus beautiful, and therefore by extension, good (Plotinus The Enneads, V.8, 410-11).

Secondly, Plotinus says we shouldn’t condemn mimetic (imitative) art for all that art imitates is itself an imitation of the Forms.

It is with this reasoning that imaginative art, even if it engages in imitation, becomes the basis for saving art; though not entirely. Art such as pseudo-historical media can still be considered distasteful (I’m still looking at you, Troy 2004), unless it is engaged in praise or hymnody, which has an inspired and imaginative nature (Such as 2000’s Gladiator, which praises virtue) (Kupperman 2014, 75). The emphasis on divinely located imagination and imaginative art becomes highly influential in theurgy. By engaging with the Forms and their logoi, fine art and poetry become a kind of token or symbol (symbolon) of the divine realm. Examples are:

Eikons, which aren’t merely pieces of art; a participating essence of a deity is understood to be within the image they represent. They are Forms in matter, literal manifestations of the logoi of the Forms. It is because of this eikons are said to be “written” rather than painted, as they’re seen as forms of divine scripture. They are also unsigned by the artist, as the writer is understood to merely transmit the holy reality that is at the heart of the eikon (Stern-Gillet 2008, 44).

Talismancy (the creation of talismans), which not only use astrological timing to empower the talismans they describe, but also fantastic imagery representing the powers of the planetary powers and stars. When all taken together, such talismans become microcosmic tokens or material signatures of the divine realm (Kupperman 2014, 76).

Beauty is, overall, of obvious great importance. After all, it’s directly connected to the Good, and therefore can be understood to be connected to achieving the highest goal: henosis. Reaching the Form of Beauty ultimately means reaching the divine realm where the virtues originate, or at least as far as we can. However, individually, beauty is disconnected from us, and without a way to obtain it beauty, ultimately, serves no function. How, then, does one obtain it? The answer is eros, or love. Only when kalon is connected to eros, which binds everything together, can beauty be obtained, and only when beauty is obtained through love are we led upwards to the divine realm where the virtues lie.

The Form of Love

Love, or “eros,” (called “philia” by the divine Julian) is discussed in Plato’s Symposium, and is the key to Beauty. There are no distinct “types” of Eros. Eros is one thing with many degrees. Much like thy mother’s beauty, she was once the embodiment of love. The Platonic Form of Love if you will. Perfect until we had you… for your original mother, a human woman left from Oshu to England whereas Selene was thy true mother of primordiality.

Love is always just love, but comes in a variety of degrees. According to Diotima there are three degrees of love (Kupperman 2014, 78):

The love of a particular person

Further up, the love of all people

Even further up, the love of the Intelligible Realm.

Plato dismisses romantic ideas of Eros. Diotima even denies that Eros is a God, and says that Eros is neither beautiful nor good (though later Platonists assert that Eros is a God). Instead Eros, as the offspring of Penia (Resource) and Poros (Need), is a Daimon, holding a median position between the realms of the divine and materiality (Plato Symposium, 203b-204a). The Erotic urge is always provocative; with two roles:

Procreative/Generative: Eros has a procreative function; a longing “for the conception and generation that the beautiful effects” (Plato Symposium, 206e-207a). This is the type of Eros that is tied with romantic ideas and has an urge for sex, which Plato rejects. He rejects it because it is katagogic; meaning it binds us towards generation, and thus a lesser degree of Eros.

Intelligible/Theurgic: Eros has a secondary function: its desire for beauty and goodness, which in turn leads people to them. This desire implies that Eros lacks beauty and good to some extent. This is because nothing desires what it already has, only that which it lacks. Eros desires, and thus lacks. This means that when Eros is centered on the spirit, it thus has a love of beauty (As said before, living things, which have souls, are the most beautiful things), and with that the soul will be directed towards the virtues (Plato Symposium, 207d-209d), the highest forms of beauty, and thus rise upwards to a vision of the Form of Beauty itself (Plato Symposium, 211c-d) (Kupperman 2014, 79).

This allows us to achieve henosis. To understand this, we must understand that Eros is love, and naturally, we want to hold on to the object of our love for as long as we can. To grasp the Good (as in, to achieve henosis), which is beyond time itself, is to render the soul immortal (Plato Symposium, 206e-207a). Intelligible Eros, as the love of spirit, is ultimately anagogic, meaning it lifts us up towards the divine.

(Again, it’s important to remember that these roles are just that; roles, not distinct types of Eros. There are no “types.” Eros is one thing with many degrees. Love is love; this is merely based on orientation.) Some might object to this being the nature of love on the false assumption that it is “selfish,” with an egocentric treatment of people that merely uses them as a means to an end. “It isn’t to love a beautiful person”, one may mistakenly complain, “but rather to love the beauty in a person as a means of an end; to just get a better understanding of beauty and the Form of Beauty and leave the person behind when a new level of beauty is attained” (Kupperman 2014, 79). However, this is simply false. Ultimately, through Love, what one ultimately desires is virtue, which is of the higher aspect of beauty. Most importantly, among the virtues is the virtue of Justice, the most important of them. Its importance lies in its nature: It’s a synthesis of the other virtues that are based around bringing the Good to others. After all, only people who cultivate virtue (Wisdom, Courage, Temperance) and self-control can bring positive change to others. It doesn’t merely bring benefits to you, but rather benefits everyone. At its highest levels, love is incapable of being selfish. Love adores both its immediate inspiration (the beautiful thing) and the ultimate source of beauty, the Form of Beauty (Kupperman 2014, 79).

Love & Theurgy

The spiritual & anagogic aspects of Eros are to be highly valued, especially in relation to theurgy. Comparing what the Chaldean Oracles and Plato’s Timaeus both say on love reveals a lot:

In the Chaldean Oracles, Eros as a primordial power and the first creation of the Celestial Demiurge. The Celestial Demiurge then creates the part of the soul that is immortal, the Rational Soul (Chaldean Oracles, fr. 39), and fills each soul with a “deep eros” to bring them back to the Gods (Chaldean Oracles, fr. 43). This means that what part of the soul the Demiurge creates is, ultimately, filled with Love.

Plato’s Timaeus tells us that the Gods under the Demiurge have the task of creating all that is mortal in the human soul, the Irrational Soul.

This means that Eros, as a product of the Celestial Demiurge, is part of the Rational Soul. Eros is, when ultimately realized in its fullest, a kind of Intelligible reason that draws us towards the Intelligible Realm. It is Intelligible Love, which is poured into the soul itself, that is the key to the Form of Beauty (and ultimately henosis) through theurgic practice. In short:

In Generative Love, the source of inspiration is the beloved person.

In Intelligible Love the sources of inspiration are things of theurgic importance; divine tokens, symbols, the Gods and Celestial Demiurge, placed in the material to raise us to their source (Chaldean Oracles, fr. 125).

In short, Eros, specifically Intelligible Eros, is the so-called “key to start up the car of theurgy on the road to henosis,” to say it rather oddly. Theurgic religious rites do so by ritualizing the cosmos (Shaw 2014, 124), which allows the theurgist to ascend to the divine through Intelligible/Theurgic Love. When theurgic rites are performed correctly they transform the theurgist, who is operating the junction of the two manifolds (the material realm and the divine realm), into the likeness of the object of the sacrifices by transposing the necessity of the sacrifice from the sacrifice to the sacrificer, and thus raises the theurgist (the sacrificer) up and towards the Gods through their Intelligible Love (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, V.9-10, 241). This higher kind of love, which attaches us to the divine tokens and Forms, is the source of inspired beauty and imaginative art, and, ultimately, theurgy.

Why does Eros appear so ontologically late?

One might ask why Eros appears so ontologically late, in the Intellective Realm, as opposed to being an immediate product of the One, or at the very least appearing in the Intelligible Realm. For this there are two primary answers:

Firstly, the nature of the One is totally above everything. It’s incorrect to say that the One/Good itself loves, has love or is love because it is the ultimate source of love, and the source of something always transcends what it produces.

Secondly, we can’t say that love appears in the Intelligible Realm, because the Gods of the Intelligible Realm (the henads) have absolutely no need for to strive upwards. The Intelligible Gods already lay the very peak of existence one can go and wholly participate the Good.

And thus Eros, with its anagogic and katagogic powers, are only necessary at lower levels.

Love & Frenzy

(Ecstatic Love)

Iamblichus’ writings on Eros are further expanded on in the works of Proclus, who, concerning what he terms “pronoetic love” in Plato’s Cratylus, writes in his commentary on Alcibiades that “Eros descends from above from the intelligible sphere down to the cosmic, and turns all things toward the divine beauty” (Alcibiades Commentary, ed. Cousin II 141). Proclus makes use of the two forms of Aphrodite found in Plato as a means of connecting the higher Intelligible Love and the lower Generative Love (Plato Symposium, 180e):

Aphrodite Ourania (Aphrodite of the Heavens): The Intellective or Godly Aphrodite born of sea foam. Eros is Aphrodite’s eternal companion, and this form of Aphrodite is the source of Eros in its fully Godly aspect, rather than Daimonic. This is the “Intelligible Love.”

Aphrodite Pandemos (Aphrodite of all the people): The Daimonic or Encosmic Aphrodite. She is the source of beauty and harmony, causing the union of opposites, and strengthening the weaker or lower of the two in its union with the upper. She is the Godess who harmonizes the universe. She descends to the material level to overseeing the beautiful embodiment of the Forms in matter because Eros is only necessary in these lower levels. This is “Generative Love.”

Here we see the anagogic power of Love (Eros) and its connection to Beauty (in the form of Aphrodite) made abundantly clear and apparent. Thanks to the high placement of Aphrodite and Eros, we find both:

The anagogic Intelligible Love: Which expresses ascent through henosis, the return of the soul to its source.

The katagogic Generative Love: Which leads those below in generation up to anagogic Intelligible Love, which ultimately sets them towards henosis. Generative Love expresses descent, in the form of divine providence, a prominent theme of Iamblichus’ De Mysteriis.

In short, Proclus’ writing on Eros can be described as ecstatic love, meaning it is ecstatic in nature; bringing union and thus harmony. Its harmonizing nature both ascends (Anagogic/Intelligible Love) and descends (Katagogic/Generative Love) and, like Aphrodite, becomes a harmonizing force in the cosmos (Rist 1966, 236). There is an obvious connection between intellect/reason and love. While intellect/reason, which ultimately stems from the Divine Mind (Nous/The Celestial Demiurge), is of an obvious extreme importance, there’s a high importance in mania, or divine inspiration as well. In the Phaedrus, Socrates describes four kinds of divine inspiration (Plato Phaedrus, 265a):

Prophetic Frenzy: The divine inspiration brought by the divine Apollo, it is what the Pythia of Delphi and other sacred temples experience. It is when the prophet is completely possessed by a God, and Iamblichus considers this the truest form of divination, since everything else is up to human interpretation and therefore fallible.

Telestic Frenzy: Called the “mystic madness,” this form of divine inspiration comes from Dionysos and has to do with the performance of sacred rites and sacrifices for the purposes of healing. Marsilio Ficino, a 15th century Platonist, writes it as “a powerful stirring of the soul, in perfecting what relates to the worship of the Gods, religious observance, purification and sacred ceremonies” (Ficino 1457, “On Divine Frenzy”).

Poetic Frenzy: This inspiration is brought by the Muses, and is the madness which allows one to produce true poetry. According to Plato only poetry inspired by the Muses makes a person a good poet, and those without their blessings will be “with no success” (Plato Phaedrus, 245a).

Erotic Frenzy: The form of Eros brought by Aphrodite and Eros that has already been discussed: the eros which causes one to be left in a state of awe with the Form of Beauty and develop a desire to reach it.

Each of the frenzies has at least two things in common:

First: The frenzies are anagogic and ecstatic, lifting the soul upwards and outwards towards participating ontologically prior realities. Iamblichus, especially, sees divine inspiration as a kind of total possession by the God (Sheppard 1993, 140).

Second: These frenzies all come from outside the soul; caused by the divine.

As we have seen from Iamblichus and Proclus, all the frenzies are elements of theurgic love. For a Platonist, this degree of eros, which allows one to engage in demiurgy, is the highest degree of love. It’s an eros that transcends the individual so completely that it raises them to divine levels and activities above (Kupperman 2014, 84).

The force behind the drive upwards towards henosis is Eros. Behind Eros is the harmonizing activity of Aphrodite, who Herself imitates the unifying activity of the One by filling those below Her with harmony. The strive for henosis, which is ultimately pointing towards the Good/the One (or at least as far as possible), is only accomplished through Eros and the highest Intelligible Love, Aphrodite, thanks to Eros’ necessity in theurgy (Kupperman 2014, 84-85).

Like the virtue of Justice, which is itself a synthesis of the virtues, Aphrodite is Herself a synthesis of the Gods; and while Athene fills the Gods with wisdom, it is Aphrodite who fills the divine with harmony. And with the Gods being harmonized by Love, it is obvious that Love exists within all the virtues, and furthermore, Love, like wisdom, fills all things (Kupperman 2014, 84-85).

It is thus that I speak on the Five Solids:

There is a sphere and you have to make numerous different three-dimensional forms with these rules:

You can only use straight lines.

All these lines must touch the surface of the sphere

All the lines must be of equal length

All the shapes made have to be the same

You could make an infinite amount, however since every square has to be of equal length, and all the shapes made had to be the same, you could only produce 5 different “perfect solids”. These are the Five Elements, which consist of:

Fire, which is sharp, subtle, and mobile. It is equated with the Tetrahedron.

Air, which is blunt, subtle, and mobile. It is equated with the Octahedon.

Water, which is blunt, dense, and mobile. It is equated with the Icosahedron.

Earth, which is joined with its opposite, Fire, through the intermediate elements of Air and Water. As fire’s opposite it is blunt, dense, and immobile. It is equated with the Hexahedron.

Aither (Spirit/World Soul) is the element which makes up the heavens. It is equated with the Dodekahedron, the most complex solid.

The Pentacle: The divine Pythagoras was fascinated by the Pentacle. He recognized in its geometry a division of lines which resulted in the “golden ratio,” an emblem of perfection that was incorporated into art and architecture. Pythagoreans ascribed the points of the pentacle to the five elements.

The Five Solids, also called the Platonic Solids or the Pythagorean Solids, are directly associated as particles of the elements, are seen as the building blocks of reality. By using geometric figures, Pythagoras (and later Plato) implicitly connects the 5 solids to ideas of harmony and symmetry, and as such offer insights into the nature of the cosmos.

Tetrahedron = We can connect three equilateral triangles together to make a point. One more is required to fill in the other side for a total of 4 triangles. This is called the tetrahedron, with Tetra meaning “4” and “hedron” meaning sided, and is the first perfect solid. Plato associated this solid with Fire because of its pointy ends, which he explained mimic the stabbing sensation of a flame. Furthermore, it’s the simplest and lightest solid. This is the element that is linked to the soul and creates change.

Octahedron – Air = The octahedron symbolizes Air, according the Plato and the other Pythagoreans. The Octahedron, as the name suggests, has 8 triangular sides. Air particles acts as an intermediate between water-particles and air-particles.

Hexahedron – Earth = The Hexahedron, or the Cube, is the shape of Earth-particles, as the cube is a regular solid that possesses greatest stability, being firmly rooted to its spot. It has 6 square sides.

Icosahedron – Water = While fire-particles are tetrahedral due to being light and simple, the opposite is true for water-particles, which are icosahedral for being heavy and complex. After all, it is something able to easily squash and extinguish a flame. This has 20 triangular sides.

The dodekahedron is the most mysterious of the solids. It’s by far the most difficult to construct; accurate drawing of the regular pentagon requiring a rather elaborate application of Pythagoras’ great theorem, with its 12 pentagonal sides, which leads Plato to conclude that the Dodekahedron is what “the Deity employed in tracing the plan of the Universe,” meaning the Demiurge used this element for arranging the heavens.

“Numbers are the Highest Degree of knowledge. They are knowledge themselves”

The Forms vs. the Cosmos

The world of Forms

The world of being; everything in this world “always is,” “has no becoming,” and “does not change”(28a).

It is apprehended by the understanding, not by the senses.

The physical world (= the Cosmos)

The world of becoming; everything in this world “comes to be and passes away, but never really is” (28a).

It is grasped by opinion and sense-perception.

The cosmos itself came into being, created using as its model the world of Forms.

The Demiurge (Creator)

Literally, “craftsman.” The creator of Plato’s physical world is not a divine intelligence or a personal ruler, but (as it were) a manual laborer. Cf. Vlastos, Plato’s Universe (pp. 26-27):

That the supreme god of Plato’s cosmos should wear the mask of a manual worker is a triumph of the philosophical imagination over ingrained social prejudice. ... But this divine mechanic is not a drudge. He is an artist or, more precisely, what an artist would have to be in Plato’s conception of art: not the inventor of new form, but the imposer of pre-existing form on as yet formless material.

The Elements

The physical world must have bodily form; it must be visible and tangible (31b).

Hence, its ingredients must include fire and earth.

Since fire and earth will have to be combined, there must be at least one other ingredient that serves to combine them.

But since fire and earth are solids, we require two intermediates to combine them.

Hence, the demiurge created air and water, and arranged all four elements proportionally: as fire is to air, air is to water; as air is to water, water is to earth.

As we will see below, we have not reached the bottom with these four elements: there are (geometrical) atoms of which these elements are composed.

Features of the Cosmos

A living being

Because it is based on the Form of living being (= Animal)

Unique

Because it is based on a unique model (the Form of living being), and the Demiurge makes it as much like its model as he can (subject, of course, to the limitations imposed by the fact that it’s made of matter).

It has a soul

Because it is a living being

Spherical

Because that is the most perfect and most beautiful shape

Temporal

That is, there is time in the cosmos - it is characterized by temporal predicates. This is because it is modeled on a Form, an eternal being.

The cosmos cannot be eternal, as a Form is, since it comes into being. But it is as much like a Form, as close to being eternal, as it can be (37d). When the Demiurge created the universe, he also created time. But what is Plato’s definition of time?

Plato's text at 37d reads:

[the Demiurge] began to think of making a moving image of eternity: at the same time as he brought order to the universe, he would make an eternal image, moving according to number, of eternity remaining in unity. This, of course, is what we call “time.”

But what is ‘this’? It is sometimes thought that it refers to ‘number’, which would make the definition be that time is the number according to which the image of eternity moves. This would bring Plato's definition close to Aristotle’s (“time is the number of motion (change) in respect of before and after” [Physics 219b2]). On this reading, it is the cosmos that is the “moving image of eternity,” and time is the number that measures the change in the cosmos.

But ‘this’ has been traditionally taken to refer to ‘image’, and on this reading, Plato’s definition is that time is a moving image of eternity. Even if Plato’s text is grammatically ambiguous, the most plausible way to understand the definition is the traditional one. Other passages in the Timaeus make it clear that Plato thought of time as a kind of celestial clockwork - that is, a certain kind of motion, rather than a measure of motion. Consider 38d and 39d:

[The Demiurge] brought into being the Sun, the Moon, and five other stars, for the begetting of time. These are called “wanderers” [planêta], and they stand guard over the numbers of time. … And so people are all but ignorant of the fact that time really is the wanderings of these bodies.

Plato clearly says that time is the wanderings of these bodies - their movement - and not a kind of number that measures such movement. Abstracting time from motion was an innovation of Aristotle’s. For Plato, time just is celestial motion.

Note that time applies, strictly speaking, only to the realm of becoming. About the Forms, which are everlasting, we say “is, and was, and will be,” but, strictly speaking, only “is” is appropriate (38a). That is, the ‘is’ we use about the Forms is a tenseless ‘is’; the Forms themselves are, strictly speaking, outside of time.

The Heavenly Bodies

Plato’s account includes the origin of the stars and planets - “to set limits to and stand guard over the numbers of time” (38c) - which we will skip over here.

Human Beings: Souls, Bodies, and their Parts

Four kinds of living creature (39e-40b)

Heavenly gods

Winged things

Water creatures

Land creatures

Human soul (40d-44d)

Creation and destruction of the gods (40d-41a)

Demiurge instructs gods to make mortals (41a-d)

Human souls manufactured

Made of leftovers from manufacture of world-soul, but of a lower grade of purity (41d).

Each soul assigned to a star (41e).

Death: a just soul returns to its companion star, an unjust soul is reincarnated for a second try (42b-c).

Human body (44d-47e)

Head and limbs (44d-45b)

Eyes and vision (45b-46a)

Purposes of seeing and hearing (46c-47e)

The Structure of Matter

At this point Plato ends his discussion of the “works of intellect (nous)” and begins discussing the “works of necessity”. The difference seems to be that the former, but not the latter, directs its creation with an eye toward what is best.

Here Plato turns to the old Presocratic question: what is the world made of? His answer both combines and transcends theirs. It mentions the traditional Earth, Air, Fire, and Water (of Empedocles), but goes beyond them, analyzing them in terms of mathematical objects (shades of the Pythagoreans) and empty space (the invention of the atomists).

The four elements

The intrinsic nature of fire, water, air, and earth (48b), and how they came into being.

The receptacle

A new concept is introduced, in addition to the model (= the Forms) and the imitation of the model (= the world of becoming): “the receptacle of all becoming” (49a).

The receptacle is that in which all becoming takes place. The fires that you see coming into being and being extinguished are just appearances, in the receptacle, of the Fire Itself (the Form).

At 52b ff, Plato describes the receptacle as “space.”

The coming to be of the elements

The four elements are “the most excellent four bodies that can come into being” (53e). But how do they come into being? What are they made of? Plato’s answer is that they are all made of triangles, and constructed in such a way as to explain how the transmutation of elements is possible.

Overview

Each kind of matter (earth, air, fire, water) is made up of particles (“primary bodies”). Each particle is a regular geometrical solid. There are four kinds of particles, one for each of the four kinds of matter. Each particle is composed of elementary right triangles. The particles are like the molecules of the theory; the triangles are its atoms.

The argument that all bodies are ultimately composed of elementary right triangles is given at 53c-d: all bodies are 3-dimensional (“have depth”) and hence are bounded by surfaces. Every surface bounded by straight lines is divisible into triangles. Every triangle is divisible into right triangles. Every right triangle is either isosceles (with two 45° angles) or scalene. So all bodies can be constructed out of isosceles and scalene right triangles.

The details

The two atomic triangles

Plato notes (54a1) that there is only one kind of isosceles right triangle--namely, the 45°/45°/90° triangle--whereas there are “infinitely many” kinds of scalene. But of these, he tells us, “we posit one as the most excellent” (54a7), one “whose longer side squared is always triple its shorter side” (54b5-6). Plato describes the same scalene triangle, equivalently, as “one whose hypotenuse is twice the length of its shorter side” (54d6-7)

A theory of ontology attempts to answer, in the most general possible terms, the question what is there? A theory of predication attempts to answer the question what is it to say something about something? This is a book about ontology and predication.

Ontology: The Ten Categories

In the Categories, we get this list (1b25):

Substance

Quality

Quantity

Relation

Where

When

Position

Having

Action

Passion

This is presumably a list of the ten fundamentally different kinds of things that there are. The first category—substance—is the most important in Aristotle’s ontology. Substances are, for Aristotle, the fundamental entities. To see why this is so, we will have to understand what Aristotle says about predication.

Predication

A subject (hupokeimenon) is what a statement is about.

A predicate (katêgoroumenon) is what a statement says about its subject.

Examples:

This (particular animal) is a man.

Man is an animal.

This (particular color) is white.

White is a color.

The same thing may be both a subject and a predicate, e.g., man and white above. Some things are subjects but are never predicates, e.g., this (particular) animal, or this (particular) color.

Two kinds of predication

Consider the following pair of simple (atomic) sentences:

“Socrates is a human being”

“Socrates is wise”

Do both of these atomic sentences have the same kind of ontological underpinning? I.e., is the structure of the fact that Socrates is a man the same as the structure of the fact that Socrates is wise? Plato’s account suggests that it is.

For Plato:“x is F” means that x partakes of the Form, F-ness.

According to Plato, predication, in general, is explicated in terms of the notion of participating in a Form. In response, Aristotle thinks this oversimplifies. On Aristotle’s account:

“Socrates is a human being” tells us something fundamental about what kind of a thing Socrates is: it is an essential predication.

“Socrates is wise” tells us something less fundamental, something that merely happens to be the case: it is an accidental predication.

This idea emerges in the Categories distinction between what is said of a subject and what is in a subject, introduced as part of the four-fold distinction drawn at 1a20. Since Aristotle is using the terms ‘said of’ and ‘in’ in a somewhat technical way, we will write them, from now on, in SMALL CAPS in order to indicate this technical use.

Two fundamental relations

Aristotle distinguishes two fundamental relations: being SAID OF a subject and being PRESENT IN a subject. These correspond, respectively, to the notions (that Aristotle later develops) of essential and accidental predication, and they cut across all ten categories.

SAID OF a subject

This is a relation of fundamental ontological classification. It is the relation between a kind and a thing that falls under it.

It is a transitive relation (i.e., if x is SAID OF y and y is SAID OF z, it follows that x is SAID OF z).

Its relata belong to the same category. A universal in a given category is SAID OF the lower-level universals and individuals that fall under it.

What is SAID OF a subject is essential to that subject.

Examples:

Man is SAID OF Socrates.

Animal is SAID OF man.

(Hence) animal is SAID OF Socrates.

White is SAID OF this (particular) color.

Color is SAID OF white.

PRESENT IN a subject

This is a relation of fundamental ontological dependence. What is PRESENT IN a subject, Aristotle says, belongs to it “not as a part, and cannot exist separately from what it is in” (1a24).

This is a cross-categorial relation; things PRESENT IN a subject are non-substances; the things they are PRESENT IN are substances: non-substances are PRESENT IN substances.

What is PRESENT IN a subject is accidental (non-essential) to that subject.

Examples:

This grammatical knowledge is PRESENT IN a soul.

This white is PRESENT IN a body.

Color is PRESENT IN body.

Universals and Particulars

Although Aristotle does not use these terms in the Categories, it is clear that he intends to capture the notions of universal and particular with his SAID OF locution:

A universal is what is SAID OF some subject

A particular is what is not SAID OF any subject.

Note that there are universals and particulars in all the categories:

Man and animal are universal substances (Aristotle calls them “secondary substances.”)

Callias and “this horse” are particular substances. (Aristotle calls them “primary substances.”)

White and color are universal qualities.

“This white” is a particular quality.

Category Trees

Each category can be thought of as having a tree structure. The category itself can be divided into its fundamental kinds (e.g., substance can be divided into plants and animals). Each of these kinds can in turn be divided (e.g., animal can be divided into the various broad genera of animals). Each of these can in turn be divided into the fundamental species of the category in questions (e.g., into such basic kinds as tiger, and horse, and human being). (All of these kinds—animal, tiger, horse—are what Aristotle calls “secondary substances”.) Finally, we can divide these lowest-level kinds into the basic individuals in the category (e.g., human being can be divided into Socrates, Callias, Coriscus, etc.).

Similarly, the category of quality can be divided into subcategories such as color, which can in turn be divided into red, green, etc. Aristotle thinks that these specific qualities can be further divided into individuals (analogous to individual substances) such as this individual bit of white.

Thus, each category is ultimately divisible into the individual members of that category.

Here’s a useful chart that illustrates the tree structure of the categories.

The fourfold division

This can be found in Categories, Ch. 2.

The SAID OF relation divides entities into universals and particulars; the PRESENT IN relation divides them into non-substances and substances. Hence, the fourfold division at 1a20ff produces (in Aristotle’s order of presentation):

Universal substances (“secondary substances”)

Particular non-substances

Universal non-substances

Particular substances (“primary substances”)

Thus, you surpass all of the Greek’s mathematics, views of infinity, duality and all such in due time. All maths and the like wilt be beneath you… after your final battle with thy mother.

I speak this:

The Gods are eternal Beings, their origins being prior to the creation of time. They are unchanging, unbegotten, eternal, incorporeal, and not in space. The Gods and Their Ousia are ungenerated as “eternal natures are without generation; and those beings are eternal who possess a first power, and are naturally void of passivity. Nor are their essences [ousia] composed from bodies; for even the powers of bodies are incorporeal: nor are they comprehended in place; for this is the property of bodies: nor are they separated from the first cause, or from each other; in the same manner as intellections are not separated from intellect, nor sciences from the soul” (Sallustius, II). They are living immortals who surround and permeating unhindered the entire material universe and act on it. The Gods are not subject to Fate, but rather lay above it and overlook Providence (Sallustius, IX). Their wisdom sees the whole, and so their light puts us on the right path and brings to pass what is best (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 261-263). They are the causes of all that is now and all that shall be, and though They are not seen by us, They can direct their divine gaze, which is more powerful than any light, towards us– even as far as our hidden thoughts (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 323). They are wholly beyond our physical universe and by directing the Logoi (Logic), thoughts that are lower manifestations of the higher principle (e.g., the Forms), and Anagne (Necessity), the moral and natural cause which compels nature, They create the Kosmos and produce its laws (Plato Timaeus, 48a). The divine are Beings (Ónta/Όντα), not Persons (Prosopon/Πρόσωπα), as persons denotates human limits which the Gods lack because They are so beyond us. They do not intervene in the realms of actions of other Gods, cease to exist, or combine into one. Because each God is not separated “from the first cause [i.e., the One/the Godhead/the Good], or from one each other” (Sallustius, II), They thus share an infinity of attributes as each of Them are in eachother and are treated as equal to the One. As such, each God, as a multiplication of the One, is the center of all, and are each omnipotent (infinite in power), omniscient (complete, unlimited knowledge, awareness and understanding of everything), omnibenevolent (possessing perfect and unlimited goodness), omnipresent (present everywhere at the same time), omnitemporal (knowing the future equally as well as the past), eternal and immutable, and without any flaws. Each God is a full-spectrum deity; and while They may have areas of special focus, They are each far more than some limited function (e.g., “Goddess of Love” or “God of War”). The soul of a God can be understood in three parts: Essence, Powers, and Activity:

A God’s Existence (Hyparxis) is their inner-most and most fundamental independent self which is beyond any essence, substance or Being (hyperousios). However, this is pre-essential axiomatic existence is completely beyond the Kosmos, and hence beyond what we can interact with and beyond any sort of intellection (noeta). So instead we interact with Their Essence/Substance (Ousia), which lies at the summit of Being and are objects of intellection (noeta). Their essence is “at the summit [of existence], and transcendent and perfect” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7). Their essence is wholly intelligible and beyond our material realm, and their bodies present in the material Kosmos, such as the stars and the planets, are merely ruled from the outside. They do not have either gender or any other characteristic of mortal beings, as their substance is entirely alien to us. Their movements are spherical, and thus perfect. The Gods share a divine genus that is “dominant in them throughout, [which] establishes one and the same essence [(i.e., ousia)] throughout the whole” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17). This essence is “simple, as it is without parts, so also it is indivisible, and as it is invariable, so also is it not subject to change” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17), and thus the Gods are “hom*ogeneous in all respects, entirely united among themselves, uniform and non-composite” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17).

Their Power (Greek: Dunamis, Latin: Potentia, Numen) is Their potential expression of Their essence. A God’s power “can achieve all things simultaneously, in the present instant, unitarily” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7).

Their Activity (Greek: Energeia, Latin: Actus) is Their powers in action. The activities of the Gods are uniform (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17). A God’s activities “generates and governs all things without inclining towards them” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7). The Gods concern Themselves with things of this world and perform activities, however They do not perform these activities out of need since They are perfect and thus without need. This nature links back to the One. Plotinus’ description of the activity of the One is that it overflows of its superabundance (Uždavinys 2009, 27). It gains nothing from this overflowing, nor has any need to overflow. Rather, it is simply its nature, and hence in turn it is also simply in the nature of the divine. The Gods are above Necessity (Plato Timaeus, 45a), which isn’t to be confused with want or nature.

It is important to note that these “parts” are inseparable, for as the divine Julian writes, “For it cannot be that a God’s substance is one thing, and His power another, and His activity, by Zeus, a third thing besides these. For all that He wills he is, and can do, and puts into action. For He does not will what is not, nor does He lack power to do what He wills, nor does He desire to put into action what He cannot” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 389). This is contrary to human beings, who has a “two-fold contending nature of soul and body compounded into one, the former divine, the latter dark and clouded. Naturally, therefore, there is a battle and a feud between them. And Aristotle also says that this is why neither the pleasures nor the pains in us harmonise with one another. For he says that what is pleasant to one of the natures within us is painful to the nature which is its opposite” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 389). Among the Gods, however, “there is nothing of this sort. For from their very nature what is good belongs to them, and perpetually, not intermittently” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 389). Knowledge of the divine is not attainable in mere belief [doxa], but rather, it is a natural tendency which is innate in all people (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.2-3), because whether in private or public, whether as individuals or as peoples, there exists a universal striving towards divinity, for we all believe, even without being taught, in the existence of something divine (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 321), for there is no one who does not raise their hands to heaven in prayer when they swear by the Gods; if they have any notion at all of the divine, they will turn heavenward, and it was very natural that people should feel thus (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 323). It in this innate understanding that we can find true knowledge of the divine, which is not easily comprehended, nor is it able to be easily communicated, for no one in the world can adequately describe the true greatness of the divine without failing to a certain extent in their attempt (Flavius Claudius Iulianis, I 357). The Gods are beyond us and need nothing, and we worship Them because They are beings worthy of worship, being so beyond us and responsible for all kinds of good and no evil. As a result of this it can be understood that worship, prayer, and sacrifice aren’t given to the Gods to “appease” Them. The Gods are not angry with sinners, for to be angry would be to passion. The Gods do not rejoice- for what rejoices also grieves. Nor are They appeased by gifts – for if They were, They would also be conquered by pleasure. The Gods are always good, always do good and never do injustice, instead always being in the same state and like Themselves. Rather, when we are good, we are joined and cling to the Gods when we show likeness to Them by living according to virtue, and when we become evil we make the Gods our enemies – not because They are angered against us, but because our sins prevent the light of the Gods from shining upon us, and thus putting us in communion with spirits of punishment (Sallustius, XIV). If by prayers and sacrifices we find forgiveness of sins, we do not appease or change the Gods, but instead, by turning toward the divine, we heal our own badness and so again enjoy the eternal and infinite goodness of the Gods (Sallustius, XIV). To say that the Gods turn away from evil is like saying that the Sun hides Himself from the blind. Because of this, it is to be correctly understood that we provide the Gods with worship ultimately for our own benefit, since the Gods need nothing; and worship is done by exposing ourselves to Their divine radiance (Sallustius, XIV).

Divine Perfection, Individuality, and Myths[]

Some non-Hellenes might object to the axiomatic perfectness of the Gods, putting forward that if all the Gods are perfect and good, then They cannot still be individuals with different personalities and goals. However, both the Moon and the Sun are each perfect, beautiful, and good in Themselves, but no one would ever look at Them and conclude that, because of these qualities, They must not be distinct. All of the Gods can be perfect, beautiful, and good and simultaneously still remain Themselves individually as we know Them. They work together in their own unique goodness and perfection to influence the Kosmos and make it work. The fact that the Gods are perfect and thus are not subject to any needs, wrath, jealousy, or any other immorality, who also do not come into any conflict with eachother, does not contradict in any way with Them being distinct individuals with Their own unique and distinct experiences. Several individuals can share common goals, priorities, and desires, but can still express these commonalities very differently from another person. And further, people can have different wants and desires as individuals which do not come into conflict with eachother.

Another thing non-Hellenes might do so they can object to divine perfection is misinterpret the myths so they can come to the conclusion that the Gods must be able to commit sin or come into conflict with eachother. However, myths are lessons that must receive interpretation to truly be understood; not taken at face value with no further reasoning. We must search for what a myth means, not merely look to what it says at the shallow surface. For example, in myths Gods can sometimes come into conflict with eachother. However, crucial to understanding such apparent hostilities is that they are not mere anthropomorphic emotionality. Gods in conflict in myth represent joint creative Activity (Energeia). Ostensibly, They express an apparent conflict between Gods’ projects in the Kosmos; however, conflict is a form of relation, and hence a form of cooperation. Gods in conflict in a myth are thus in truth cooperating far more than Gods who have no mythic interaction with eachother at all. This is overwhelmingly reflected in worship, such as with Pan and the Nymphes. In myth Pan has a hostile relationship with the Nymphes– however, in ritual worship, They are worshiped together frequently. A further thing people might use to object to the Gods’ perfection is based on what they conclude based on personal religious experiences they have with the divine. However, much like myths, what we are often presented are not the end of it. We must look at what a religious experience could mean rather than merely just what they say.

The Dodekatheon, also variously called the Olympians or the Dii Consentes, are the twelve divine Hypercosmic powers of Hellenism. The Olympians are comprised of six Gods and six Goddesses. The concept of twelve Gods is ancient and sacred, being older than any extant Greek or Roman source, though truly coming to fruition in ancient Athens. It is understood to have been present among the Etruscans as well. In Rome, the statues of the Olympians stood in the Forum and later the Porticus Deorum Consentium, one of the last public Hellenic shrines that were still functional in Late Antiquity. The word “Olympus” comes from the primary verb λαμπο, “lampo,” meaning “to shine,” and as such the Twelve Olympians are the “Shining Ones.”

The Hypercosmic Gods are offspring of Zeus-Helios, being made up of twelve powers. Hypercosmic Gods hold the function of Perfection. This pantheon of twelve divinities expresses the complete and perfect divine fifth element which fulfils and binds the Kosmos together, aither, which is symbolised by the dodekahedron. According to Sallustius, the Olympians and Their functions are (Sallustius, VI):

  • The Demiurgic Triad, who make the Kosmos:
    • Zeus (Iuppiter)
    • Poseidon (Neptunus)
    • Hephaistos (Vulcanus)
  • The Life-Bearing Triad, who animate the Kosmos:
    • Demeter (Ceres)
    • Hera (Juno)
    • Artemis (Diana)
  • The Elevating Triad, who harmonize the Kosmos:
    • Apollon (Apollo)
    • Aphrodite (Venus)
    • Hermes (Mercurius)
  • The Untainted Protective Triad, who watch over the Kosmos:
    • Hestia (Vesta)
    • Athene (Minerva)
    • Ares (Mars)

For the purposes of this list, if something is not explicitly called a God, and it has no cultus or special role in relation to a God, it will not be given a page. Abstract concepts merely spoken of poetically as a Daimōn does not give it theological weight. These can merely be forces in the soul or nature that are purely descriptive. And further, in Julian Hellenism, it is understood that vices have no positive existence within the soul.

Since Emperor Julian writes that the Romans are Greeks, Roman divinities will be included in this list.

  • Abeona: Goddess who protects children leaving the home.
  • Abundantia: Goddess of luck, abundance and prosperity. She distributed food and money from a cornucopia.
  • Acca Larentia: Adoptive mother of Romulus and Remus who is worshipped during the festival of Larentalia.
  • Adeona: Goddess who guides children back home.
  • Achelous: God of the Achelous River.
  • Acis: Daimon of the Acis River in Sicily.
  • Adêphagia: Goddess of agricultural bounty worshipped in Sicily.
  • Adonis: God of beauty, desire, and vegetation.
  • Adrasteia: A Nymph who in secret nurtured the infant Zeus in the Dictaean cave.
  • Aeolos: God of the wind.
  • Aequitas: God of fair trade and honest merchants.
  • Aera Cura: Goddess associated with the underworld.
  • Afrika (Africa): Goddess of the African continent. According to Pliny the Elder, the Libyans worshiped Her as Ifri, and was considered a protector of Her worshipers. She was represented in diverse ways, such as Numidian and Roman coins, or Roman sculptures.
  • Agathos Daimon: Daimon of the vineyards and grainfields.
  • Agdistis: Hermaphroditic Goddess associated with the Meter Theon.
  • Agon: Daimon of contest who had an altar at Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games.
  • Aius Locutius: God associated with saving Rome from Gallic invasion.
  • Alemonia: Goddess who feeds unborn children.
  • Amphitrite (Latin: Salacia): Goddess of the Sea and wife of Poseidon.
  • Ananke (Latin: Necessitas): The Goddess of necessity.
  • Anemoi (Latin: Venti): Gods of the wind.
  • Angerona: Protective Goddess who relieves people from pain and sorrow.
  • Angitia: Goddess of healing and patron of snake-charmers.
  • Anna Perenna: Nymph of the New Year and provider of food.
  • Anteros: Daimon of reciprocated love and the avenger of the unrequited.
  • Anthousai: Nymphs of flowers.
  • Aphaia: A Goddess worshiped almost exclusively at a single sanctuary on the island of Aigina.
  • Aphrodite (Latin: Venus): Goddess of love.
    • Astarte: Goddess of war & beauty.
    • Cloacina: A ferility Goddess who also presides over sewers.
  • Apollon (Latin: Apollo): God of the arts, oracles, knowledge, medicine, light, and plague.
    • Borvo: Lusitanian-Celtic manifestation of Apollon.
  • Arete (Virtus): A Daimon of bravery and military strength, often worshiped alongside Honos within Rome at a temple in the Porta Capena.
  • Ares (Latin: Mars): God of destruction, war, courage, soldiers, farmers, and agriculture.
    • Katorix (Caturix): Helvetii manifestation of Ares.
    • Ares Lusitani: Lusitanian manifestation of Ares.
    • Smertrios: Gaulish manifestation of Ares.
  • Ariadne (Arianna): Goddess of the labyrinths, mazes, paths, vegetation, fertility, wine, and snakes.
  • Aristaios (Latin: Aristaeus): Rustic God of beekeeping worshiped in many parts of Greece.
  • Artemis (Latin: Diana): Goddess of the hunt, forests and hills, the moon, and archery.
    • Artemis Ephesia: Mother Goddess of Ephesus.
    • Bendis: Thracian cult of Artemis associated with the moon and the hunt.
  • Asklepios (Latin: Aesculapius, Vejovis): God of healing, resurrection, and salvation.
  • Asteria (Asterie): The Titaness of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. She is also known as Brizo on the island of Delos, where She is venerated as a protector of mariners, sailors, and fishermen.
  • Athene (Latin: Minerva): Goddess of wisdom, civilization, law and justice, inspiration, courage, strength, strategic warfare, strategy, mathematics, the arts, crafts, and skill
    • Anath: Northwestern Semitic manifestation of Athene.
    • Athena-Allāt: Athene of the Near East.
  • Ataegina: Widely worshiped Lusitanian Goddess.
  • Attis: Phrygian solar God of vegetation, fertility, and rebirth.
  • Aura: Goddess of breezes.
  • Aurai: Nymphs of the breeze.
  • Averrounkos (Latin: Averruncus): A God of avoiding calamity.
  • Bona Dea: Goddess of chastity and fertility in women, healing, and the protection of the Romans; solely worshiped by women.
  • Britomartis: Also called Diktynna, She is Goddess of mountains and hunting.
  • Bubona: Goddess of cattle. It’s possible that the festival of cattle (ludi boum causa) mentioned by Pliny was dedicated to Her. Those who celebrated the rites were called Bubetii.
  • Caca: A hearth Goddess who had a shrine which was likely somewhere in Rome.
  • Camenae: Four Nymphs of wells and springs, whose place of worship was the sacred grove of Carmentis at the Port Capena. These Nymphs are:
    • Carmenta: Nymph of childbirth and prophecy.
    • Egeria: Nymph who was consort to King Numa.
    • Antevorta: Also called Porrima, She is a Nymph of the future.
    • Postverta: Nymph of the past.
  • Candelifera: Goddess of childbirth.
  • Cardea: Goddess of thresholds and door hinges.
  • Carmentes: Also called the Carmentae, they are companions of the Goddess Carmenta. During childbirth, prayers are offered to summon the Carmentes to preside over the labor.
    • Antevorta: Also called Porrima, She is a Nymph of the future. She is present when the feet of the baby come first.
    • Postvorta: She is Nymph of the past, and is present at the birth when the baby is born head-first.
  • Carnea: A Nymph of the door handles, the heart, and other organs. Her festival is on the Kalends of June.
  • Chloris (Flora): Nymph associated with spring, flowers and new growth.
  • Clementia: Goddess of mercy and clemency.
  • Coelus: God of the sky.
  • Collatina: Goddess of hills.
  • Conditor: God of the harvest.
  • Consus: God of grain storage.
  • Convector: God of bringing in of the crops from the fields.
  • Copia: Goddess of wealth and plenty.
  • Cunina: Goddess who watcher over and protects infants in their cradles.
  • Dea Dia: Goddess of growth worshiped during Ambarvalia.
  • Dea Tacita: Goddess of the dead whose worship was established by King Numa.
  • Deo (Ceres): Goddess of agriculture, fertility, harvest, and sacred law.
  • Despoina: Daughter of Deo worshiped in Arcadia.
  • Deverra: A Goddess who protects midwives and women in labour. She is symbolized by a broom which is used to sweep away evil influences, and as such is associated with the brooms which are used to purify temples in preparation for various worship services, sacrifices and celebrations.
  • Dike (Jus, Justitia): Goddess of justice.
  • Dionysos (Liber): God of ecstasy, liberation, and salvation.
    • Iacchos (Iacchus): A minor deity worshiped at Athens and Eleusis in connection with the Eleusinian mysteries.
  • Dioskouroi (Dioscuri): The twins Castor and Pollux, who were transformed into the constellation Gemini.
  • Disciplina: Goddess of discipline worshiped by soldiers.
  • Dius Fidus: God of oaths.
  • Domiduca & Domitius: Marriage divinities who accompanies the bridal procession as the couple arrives at their new home together on the wedding night.
  • Dryades: Tree Nymphs.
    • Hamadryades: Dryad nymphs who are bounded to a specific tree.
  • Durius: The Daimon of the river Douro in modern day Portugal and Spain, depicted bearing a fishing net.
  • Eileithyia (Latin: Lucina): Goddess of childbirth.
  • Eirene (Latin: Pax): Goddess of peace.
  • Ekekheiria (Latin: Ececheiria): Daimon of truce and armistice. She was honoured at Olympia when a general armistice was declared among the states.
  • Electryone: Also called Alectrona in Dorian Greek, She is the daughter of Helios and Rhode who died a virgin and came to be worshiped as a heroine on the island of Rhodes.
  • Eleos (Misericordia, Clementia): Daimon of mercy, pity and compassion who had an altar in Athens.
  • Eleutheria (Libertas): Goddess of liberty.
  • Elpis (Spes): Goddess of hope.
  • Empanda: Goddess of openness, friendliness and generosity. She had a sanctuary near the gate which led to the capitol.
  • Endovelicus: Chthonic God of medicine.
  • Enyalios: War God who is the son of Ares and Enyo.
  • Enyo (Bellona): Goddess of war.
  • Eos (Aurora): Goddess of the dawn.
    • Matuta: Latin Goddess of the dawn, harbors and the Sea. Patron deity of newborn babies.
  • Epimelides: Nymphs of meadows and pastures who nourish and protect the herds and flocks of cattle, goats and sheep which graze their lands. Guardians of fruit-trees.
  • Epidotes: Daimon of ritual purification worshiped in Sparta.
  • Epona: Protector of equines.
  • Erecura: Chthonic Gallo-Roman Goddess.
  • Erinyes (Dirae): Also called the Furies, Goddesses of vengeance.
  • Eris (Discordia): Goddess of discord and strife.
  • Eros (Cupid): God of attraction.
  • Ésous (Esus): Gaulish deity.
  • Euboulos: God of ploughing and sowing of seed.
  • Eukleia (Eucleia): Daimon of good repute and glory who is worshiped in Boiotia, Lokris, and Makedonia.
  • Eunomia: One of the Horai, She is a Goddess of good order, civil order, good laws, lawful behaviour.
  • Eurynome: Oceanid Nymph worshiped at a sanctuary near the confluence of rivers called the Neda and the Lymax in the Peloponnese.
  • Eventus Bonus: God of success both in commerce and in agriculture.
  • Fabulinus: God who taught children to speak and receives an offering when a child speaks their first words.
  • Falacer: God of the grove.
  • Fauna: Female counterpart to Pan.
  • Faustitas: Goddess who is the protector of herds of livestock.
  • Febris: Goddess who protected people against fevers.
  • Felicitas: Goddess of good luck.
  • Feronia: Goddess of health, fertility, abundance, wildlife, and freedom. She was often worshiped by ex-slaves who attained freedom.
  • Flora: Goddess of spring and the blooming flowers.
  • Fontus: Also named Fons, He is a God of wells and springs whose religious festival, the Fontinalia, is held on October 13
  • Fornax: Goddess of bread baking and ovens.
  • Fulgora: Goddess of lightning.
  • Furrina: Goddess of springs.
  • Glaukos (Glaucus): Prophetic Purified Soul associated with the seas.
  • Glykon (Glycon): Serpentine God.
  • Gobannos (Gobbanus): Gallo-Roman smithing God.
  • Harmonia (Concordia): Also called hom*onoia, She is the Goddess of harmony, agreement, and understanding.
  • Harpocrates: Mystical God of silence.
  • Hebe (Juventas): Goddess of youth.
  • Hedone (Volupta): Goddess of delight and daughter born from the union of Cupid and Psyche.
  • Hekaterides: Goddess of rustic dance.
  • Hekateros: God of dance and handwork.
  • Hephaistos (Vulcanus): God of the forge, metallurgy, and volcanoes.
  • Hera (Juno): Queen of the Gods; Goddess of marriage and protector of women
    • Caelestis (Tanit): Carthaginian Hera.
    • Cinxia: Goddess of marriage.
    • Quiritis: Goddess of motherhood.
  • Herakles (Hercules): God of strength, gatekeeper of Olympus, and the saviour and protector of mankind.
    • Melkarth: Carthaginian Heracles.
  • Hermaphroditos: Also called Aphroditos, He is a God of unions, androgyny, marriage, sexuality and fertility.
  • Hermes (Mercurius): Messenger of the Gods and God of commerce, travel, and shepherds.
    • Hermanubis: Graeco-Egyptian God of the Priests in the search for truth.
    • Hermes Trismegistus: God of mysteries and author of the Hermetic Corpus.
  • Heron: The Thracian rider God, who is worshiped as a saviour deity.
  • Hestia (Vesta): Goddess of the hearth.
  • Hippolytus (Virbius): A forest God whose worship was associated with the cult of Aphrodite.
  • Honos: A Daimon of chivalry, honor and military justice often worshiped alongside the deity Arete.
  • Hora: The Pure Soul of Hersilia, the wife of Romulus.
  • Horai: Goddesses of seasons and the natural portions of time.
  • Hormes: Daimon of effort and eagerness who is worshiped in Athens.
  • Hygieia (Salus): Goddess of good health and sanitation.
  • Hymen: God of weddings, reception, marriage
  • Hypnos (Somnus, Sopor): God of sleep.
  • Iacchos: God who is understood as founder of the Eleusinian mysteries.
  • Iana: Goddess of arches and the moon.
  • Ianos (Latin: Janus): God of time, beginnings, and ends.
  • Indiges: Deified soul of Aineías (Latin: Aeneas), the leader of the Trojan refugees and ancestor of Romulus. Like Quirinus, Indiges is a fatherly figure to all Latin peoples.
  • Intercidona: A Goddess who protects midwives and women in labour.
  • Iris (Latin: Arcus): Goddess of rainbows and messenger of the Gods. She is worshiped by Delians and offered cakes made of dried figs, wheat, and honey.
  • Jugatinus: A conjugal God.
  • Juturna: Goddess of lakes, wells and springs.
  • Kabiri: Group of chthonic deities.
  • Karme: Goddess of the harvest.
  • Kekropidai: Three sister-Goddesses who were the daughters of Cecrops I, usually worshiped by Athenians.
    • Aglaurus
    • Herse
    • Pandrosus
  • Kernoúnos (Latin: Cernunnos): Gaulish horned deity.
  • Kharites (Latin: Gratiae): Also called the Graces, they are Daimons of beauty, human creativity, charm, nature, and fertility.
    • Aglaia: Also named Kharis and Kale, She is a Daimon of beauty, splendour, glory, magnificence, adornment
    • Euphrosyne: Also named Euthymia, She is a Daimon of joy and mirth.
    • Thalia: A Daimon of festivity and rich banquets.
  • Kheiron (Latin: Chiron): Kentaur divinity.
  • Kore (Latin: Proserpina): Goddess of the underworld, springtime, flowers and vegetation.
    • Isis: Goddess of motherhood.
  • Korymbos (Latin: Corymbus): Rustic Daimon of the fruit of the ivy.
  • Kronos (Latin: Saturnus): God of agriculture, the harvest, generation, time, dissolution, plenty, wealth, periodic renewal, and liberation.
  • Kyrínos (Latin: Quirinus): A Pure Soul sent to our world as Romulus, He is the national tutelary divinity of the Romans.
  • Lacturnus: A deity who infuses crops with “milk” (juice or sap).
  • Lares, Penates & Genii: Gods of the domestic space.
  • Laverna: Chthonic Goddess of gain.
  • Leto (Latona): Goddess of womanly modesty and motherhood.
  • Leucothea: A Nymph of the Sea.
  • Libera: Goddess of liberation and female fertility.
  • Libertas: Goddess of freedom.
  • Libitina: Goddess of funerals whose grove was located on the Esquiline Hill.
  • Lima: Roman Goddess of thresholds.
  • Litavis: Gallo-Roman Goddess who is consort of Ares (Mars).
  • Lubentina: A Goddess of funerals and burial.
  • Manes: Similar to the Lares, Genii and Di Penates. They were the souls of deceased loved ones.
  • Mania: Goddess of the dead.
  • Manturna: A conjugal Goddess who lets a couple remain together.
  • Meditrina: Goddess of wine and health whose festival, the Meditrinalia, is observed on October 11.
  • Mefitas: Goddess of poisonous vapors which emit from the ground in swamps and volcanic vapors who protects people from malaria.
  • Melinoë: Chthonic Nymph.
  • Mellona: Goddess and protector of bees.
  • Mena: Roman Goddess of menstruation.
  • Mens: Roman Goddess of mind and consciousness whose festival was May 8.
  • Messia: Agricultural Goddess. She, along with other harvesting Goddesses Secia and Tutelina, had three pillars with altars before them in the Circus Maximus.
  • Messor: God of agriculture and mowing.
  • Meter Theon: Goddess of theurgy, mother of the Gods, and wife of Zeus-Helios.
    • Rhea (Latin: Ops): Agricultural mother Goddess.
    • Ge (Latin: Terra): Goddess of the Earth.
    • Hekate (Latin: Trivia): Goddess of theurgy, crossroads, the magian science, and guardian of roads.
  • Mithras: Solar God of light and salvation.
  • Moirai (Latin: Parcae): Also called the Fates, three Goddesses of fate.
  • Mogounos: God of righteousness.
  • Moneta: Goddess of prosperity.
  • Mousai (Latin: Musae): Also called the Muses, they are Goddesses of the literature, science, and the arts.
  • Mutunus Tutunus: Fertility God associated with marriage with a shrine at the Velian Hill.
  • Naiades: Also called Hydriades, they are Nymphs of streams, brooks, fountains, wells, springs, and other bodies of fresh water. Some are among the Okeanids, daughters of the earth-encircling river Okeanos, while others are born of local River divinities.
  • Nehalennia: Goddess of trading, shipping, and possibly horticulture and fertility.
  • Nemestrinus: God of groves and the woods.
  • Nemesis (Latin: Invidia, Rivalitas): Also named Adrasteia, She is the Goddess of retribution.
  • Nenia: Goddess of funerals who had a sanctuary beyond the Porta Viminalis.
  • Nereides: Nymphs of the Sea and daughters of the God Nereos. They were worshiped in parts of Greece.
  • Nereos: God of the Sea and father of the Nereids, worshiped at Gythium in Laconia.
  • Nikaia: A Nymph and daughter of the Great Mother who is worshiped in the Bithynian town of Nikaia.
  • Nike (Latin: Victoria): Goddess of victory.
    • Vica Pota: Another form of the Goddess Nike who is worshiped in early Rome. Her shrine was located at the foot of the Velian Hill.
  • Nodutus: The divinity who causes the “knot” (nodus in Latin) or node to form.
  • Nundina: Goddess of the ninth day, on which the newborn child was given a name.
  • Nymphai: Also called Nymphs, they are a class of worldly spirits in our realm of generation.
  • Nysos: Daimon of Mount Nysa.
  • Nyx (Latin: Nox): Goddess of the night. She is often associated in the worship of other Gods, however had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara.
  • Obarator: God of ploughing.
  • Occator: God of harrowing.
  • Okeanos (Latin: Oceanus): Primordial Titan of the earth-encircling river
  • Okeanids: Nymphs who are three thousand daughters of Okeanos and Tethys. Their numbers include some of the Anthousai, Aurai, Dryades, Epimelides, Leimonides, Naiades, and Nephelai.
  • Oneiroi: Gods and Daimons who rule over dreams, nightmares, and oneiromancy.
  • Orbona: Goddess of parents who lost their children.
  • Oreiades: Nymphs of mountains. Their members include some of the Epimelides, Hamadryades, and Naiades.
  • Ourea: God of mountains.
  • Paean: Physician of the Gods.
  • Palaimon (Latin: Portunus): Sea God associated with keys, doors, livestock and ports. He is the guardian of storehouses and locked doors.
  • Palatua: Goddess who guards the Palatine Hill.
  • Pales: God of shepherds, flocks and livestock whose festival, the Parilia, is celebrated on April 21.
  • Pan (Latin: Faunus, Lupercus): God of shepherds and flocks, rustic music, the wilds, and the nature of mountain wilds. He is the companion of the nymphs and protector of cattle.
    • Inuus: A deity associated with the Lupercalia festival.
  • Patelana: The Goddess who opens up the grain.
  • Peitho (Latin: Suadela): Goddess of persuasion in romance, seduction and love. She is worshiped in conjunction with Aphrodite.
  • Phales: God of phallic processions.
  • Phorkys: Primordial God of the Sea.
  • Picmunus & Pilumnus: Picmunus is a rustic God of agriculture, fertility, matrimony, infants and children. His brother Pilumnus is a rustic God who protects midwives and women in labour who ensures children grow properly and remain healthy.
  • Pistis (Latin: Fides): Goddess of good faith and trust.
  • Plouton (Latin: Dis Pater, Orcus): God of the underworld and the riches of the earth. Also a God of oaths and punisher of perjurers.
    • Sarapis (Latin: Serapis): Alexandrian Plutoun.
  • Ploutos (Latin: Plutus): God of wealth apparently important to the Eleusinian Mysteries.
  • Poseidon (Latin: Neptunus): Lord of the Sea, storms, earthquakes, soil, and horses.
  • Pomona: Goddess of fruitful abundance.
  • Pontus: Primordial God of the Sea.
  • Porus: God of plenty.
  • Potamoi (Latin: Flumina): Gods of rivers and streams worshiped all throughout the Hellenic world.
  • Potina: Goddess of children’s drinks.
  • Priapus: Rustic God of garden fertility.
  • Prometheus: Trickster God and benefactor of mankind.
  • Proteus: Primordial seer of the Sea.
  • Providentia: Goddess of forethought.
  • Pudicitia: Goddess of modesty and chastity.
  • Puta: Goddess of the pruning of vines and trees.
  • Robigus: Also called in feminine Robigo, they are a divinity who averts overwhelming heat and blight from young cornfields.
  • Roma: Goddess of Rome.
  • Rosmerta: Goddess of fertility and abundance.
  • Rumina: Goddess of nursing mothers.
  • Runcina: A Goddess of weeding and mowing.
  • Rusina: Goddess of the fields.
  • Sancus: God of oaths and good faith.
  • Saritor: God of weeding and hoeing.
  • Secia: An agricultural Goddess. She, along with other harvesting Goddesses Tutelina and Messia, had three pillars with altars before them in the Circus Maximus.
  • Seia: Goddess who protects the seed once it’s sewn into the earth.
  • Selene (Latin: Luna): Goddess of the Moon.
    • Mín (Latin: Lunus): God of lunar months.
  • Semonia, Setia, and Segetia: Agricultural deities who are Goddesses of sowing.
  • Silenos: Companion and tutor to Dionysos.
  • Silouanós (Latin: Silvanus): God of the forests.
  • Sirona: Celtic Goddess associated with healing springs whose attributes are eggs and snakes.
  • Stata Mater: Goddess who guards against fires.
  • Sterquilinus: God of fertilizer.
  • Stimula: Goddess who incites passion in women.
  • Strenua: Goddess of strength and vigor.
  • Suadela: Goddess of persuasion, especially in matters of love.
  • Subigus: Tutelary God of the wedding night.
  • Subrincinator: God of weeding.
  • Soukélous (Latin: Sucellus): Khthonic deity and the ancestor and protector of mankind.
  • Summanus: God of nocturnal thunder whose temple was west of the Circus Maximus.
  • Telephos: Son of Herakles and Auge. He is worshiped in Arcadia.
  • Telete: Daimon of the Bacchic initiation rites.
  • Tempestes: Goddesses of storms and sudden weather who had a temple dedicated to Her near the Porta Capena by Lucius Cornelius Scipio, a consul during the First Punic War.
  • Terminus: God who protects boundary markers.
  • Thalassa: Primordial Goddess of the Sea.
  • Theisoa: A Nymph worshiped at Theisoa in Arcadia.
  • Themis: Titan Goddess of divine law and order.
  • Thryiai: Goddess of divination by pebbles and bird omens.
  • Tiberinus: Daimon of the Tiber River.
  • Tityroi: Daimons under the Lord Dionysos.
  • Triptolemos: God of the wheat mill and sowing of the grain.
  • Triton: Messenger God of the Sea.
  • Trophonios: Chthonic God who built the site of the Oracle of Delphi.
  • Tutelina: A Goddess who watches over stored grain and is responsible for protecting crops brought in during harvest time. She, along with other harvesting Goddesses Secia and Messia, had three pillars with altars dedicated for them in the Circus Maximus.
  • Tyche (Latin: Fortuna): Usually worshipped more frequently as Eutykhia, She is a Goddess of good fortune, luck, prosperity, and success.
  • Vacuna: Goddess of agriculture worshipped throughout parts of central Italia.
  • Vallonia: Goddess of valleys.
  • Vaticanus: The God who opens a newborn’s mouth to wail.
  • Veritas: Goddess of truth.
  • Vertumnes: God of seasons, change, vegetative growth, gardens and fruit trees.
  • Viduus: God who separated the soul and the body after death.
  • Viriplacaa: Goddess of marital strife who protected women. She had a sanctuary on the Palatine Hill.
  • Vitumnus: God who gave life to children in the womb.
  • Volturnus: God of the waters.
  • Volupia: A divinity whose name appears to signify “willingness.” She had a temple, the Sacellum Volupiae, on the Via Nova by the Porta Romana, where sacrifices were offered to the Angerona.
  • Volutina: A Goddess who induces “envelopes” (Latin involumenta), or leaf sheaths, to form.
  • Volumna: Goddess who protects the nursery.
  • Zeus-Helios (Latin: Iuppiter, Iovis, Sol): The Nous, Demiurge, King of Heaven and the All
    • Anxurus: Italian deity understood as a youthful Iuppiter.
    • Sabazios: Phrygian Zeus associated with horses and snakes.
    • Tinia: Etruscan Zeus.
    • Zeus-Ammon: Graeco-Egyptian Zeus.
    • Zeus Brontios (Iuppiter Tonans): Zeus the Thunderer.
    • Zeus Dolikhenos (Iuppiter Dolichenus): Canaanite Zeus.
    • Zeus Kapitolinos (Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus): Zeus the Best and the Greatest, as He was traditionally worshipped in Rome.
    • Zeus Ktêsios (Zeus Ctesius): Zeus who protects the household.

And such are the requisites for an auditor of the gods. But the necessary discourses proceed as follows: the essences of the gods are neither generated; for eternal natures are without generation; and those beings are eternal who possess a first power, and are naturally void of passivity. Nor are their essences composed from bodies; for even the powers of bodies are incorporeal: nor are they comprehended in place; for this is the property of bodies: nor are they separated from the first cause, or from each other; in the same manner as intellections are not separated from intellect, nor sciences from the soul. On what account then the ancients, neglecting such discourses as these, employed fables, is a question not unworthy our investigation. And this indeed is the first utility arising from fables, that they excite us to inquiry, and do not suffer our cognitive power to remain in indolent rest. It will not be difficult therefore to show that fables are divine, from those by whom they are employed: for they are used by poets agitated by divinity, by the best of philosophers, and by such as disclose initiatory rites. In oracles also fables are employed by the gods; but why fables are divine is the part of philosophy to investigate. Since therefore all beings rejoice in similitude, and are averse from dissimilitude, it is necessary that discourses concerning the gods should be as similar to them as possible, that they may become worthy of their essence, and that they may render the gods propitious to those who discourse concerning them; all which can only be effected by fables. Fables therefore imitate the gods, according to effable and ineffable, unapparent and apparent, wise and ignorant; and this likewise extends to the goodness of the gods; for as the gods impart the goods of sensible natures in common to all things, but the goods resulting from intelligibles to the wise alone, so fables assert to all men that there are gods; but who they are, and of what kind, they alone manifest to such as are capable of so exalted a knowledge. In fables too, the energies of the gods are imitated; for the world may very properly be called a fable, since bodies, and the corporeal possessions which it contains, are apparent, but souls and intellects are occult and invisible. Besides, to inform all men of the truth concerning the gods, produces contempt in the unwise, from their incapacity of learning, and negligence in the studious; but concealing truth in fables, prevents the contempt of the former, and compels the latter to philosophize. But you will ask why adulteries, thefts, paternal bonds, and other unworthy actions are celebrated in fables? Nor is this unworthy of admiration, that where there is an apparent absurdity, the soul immediately conceiving these discourses to be concealments, may understand that the truth which they contain is to be involved in profound and occult silence. Of fables, some are theological, others physical, others animastic, (or belonging to soul,) others material, and lastly, others mixed from these. Fables are theological which employ nothing corporeal, but speculate the very essences of the gods; such as the fable which asserts that Saturn devoured his children: for it obscurely intimates the nature of an intellectual god, since every intellect returns into itself. But we speculate fables physically when we speak concerning the energies of the gods about the world; as when considering Saturn the same as Time, and calling the parts of time the children of the universe, we assert that the children are devoured by their parents. But we employ fables in an animastic mode when we contemplate the energies of the soul; because the intellections of our souls, though by a discursive energy they proceed into other things, yet abide in their parents. Lastly, fables are material, such as the Egyptians ignorantly employ, considering and calling corporeal natures divinities; such as Isis, earth; Osiris, humidity; Typhon, heat: or again, denominating Saturn, water; Adonis, fruits; and Bacchus, wine. And, indeed, to assert that these are dedicated to the gods, in the same manner as herbs, stones, and animals, is the part of wise men; but to call them gods is alone the province of mad men; unless we speak in the same manner as when, from established custom, we call the orb of the Sun and its rays the Sun itself. But we may perceive the mixed kind of fables, as well in many other particulars, as in the fable which relates, that Discord at a banquet of the gods threw a golden apple, and that a dispute about it arising among the goddesses, they were sent by Jupiter to take the judgement of Paris, who, charmed with the beauty of Venus, gave her the apple in preference to the rest. For in this fable the banquet denotes the supermundane powers of the gods; and on this account they subsist in conjunction with each other: but the golden apple denotes the world, which, on account of its composition from contrary natures, is not improperly said to be thrown by Discord, or strife. But again, since different gifts are imparted to the world by different gods, they appear to contest with each other for the apple. And a soul living according to sense, (for this is Paris) not perceiving other powers in the universe, asserts that the contended apple subsists alone through the beauty of Venus. But of these species of fables, such as are theological belong to philosophers; the physical and animastic rites (teleteïs:) since the intention of all mystic ceremonies is, to conjoin us with the world and the gods. But if it be requisite to relate another fable, we may emply the following with advantage. It is said that the mother of the gods perceiving Attis by the river Gallus, became in love with him, and having placed on him a starry had, lived afterwards with him in intimate familiarity; but Attis falling in love with a Nymph, deserted the mother of the gods, and entered into association with the Nymph. Through this the mother of the gods caused Attis to become insane, who cutting off his genital parts, left them with the nymph, and then returning again to his pristine connection with the Goddess. The mother of the gods then is the vivific goddess, and on this account is called mother: but Attis is the Demiurgus of natures conversant with generation and corruption; and hence his is said to be found by the river Gallus; for Gallus denotes the Galaxy, or milky circle, from which a passive body descends to the earth. But since primary gods perfect such as are secondary, the mother of the gods falling in love with Attis imparts to him celestial powers; for this is the meaning of the starry hat. But Attis loves a nymph, and nymphs preside over generation; for every thing in generation flows. But because it is necessary that the flowing nature of generation should be stopped, lest something worse than things last should be produced; in order to accomplish this, the Demiurgus of generable and corruptible natures, sending prolific powers into the realms of generation, is again conjoined with the gods. But these things indeed never took place at any particular time, because they have a perpetuity of subsistence: and intellect contemplates all things as subsisting together; but discourse considers this thing as first, and that as second, in the order of existence. Hence, since a fable most aptly corresponds to the world, how is it possible that we, who are imitators of the world, can be more gracefully ornamented than by the assistance of fable? For through this we observe a festive Day. And, in the first place, we ourselves falling from the celestial regions, and associating with a nymph, the symbol of generation, live immersed in sorrow, abstaining from corn and other gross and sordid aliment; since every thing of this kind is contrary to the soul: afterwards, the incisions of a tree and fasting succeed, as if we would amputate from our nature all farther progress of generation: at length we employ the nutriment of milk, as if passing by this means into a state of regeneration: and lastly, festivity and crowns, and a re-ascent, as it were, to the gods succeed. But the truth of all this is confirmed by the time in which these ceremonies take place; for they are performed about spring and the equinoctial period, when natures in generation cease to be any longer generated, and the days are more extended than the nights, because this period is accommodated to ascending souls. But the rape of Proserpine is fable to have taken place about the opposite equinoctial; and this rape alludes to the descent of souls. And thus much concerning the mode of considering fables; to our discourse on which subject, may both the gods and the souls of the writers of fables be propitious. After this, it is requisite that we should know the first cause, and the orders of gods posterior to the first, together with the nature of the world, of intellect, soul, and essence; likewise that we should speculate providence, fate, and fortune, virtue and vice, and the good and evil forms of republics produced from these; and lastly, that we should consider from whence evil crept into the world. And though each of these requires many and very extended discourses, yet there is no reason why we may not discuss these subjects with brevity, lest mankind should be totally destitute of the knowledge they contain. It is necessary, then, that the first cause should be one; for the monad presides over all multitude, excelling all things in power and goodness, and on this account it is necessary that all things should participate of its nature; for nothing can hinder its energies through power, and it will not separate itself from any thing on account of the goodness which it possesses. But if the first cause were soul, all things would be animated; if intellect, all things would be intellectual; if essence, all things would participate of essence; which [concerning this] last [one] some perceiving to subsist in all things, have taken occasion to denominate him essence. If then things had nothing besides being, and did not also possess goodness, this assertion would be true; but if beings subsist through goodness, and participate of the good, it is necessary that the first cause should be super-essential, and the good: but the truth of this is most eminently evinced in souls endued with virtue, and through good neglecting the care of their being, when they expose themselves to the most imminent dangers for their country or friends, or in the cause of virtue. But after this ineffable power the orders of the gods succeed. But of the gods some are mundane and others super-mundane. I call those mundane who fabricate the world: but of the super-mundane, some produce essences, others intellect, and others soul; and on this account they are distinguished into three orders, in discourses concerning which orders, it is easy to discover all the gods. But of the mundane gods, some are the causes of the world’s existence, other animate the world; others again harmonize it, thus composed from different natures; and others, lastly, guard and preserve it when harmonically arranged. And since these orders are four, and each consists from things first, middle, and last, it is necessary that the disposers of these should be twelve: hence Jupiter, Neptune, and Vulcan, fabricate the world; Ceres, Juno, and Diana, animate it; Mercury, Venus, and Apollo, harmonize it; and, lastly, Vesta, Minerva, and Mars, preside over it with a guarding power. But the truth of this may be seen in statues as in ænigmas: for Apollo harmonizes the lyre, Pallas is invested with arms, and Venus is naked; since harmony generates beauty, and beauty is not concealed in objects of sensible inspection. But since these gods primarily possess the world, it is necessary to consider the other gods as subsisting in these; as Bacchus in Jupiter, Esculapius in Apollo, and the Graces in Venus. We may likewise behold the orbs with which they are connected; i.e. Vesta with earth, Neptune with water, Juno with air, and Vulcan with fire. But the six superior gods we denominate from general custom; for we assume Apollo and Diana for the sun and moon; but we attribute the orb of Saturn to Ceres, æther to Pallas; and we assert that heaven is common to them all. The orders, therefore, powers, and spheres of the twelve gods, are thus unfolded by us, and celebrated as in a sacred hymn.

It is necessary that the world should be incorruptible and unbegotten: incorruptible, for this being corrupted, it must either produce one better, or one worse, or disordered confusion; but if by corruption it becomes worse, its artificer must be evil, who thus changes it from better to worse; but if it becomes better, its artificer must be defective in power, because he did not fabricate it better at first; but if through corruption he changes it into the same state as before, he labours in vain. And it is not lawful to assert that he changes it into nothing but disorder and confusion: from all which it is sufficiently evident that the world is unbegotten: for if it be incapable of corruption, it is unbegotten; since every thing generated is also corrupted. We may likewise add, that since the world subsists through the goodness of divinity, it is necessary that divinity should always be good, and the world perpetually endure: just in the same manner as light is coexistent with the sun and fire, and the shadow with its forming body. But of the bodies contained in the world, some imitate intellect, and revolve in a circle; but others soul, and are moved in a right line. And of those which are moved in a right line, fire and air, are impelled upwards, but water and earth downwards: but of those which revolve in a circle, the inerratic sphere commences its motion from the east, but the seven planets are carried in their orbits from the west. But of this there are many causes, among which the following is not the least; that if there was but one rapid period of the orbs, generation would be imperfect: but since there is a diversity of motion, it is also requisite that there should be a difference in the nature of bodies. It is, besides this, necessary that a celestial body should neither burn nor produce cold, nor generate any thing else which is the property of the four elements. But since the world is a sphere, which the zodiac evinces, and in every sphere the inferior part is the middle, for it is every way much distant from the surface; hence heavy bodies are impelled downwards, and are driven to the earth: and all these indeed the gods fabricate, intellect orderly disposes, and soul perpetually moves. And thus much concerning the gods. But there is a certain power subordinate to essence, but prior to soul; from essence indeed deriving its being, but perfecting soul, in the same manner as the sun perfects corporeal sight. And of souls some are rational and immortal, but others irrational and immortal; and the first of these are produced from the first, but the second from the second orders of Gods. But, in the first place, let us investigate the definition of soul. Soul then is that by which animated natures differ from such as are inanimate; but they differ through motion, sense, phantasy, and intelligence. The irrational soul therefore is sensitive and phantastic life; but the rational soul is that which rules over sense and phantasy, and uses reason in its energies. And the irrational soul indeed is subservient to the corporeal passions; for it desires without reason, and is inflamed with anger: but the rational soul through the assistance of reason despises the body, and contending with the irrational soul, when it conquers, produces virtue, but when it is conquered, vice. But it is necessary that the rational soul should be immortal, because it knows the gods; for nothing mortal knows that which is immortal. Besides this, it despises human concerns, as foreign from its nature, and has a disposition contrary to bodies, as being itself incorporeal. Add too, that when the body with which a soul is connected is beautiful and young, then the soul is oppressed and its vigour diminished; but when this grows old, the soul revives, and increases in strength and vigour. And every worthy soul uses intellect; but intellect is not generated by body; for how can things destitute of intellect generate intellect? But employing the body as an instrument, it does not subsist in body: in the same manner as no artificer of machines subsist in his machines; and yet many of these, without any one touching them, are moved from place to place. But we ought not to wonder if the rational soul is often led astray by the body; for arts themselves when their instruments are damaged are incapable of operation. From hence also we may perceive the providence of the gods; for how could order be inserted in the world if there be no one who distributes it in order? From whence too could all things be produced for the sake of something; as, for instance, the irrational soul that there might be sense; the rational, that the earth might be adorned? From natural effects likewise we may perceive the operations of providence: for it has constructed the eyes of a diaphanous nature for the purpose of seeing; but the nostrils above the mouth, that we might distinguish disagreeable smells: and of the teeth, the middle are fashioned sharp, for the purpose of cutting, but those situated in the more interior part of the mouth are broad, for the purpose of bruising the aliment in pieces. And thus we may perceive in all things, that nothing is constructed without reason and design. But since so much providence is displayed in the last of things, it is impossible that it should not subsist in such as are first: besides, divinations, and the healing of bodies, take place from the beneficent providence of the gods. And it is necessary to believe that a similar concern about the world is exerted by the gods, without either expecting reward, or enduring labour in the exertion; but that as bodies endued with power, produce essentially, or by their very essence, that which they produce; as the sun illuminates and heats by that which he is alone; so the providence of the gods, by a much greater reason, without labour and difficulty to itself, confers good on the subjects of its providential exertions. So that by this means the objections of the Epicureans against providence are dissolved: for, say they, that which is divine is neither the cause of molestation to itself nor to others. And such is the incorporeal providence of the gods about bodies and souls. But the beneficent exertion of the gods resulting from, and subsisting in, bodies, is different from the former, and is called fate, because its series is more apparent in bodies; and for the sake of which also the mathematical art was invented. That human affairs therefore, and particularly a corporeal nature, are not only directed by the gods, but from divine bodies also, is highly consonant to reason and truth; and hence reason dictates, that health and sickness, prosperous and adverse fortune, proceed from these according to every one’s particular deserts. But to refer injustice and crimes committed through lasciviousness and wantonness to fate, leaves us indeed good, but the gods evil and base: unless some one should endeavour to remove this consequence, by replying, that every thing which the world contains, and whatever has a natural subsistence, is good, but that the nature which is badly nourished, or which is of a more imbecile condition, changes the good proceeding from fate into something worse; just as the sun, though it is good itself, becomes noxious to the blear-eyed and feverish. For on what account do the Massagetæ devour their parents, the Hebrews use circumcision, and the Persians preserve their nobility? But how can astrologers call Saturn and Mars noxious, and yet again celebrate these planets as beneficent, by asserting that philosophy, kingdoms, and military command, are their gifts? If they assign triangles and squares as the cause, it is absurd that human virtue should every where remain the same, but that the gods should be subject to mutation from diversity of places. But that nobility or ignobility of parents may be predicted from the stars, shows that they do not produce all things, but only signify some, by their different situations and aspects; for how can things which subsisted prior to generation be produced from generation? As therefore providence and fate subsist about nations and cities, as likewise about every individual of human kind, so also fortune, about which it is now requisite to speak. Fortune, therefore, must be considered as a power of the gods, disposing things differently from each other, and happening contrary to expectation, to beneficent purposes; and on this account it is proper that cities should celebrate this goddess in common; since every city is composed from different particulars. But this goddess holds her dominion in sublunary concerns, since every thing fortuitous is excluded from the regions above the moon. But if the evil enjoy prosperous fortune, and the worthy are oppressed with want, there is nothing wonderful in such a dispensation; for the former consider riches as all things, but they are despised by the latter. And besides this, prosperous events do not diminish the depravity of the evil; but virtue is alone sufficient to the good. But in discoursing on the soul it is requisite to speak of virtue and vice; for while the irrational soul proceeding into bodies immediately produces anger and desire, the rational soul presiding over these, causes the whole soul to receive a tripartite division, viz. into reason, anger, and desire. But the virtue of reason is prudence; of anger, fortitude; of desire, temperance; and of the whole soul, justice. For it is requisite that reason should judge what is fit and becoming; that anger, listening to the persuasions of reason, should despise things apparently horrible; and that desire should pursue that which is attended with reason, and not that which is apparently pleasant. And when the parts of the soul are in this condition, a just life is the result: for justice respecting possessions is but a small part of virtue. Hence in well-educated men you will perceive all these in amicable conjunction; but in the uncultivated, one is bold and unjust; another prudent and intemperate; all which you cannot call virtues, because they are destitute of reason, imperfect, and belong to certain irrational animals. But vice is to be considered from contraries; for the vice of reason is folly; of anger, fear; of desire, intemperance; and of the whole soul, injustice. But virtues are produced from an upright polity, and from a well-ordered education and instruction; but vices from an opposite process. But the forms of polities are produced according to the triple division of the soul; for the rulers are assimilated to reason, the soldiers to anger, and the common people to desire. Hence, when all things are administered according to reason, and he who is the best of all men possesses dominion, then a kingdom is produced: but when, from reason and anger in conjunction, more than one hold the reins of government, an aristocracy is produced: but where government is carried on through desire, and honours subsist with a view to possessions, such a polity is called a timocracy; and that polity which takes place in opposition to a kingdom is called a tyranny; for the former administers every thing, but the latter nothing, according to reason. But an oligarchy, or the dominion of the few, is contrary to an aristocracy; because in the former, not the best, but a few only, and those the worst, govern the city. And lastly, a democracy is opposed to a timocracy; because in the former, not such as abound in riches, but the multitude alone, is the ruler of all things.

But how came evil into the world, since the gods are good, and the producing causes of all things? And, in the first place, we ought to assert that since the gods are good, and the authors of all things, there is not any nature of evil, but that it is produced by the absence of good; just as darkness is of itself nothing, but is produced by the privation of light. But if evil has any subsistence, it must necessarily subsist either in the gods or in intellects, in souls or in bodies: but it cannot subsist in the gods, since every god is good. And if any one should say that intellect is evil, he must at the same time assert that intellect is deprived of intellect: but if soul, he must affirm that soul is worse that body; for every body, considered according to itself, is without evil. But if they assert that evil subsists from soul and body conjoined, it will certainly be absurd, that things which separately considered are not evil, should become evil from their conjunction with each other. But if any one should say that dæmons are evil, we reply, that if they possess their power from the gods they will not be evil; but if from something else, then gods will not be the authors of all things: and if the gods do not produce all things, either they are willing but not able, or they are able but not willing; but neither of these can be ascribed with any propriety to a god. And from hence it is manifest that there is nothing in the world naturally evil; but about the energies of men, and of these not all, nor yet always, evil appears. Indeed, if men were guilty through evil itself, nature herself would be evil; but if he who commits adultery considers the adultery as evil, but the pleasure connected with it as good; if he who is guilty of homicide considers the slaughter as evil, but the riches resulting from the deed as good; and if he who brings destruction on his enemies considers the destruction as evil, but taking revenge on an enemy as good; and souls are by this means guilty; hence evils will be produced through goodness, just as while light is absent darkness is produced, which at the same time has no subsistence in the nature of things. The soul therefore becomes guilty because it desires good, but it wanders about good because it is not the first essence. But that it may not wander, and that when it does so, proper remedies may be applied, and it may be restored, many things have been produced by the gods; for arts and sciences, virtues and prayers, sacrifices and initiations, laws and polities, judgements and punishments, were invented for the purpose of preventing souls from falling into guilt; and even when they depart from the present body, expiatory gods and dæmons purify them from guilt.

Concerning the gods therefore, the world, and human affairs, what has been said may be sufficient for such as are not able to be led upwards through the assistance of philosophy, and yet do not possess incurable souls. It now remains that we speak concerning natures which were never generated nor separated from one another; since we have already observed, that secondary are produced from primary natures. Every thing which is generated is either generated by art, or by nature, or according to power. It is necessary therefore that every thing operating according to nature or art should be prior to the things produced; but that things operating according to power, should have their productions co-existent with themselves; since they likewise possess an inseparable power: just as the sun produces light co-existent with itself; fire, heat; and snow, coldness. If therefore the gods produced the world by art, they would not cause it simply to be, but to be in some particular manner; for all art produces form. From whence therefore does the world derive its being? If from nature, since nature in fabricating imparts something of itself to its productions and the gods are incorporeal, it is necessary that the world (the offspring of the gods) should be incorporeal. But if any one says that the gods are corporeal, from whence does the power of incorporeals originate? And besides, if this be admitted, the world being corrupted, its artificer also must necessarily be corrupted, on the hypothesis that he operates according to nature. It remains therefore that the gods produced the world by power alone; but every thing generated by power, subsists together with the cause containing this power: and hence productions of this kind cannot be destroyed unless the producing cause is deprived of power. So that those who subject the world to corruption, plainly deny that there are gods; or if they assert that there are gods, they deprive divinity of power. He therefore who produced all things through power, caused all things to be co-existent with himself. And since this power is the greatest possible, not only men and animals were produced, but also gods and dæmons. And as much as the first god differs from our nature, by so much is it necessary that there should be more powers situated between us and him; for all natures which are much distant from each other possess a multitude of connecting mediums.

But if any one thinking agreeable to reason and truth, that the gods are immutable, doubts how they rejoice in the good, but are averse from the evil; and how they become angry with the guilty, but are rendered propitious by proper cultivation; we reply, that divinity neither rejoices; for that which rejoices is also influenced by sorrow: nor is angry; for anger is a passion: nor is appeased with gifts; for then he would be influenced by delight. Nor is it lawful that a divine nature should be well or ill affected from human concerns; for the divinities are perpetually good and profitable, but are never noxious, and ever subsist in the same uniform mode of being. But we, when we are good, are conjoined with the gods through similitude; but when evil, we are separated from them through dissimilitude. And while we live according to virtue, we partake of the gods, but when we become evil we cause them to become our enemies; not that they are angry, but because guilt prevents us from receiving the illuminations of the gods, and subjects us to the power of avenging dæmons. But if we obtain pardon of our guilt through as prayers and sacrifices, we neither appease nor cause any mutation to take place in the gods; but by methods of this kind, and by our conversion to a divine nature, we apply a remedy to our vices, and again become partakers of the goodness of the gods. So that it is the same thing to assert that divinity is turned from the evil, as to say that the sum is concealed from those who are deprived of sight. From hence we are presented with a solution of the doubts concerning sacrifices and other particulars relative to the cultivation of divinity; for that which is divine is not indigent of any thing. But the honours which we pay to the gods, are performed for the sake of our advantage: and since the providence of the gods is everywhere extended, a certain habitude, or fitness, is all that is requisite in order to receive their beneficent communications. But all habitude is produced through imitation and similitude; and hence temples imitate the heavens, but altars the earth; statues resemble life, and on this account they are similar to animals; and prayers imitate that which is intellectual; but characters, superior ineffable powers; herbs and stones resemble matter; and animals which are sacrificed, the irrational life of our souls. But from all these nothing happens to the gods beyond what they already possess; for what accession can be made to a divine nature? But a conjunction with our souls and the gods is by this means produced. But I think it will be proper to add a few things concerning sacrifices. And, in the first place, since we possess every thing from the gods, and it is but just to offer the first fruits of gifts to the givers; hence, of our possessions we offer the first fruits through consecrated gifts; of our bodies, through ornaments; and of our life, through sacrifices. Besides, without sacrifices prayers are words only; but accompanied with sacrifices they become animated words; and words indeed corroborating life, but life animating the words. Add too that the felicity of every thing is its proper perfection; but the proper perfection with its cause: and on this account we pray that we may be conjoined with the gods. Since therefore life primarily subsists in the gods, and there is also a certain human life, but the latter desires to be united with the former, a medium is required; for natures much distant from each other cannot be conjoined without a medium; and it is necessary that the medium should be similar to the connecting natures. Life therefore must necessarily by the medium of life; and hence men of the present day, that are happy, and all the ancients, have sacrificed animals; and this indeed not rashly, but in a manner accommodated to every god, with many other ceremonies respecting the cultivation of divinity. And thus much concerning sacrifices and the worship of the gods/

That the gods will never destroy the world has been already asserted; but the order of discourse requires that we should now prove that it is naturally incorruptible; for whatever is corrupted is either corrupted from itself or from some other nature. If therefore the world is corrupted from itself, fire must necessarily burn itself, and water consume itself by dryness: but if the world may be corrupted by another, it must either be from body or from that which is incorporeal. But it is impossible that this can be effected from that which is incorporeal; for incorporeals, such as nature and soul, preserve corporeal substances; and nothing is destroyed by that which naturally preserves. But if the world may be corrupted by body, it must either be from the bodies which exist at present, or from others. And if form the bodies existing at present, either those which move in a circle must destroy those moving in a right line, or those moving in a right ling, such as circularly revolve. But nothing moving in a circle has a corruptible nature; for why do we never see any thing of this kind corrupted? And things proceeding in a right ling cannot reach those revolving in an orb; for if this were possible, why have they never been able to accomplish this to the present day? But neither can the natures which are moved in a right line be destroyed by each other; for the corruption of one is the generation of the other; and this is not destruction, but mutation alone. But if the world may be corrupted by other bodies than those which it contains, it is impossible to tell from whence these bodies were generated, or in what place they at present exist. Besides, whatever is corrupted, is either corrupted in form or matter; but form is figure, and matter is body. And when forms are corrupted, but the matter remains, then we perceive that something else is generated: but if matter may be corrupted, how comes it to pass that it has not failed in so great a number of years? But if instead of the corrupted natures of others are produced, they are either generated from beings or from non-beings; and if from beings, since these remain perpetually, matter also must be eternal: but if beings (or the things which are) suffer corruption, the authors of this hypothesis must assert, that not only the world, but all things, will be corrupted. But if matter is generated from non-beings, in the first place, it is impossible that any thing can be generated from non-beings: and even if this were possible, and matter could be thus produced, as long as non-being subsists matter would continue in existence; and non-beings can never be destroyed. And if they say that matter is without form, in the first place, why does this happen not according to a part, but to the whole world? And in the next place, bodies themselves would no be destroyed, but only their beauty. Besides, whatever is corrupted is either dissolved into the natures from which it consists, or vanishes into non-entity; but if it be dissolved into the natures from which it is composed, others again will be produced: for on what account was it produced at first? But if beings pass into that which is not, what should hinder this from happening to divinity itself? If power prevents, it is not the property of power to preserve itself alone: and, by a similar reason, it is impossible that being should be generated from non-beings, and that they should vanish into non-entity. Likewise it is necessary that the world, if it may be corrupted, should either be corrupted according or contrary to nature. But if it may be corrupted according to nature, then, on account of its past and present continuance in being, it would possess that which is contrary, prior to that which is agreeable, to nature; but if contrary to nature, then it is requisite that there should be some other nature which may change the nature of the world; and which is no where apparent. Besides, whatever is capable of being naturally corrupted, we also are able to destroy; but no one has ever destroyed or changed the circular body of the world; while, on the other hand, we can change, but cannot destroy, an elementary body. And, lastly, whatever may be corrupted is changed and grows old by 11 time; but through such an extended succession of ages, the world has remained without mutation. And having said thus much to those who require on this subject stronger demonstrations we earnestly supplicate the world to be propitious to our undertaking. But the transmigration of souls, if they take place into such as are rational, then they become the souls of particular bodies; if into such as are irrational, they follow externally, in the same manner as our presiding dæmons attend us in their beneficent operations; for the rational part never becomes the soul of the irrational nature. But the truth of transmigration is evinced by the circ*mstances which take place from the birth of individuals; for why are some born blind, others imbecil, and others with a vicious soul? And besides, since souls are naturally adapted to perform their peculiar employments in bodies, it is not proper that when they have once deserted them they should remain indolent for ever; for it souls did not return again into bodies, it is necessary that either they should be infinite in number, or that others should be continually produced by the divinity. But there can be nothing actually infinite in the world; for that which is infinite can never exist in that which is finite. But neither is it possible that others can be produced; for every thing in which something new may be generated is necessarily imperfect; but it is requisite that the world should be perfect, because it is produced from a perfect nature. But souls that live according to virtue shall, in other respects, be happy; and when separated from the irrational nature, and purified from all body, shall be conjoined with the gods, and govern the whole world, together with the deities by whom it was produced. And, indeed, though nothing of this kind should happen to the soul, yet virtue herself, and the pleasure and glory resulting from virtue, together with a life free from sorrow, and subjection to others, would be sufficient to produce felicity in those who chose, and are able to pursue, a life wholly conformable to virtue itself.

Divine hierarchy is something that’s a bit different in Julian Hellenism. The Celestial Demiurge, King Helios, was appointed by the One to rule over and govern the Gods, connecting the One’s Intelligible gifts of beauty, existence, perfection, and oneness together, and through His radiance illuminate them upon the Intellective Gods and perfecting these divinities, bestows upon the Gods the faculty of thought and being comprehended by thought. However, these Gods’ have their essence ultimately derive from the Intelligible Realm and came forth into being simultaneously with Him (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 361). Hierarchy isn’t merely based on when they pop up in the cosmos, but rather the Gods and Greater Kinds belong to numerous hierarchies based on:

  • Functions
  • Katagogic or Anagogic activities
  • Ontological activities

Function Hierarchy[]

Each level of the triad has the triple function of

  • Purification (katharsis)
  • Illumination (phôtismos)
  • Perfection (teleiôsis)

For a being to purify, illuminate, or perfect another doesn’t merely mean receiving the holy and transcendent fire, whose origin is in the One, but to also share it with those who rise to participate those beings. Each triad has one of these functions, the highest perfects, the mean illuminates, and the lowest purifies.

IamblichusFunction
Hypercosmic Gods

Hyper-Encosmic Gods

Encosmic Gods

Perfection (Teleiôsis)

Illumination (Phôtisma)

Purification (Katharsis)

Archangels

Angels

Daimons

Perfection (Teleiôsis)

Illumination (Phôtisma)

Purification (Katharsis)

Sub-Lunar Gods

Heroes

Purified Souls

Perfection (Teleiôsis)

Illumination (Phôtisma)

Purification (Katharsis)

Anagogic and Katagogic Activity Hierarchy[]

  • Anagogy means to raise something up. They are the divinities that lift us out of generation. Their functions are:
    • Organization of the immaterial realms of the Phenomenal Cosmos
    • Raise souls upwards towards participating Nous (The divine mind/Celestial Demiurge) in union with the divine (henosis).
    • Divinization by raining providence into our realm
  • Katagogy means to make something descend. They are the divinities that bind us to generation. The genegogic hierarchy’s functions are:
    • To ensure the proper running of the material cosmos
    • To inspire human virtue
    • To incline souls towards the generative or physical cosmos.

Ontological Hierarchy[]

Since most divinities derive from the Intelligible Realm, this hierarchy is based on their ontological activities.

Hypercosmic Gods[]

The Hypercosmic Gods are offspring of Zeus-Helios, being made up of 12 powers. Hypercosmic Gods hold the function of Perfection. The appearance of the Hypercosmic Gods is uniform, suggesting they don’t appear through the likeness of human imagination, but rather appear as themselves fully, without the overlay of symbols from their respective mythologies. Their appearance shines forth with an overwhelming essential benevolence that stems from their connection with the Good; which is in line with the idea that the Gods are completely good and incapable of evil. The uniformity of the appearance of the Hypercosmic Gods extends to their shape, size, form and general appearance, in that they are entirely perfect and unchanging, which reflects the high level of reality these Gods represent, and as such their divine appearance reflects the very nature of tranquility and order. The order they represent presents itself as an “ineffable symmetry” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.3, 89), partaking in Beauty itself, and as such their divine manifestations are unimaginably beautiful, causing sensations of joy in the Theurgic Sage who bares witness to these divine powers. A distinct quality of the Hypercosmic Gods is their fire and pure light. This fire is inseparable from its source, and is indescribable due to its purity. Partaking of the intelligible fire of the Intelligible Realm, their godly flame fills the cosmos during divine manifestations. Their light is ineffable; a light that is beyond all light, whether that be natural or supernatural. This brilliance extends to their manifesting images, which are brilliant and based only in themselves. Such as in the myth of Semele’s exposure to the unconstrained Zeus, their divine brilliance is unendurable to a mortal bounded to corporeality; physical eyes cannot bare witness to it, nor can lungs as they would be asphyxiated, however you and Heracles could, due to thy innate physiologies. The Hypercosmic Gods’ activities occur instantly; their actions inseparable from their originating thought, being completed as they simultaneously arise. Being instantaneous in nature, their divine activities are also motionless. When present before us, their divine power is absolutely perfecting, not simply raising our souls towards divination and henosis, but causing us to attain those states. Their benevolent powers bring about health, virtue, and purity in the body, soul, and mind; raising every quality towards the Good from which it originates, purifying and illuminating us until our souls shine with their own purity. Finally, they free us from the influence of the Generative Cosmos, allowing us to become Purified Souls. The self-granted visions of the Gods are seen “more clearly than the truth itself,” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.4, 93) and are filled with a divine light that distincts them from all else. Their presence is so great that it’s enough to even outshine the entirety of the heavens and make the earth itself tremble at their approach. Such visions show the Hypercosmic Gods surrounded by Encosmic Gods, Archangels, and Angels. These holy epiphanies fill our souls with truth and power, aligning even our earthly activities with their own and granting us success in our endeavours and the blessing of Providence for all of the days in our lives.

Hyper-Encosmic Gods[]

The Hyper-Encosmic Gods, also called the Liberated Gods, are the mean between the Hypercosmic and Encosmic Gods, existing between the Encosmic and Hypercosmic Gods, acting as a median and bridging the two realms together. Their function is illumination. Although the Hypercosmic Gods are ultimately responsible for the liberation of souls, the unliberated soul cannot connect to their transcendent nature; and thus we begin to explore why the Hyper-Encosmic Gods are also referred to as the Liberated Gods. The Hyper-Encosmic Gods are the lowest of the Hypercosmic Gods and the highest of the Encosmic Gods; their lives being double, being partially transcendent while somehow partially immanent. They are a means to the Hypercosmic Gods, and if these Hyper-Encosmic, or “Liberated” Gods aren’t both in our Encosmic cosmos as well as above it, then there wouldn’t be a way to lead souls to the Hypercosmic Gods. Unfortunately, no text of Iamblichus survives which precisely identifies the Hyper-Encosmic Gods.

Encosmic Gods[]

The Celestial Demiurge divides the 12 powers of the Hypercosmic Realm through the power of the zodiac to produce 36 Encosmic Gods, also called the Celestial Gods, Celestial Archons, Visible Gods, and kosmokratores. They have a function of Purification in the cosmos. Engaged in time, their ruling archontic activities are powerful and astonishing to bear witness to. The Encosmic Gods have sovereignty over the ordering of the cosmos and can bless the theurgist with arcane wisdom of cosmic cycles. That authority is reflected in their appearances. Their manifestations are accompanied by benevolence of a cosmic and celestial nature, filtering down to the material life as they may. Their appearance is truly striking and furthermore, much like the appearances of Hypercosmic Gods, their appearances are also stable and unchanging, despite where they manifest. The presence of these Gods brings about an enduring steadfastness in those who bear witness to them and the space around them. As a ruling class of entities, their beauty is self-derived and independent from matter, unlike the Sub-Lunar Gods. Their fire is relatively pure and transparent, being free of material accretions. Being active in the Realm of Generation, without descending into it, the appearance of the Encosmic Gods isn’t harmful; though they may be surrounded by powerful phantasms that could afflict the soul. When appearing in a theurgic vision, the Encosmic Gods manifest clearly and with an air of undeniable authority. Unlike Hypercosmic Gods, these deities aren’t accompanied by lesser beings, but rather gather around them the ordering of the cosmos. The contemplation of such beings brings about the movement of the soul into line with cosmic order.

Sub-Lunar Gods[]

The 36 Encosmic powers are further divided into 72 Sub-Lunar Gods below them. The Sub-Lunar Gods, literally “Gods below the moon,” also known as the Hylic Gods, Material Archons, and simply “Archons,” rule over the material cosmos below the realm of the moon, which is the last of the heavens. Unlike the Encosmic Gods, the Sub-Lunar Gods are surrounded by matter. As they are the highest part of the Sub-Lunar Realm, their function is Perfecting. In general, these leader Gods are marked by a boastfulness in power and deed. Their appearance is marked by a benevolence of a material nature, bringing forth with them the best aspects of material life while also attracting to themselves the chaos of the material world, leaving souls in their presence freer from a turbulent life. Their appearance is striking, similar to the Cosmic Gods ranked above them; however, they bring with them the chaos of the material world. The presence of a Sub-Lunar God is thus something that is overall unstable, changing in shape and size, and having a variety of different forms because of their proximity to matter. They are beautiful, but their beauty is artificial— omitting a sense of grandness that isn’t reflective of their material functions. Unlike the Cosmic Gods above them, the fire of the material Sub-Lunar Gods is mixed with the elements, dim and divided. Like the Encosmic Gods, the appearance of a Sub-Lunar God isn’t harmful to one, though they may also be surrounded by powerful phantasms which may afflict the soul (which immediately brings to mind Dionysos’ entourage of Satyrs, Pans, and Bacchanals). In a theurgic vision the Sub-Lunar Gods manifest dimly, surrounded by the accumulation of matter, but with an air of certain authority. Like the Encosmic Gods, the Sub-Lunar Gods aren’t accompanied by lesser beings, but rather gather around themselves material elements and their proper ordering. The contemplation of such beings brings about the movement of the soul into line with the order of the material portion of the cosmos.

Archangels

The first of the Greater Kinds subordinate to the Gods are the Archangels; who are at the top of the median triad, holding the function of Perfection. Archangels assume the duties of a Personal Daimon once the soul the Personal Daimon looks after has moved onto the worship of the Hyper-Encosmic Gods. In general, the appearance, activity, and visions of the Archangels are similar to those of the Gods, though are always less. As servants of the Hypercosmic Gods, Archangels appear much like them; though always inferior in nature, emanating a stern but gentle quality. Similarly, Archangels reflect a shape, size, etc. that is by large uniform, however, aren’t quite perfectly in their uniformity, nor do they share in the singleness of essence of the Gods. Again, tranquillity streams from the Archangelic presence, but unlike the stable tranquillity of the Hypercosmic Gods, the Archangelic tranquillity is associated with the sense of motionless activity. The appearance of an Archangel is filled with beauty, though it’s always lesser than that of the Gods whom they serve above them— and likewise, their light and fire is supernaturally bright, but not a brightness beyond brightness. Furthermore, their fire is seen encompassing and surrounding them, and their flames may sweep ahead or behind as they manifest. As secondary beings, the archangelic radiance, as is the radiance, or lack thereof, of all the other Greater Kinds, seems rooted in something else, such as the brilliance of their God. Their holy fire and light is not quite as unbearable as that of the Gods above them, though they are still undoubtedly powerful and unendurable to humans. Like the Hypercosmic Gods, the activities in which the Archangels are engaged are completed in the same instant they are conceived; however, their movement is now associated with those accomplishments. Though their function is anagogic, it doesn’t achieve the complete perfection of the soul. Though benevolent, and bringing about health, virtue, and purity, the powers of the Archangels are such that these do not come about perfectly nor completely. The visions brought about by Archangels are perfect and true, setting parts of the world in harmonious motion as a light goes forth announcing their presence. Like the Gods, Archangels appear surrounded by lesser divinities, consisting of Angels who orbit around the same originating divinity. The epiphanies granted by Archangels fill our souls with truth, but only the portion of truths to which the Archangel concerns, and not the whole of the truth that the Gods encompass. Each Archangel presents its truth and power to us appropriate to the soul which receives it, and not wholly and completely, thus granting us a portion of Providence while we are still subordinate to Fate.

Angels

As the second member of the median triad of Gods & Greater Kinds, Angels hold the function of illumination. Because motion is their primary feature, angelic actions aren’t accomplished instantaneously. Holding the function of illumination, Angels help loosen the sway of the realm of generation through gnosis; though they don’t free us from it. However, that illuminating power makes the above visible to the below, and with that brings in the soul the courage to fully imitate the divine through theurgy, and in doing so participate in the divine will of the Gods and Celestial Demiurge. Just as those ranking above them, angelic benevolence brings about benefits to body, soul, and intellect; however their lesser power only allows for benefits particular to their individual essences, and in manifestation, those blessings aren’t nearly as great as the illumination embracing them. Just as Archangels are lesser in appearance, power, and activity to their Gods, Angels are more inferior than Archangels. Angels have a similar solemn and gentle presence as Archangels, though are less stern and milder. The appearance of an Angel brings with it a sense of order and serenity, but one that’s marked by movement as opposed to the perfect tranquillity of the Hypercosmic Gods. Though they have bright & angelic beauty that they receive from above, it is only partial to that of Archangels. The dimmed radiance of Angels means their presence is able to be endured by us, which allows the theurgist to engage with them in ways that aren’t possible with the suffocating presence of the divinities in the ranks above them. Angelic fire is described as divided in nature, sometimes appearing with it, occasionally prior it, and sometimes following it, except when the Angel appears in their utmost perfect forms. Overall, Angels have a simple appearance, modelled after the God they orbit. They’re lesser to the Gods and Archangels in every way, though their size, shape and so forth remain stagnant and unchanging. When appearing in a theurgic vision, Angels are slightly less than perfect, though their form is clearly visible, as their light is not as blinding as that of an Archangel. The presence of an Angel isn’t accompanied by lesser beings, but rather, their presence reveals those activities that are proper to them. The magnitude of epiphanies received by us when we invoke the presence of an Angel is reduced than that of an Archangel, bringing about a “rational wisdom, truth, pure virtue, a firm knowledge” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.9, 105), and an order which is proportionate to the purity of soul and power of the invoked Angel.

Daimons[]

Daimons (Latin: Genii) are benevolent Beings between the Mortals and the Gods. They hold the role of purification and their activity can be described in katagogic terms, which means that they don’t release incarnate souls from generation, but rather they bind them there. All Daimons have a role in the Realm of Generation, serving the Encosmic Gods by making the world the best it could be, not in relation to us, but rather its working as a whole. Their roles are important and necessary for the fallen soul’s process of purification; as without purification in generation, human souls cannot rise once more to regain their position among the Greater Kinds. They are produced through “the generative and demiurgic powers of the Gods in the furthest extremity of their procession and of their ultimate divisions.” (Dillon 1973, 50) Generally, the activities of Daimons appear faster than they really are, and their work isn’t accomplished at the moment of its conception. Their duty is to distribute the divine impulses they receive from the divine above them to the Realm of Generation below in a harmonious and ordered way. They are responsible for the binding of souls to bodies, which causes our fallen souls to associate themselves with those bodies and thus bind us further to the “chains of Fate” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.6, 99). Unlike the other superior beings above them, Daimons have many varied and complex appearances, their form and size varying at different times. Whereas Archangels are stern and Angels are mild, the Daimonic countenance is fearsome; especially for the impure.

There are explicitly three kinds of Daimons. Because of this, Daimons are the most complex of the superior beings, overshadowed only by human souls. The three kinds of Daimons are:

I. Personal: A Personal Daimon (Oikeos Daimon) are patron divinities over our spiritual development. Though they belong to the Encosmic Gods (who are the Leader/Visible Gods), they fall in the domain of Generation and are thus under the guidance of the Sub-Lunar Demiurge. They’re designated to watch over an individual soul before it descends into matter. That particular Daimon “stands over [its soul] as the fulfiller of the various levels of life of the soul” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, IX.6, 335) and binds the soul to its body, watching over the human for as long as they live, and likely for long as the soul is tied to generation. They oversee matter. The Personal Daimon is there to protect you, ward away danger, guide you, inspire you like a personal muse, and even help you attain good fortune. The chief of concerns of one’s Personal Daimon is to give correctives if one gets too far off track from vertical alignment with the Good. You are in danger if you are not corrected in this fashion, for you may be allowed to drift into evil. Often, it does all of this without you being aware of it. In the divine Plato’s dialogue, the Apology, Socrates states that his own Personal Daimon never instructs him what to do but merely warns him when he’s about to make a mistake. Therefore, the Personal Daimon preserves the free will of the person it oversees by allowing them to determine their aims and how to pursue them without interference, however, it will give warning when those goals aren’t spiritually healthy. Personal Daimons guide our lives until a worshiper moves onto the Median form of theurgy and engages in the worship of the Hyper-Encosmic Gods, to which Archangels replace their roles (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, IX.6, 335-7).

II. Punitive: Unlike the Personal Daimon, Punitive Daimons operate in a general judgmental fashion and aren’t connected to a specific soul; their function being the judgment of impure souls. Punitive Daimons are able to advise us on the proper course of moral action, viewing all such activities from a superior position that’s outside of time, and are thus able to see the full ramifications of any and every action. They’re understood to work against unjust human endeavors while cooperating with the just. Punitive Daimons are able to harm, or even kill a human for their actions if deemed necessary. They give visions of their terrible power when manifesting. They are led by Sub-Lunar Gods. They oversee matter.

III. Relational: The last kind of Daimons are called Relational Daimons (Iamblichus In Timaeus, fr. 80), also called “Elementals.” They and are Daimons without reason or intelligence as we understand, and their general role is overseeing of the functions of their particular portion of the physical world. Each of these Daimons hold a single function in the material world, having “been allotted just one power, in the apportionment of tasks which has been prescribed for each entity in each of the parts (of the universe)” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, IV.1, 205). The Relational Daimon’s irrational nature can be commanded by humans, both theurgists, and sorcerers. This is because the human intellect, which participates Nous, behaves as an organizing force for Relational Daimons; especially when that intellect is in harmony with the ordering of the cosmos via theurgy (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, IV.1-2); but may also work when the intellect has crafted an artificial order through the use of sorcery (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, IV.205-6). Like the Punitive Daimons, they are led by Sub-Lunar Gods. However, unlike the Personal and Punitive Daimons who oversee matter, Relational Daimons are immersed in it. Due to this association, the appearance of their pneumatic vehicles brings with them an eldritch sense of disorder. The pneumatic bodies of these Daimons without reason, being surrounded by matter as they are, are said to take on a material vestment that are peeled off just as human bodies that are cast aside by the soul upon death. We can conclude that all Daimons are associated with matter in some form or another. Though frightening to witness, Daimons are nonetheless beautiful. This beauty is arranged in proportions, and unique to each Daimon as opposed to the general beauty possessed by their superiors. The brightness of a Daimon is similar to that of an angel’s, though more divided and not always of the same magnitude. Their fire casts a smouldering glow akin to ember rather than the brightness of those prior.

Heroes[]

Heroes make up the middle rank of the third triad, being beneath the Sub-Lunar Gods and holding the function of illumination. Though Heroes are not as complex as Daimons, they have a function that might seem anagogic: To encourage humans to thrive towards a virtuous life, which is the first step towards a theurgic life. However, while Heroes are concerned with virtue, they lead souls in generation, through those virtues, towards a concern for the well-being of the material world (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.5, 95).

Heroes are a lot less frightening than Daimons appearance-wise, and like Daimons, they may appear differently at different times, and in a variety of sizes. Their appearances are characterized by movement and the urging on towards great deeds. The appearance of Heroes is always beautiful to witness, though are not as beautiful as those who rank above them. Where Daimonic beauty is reflective of the ordering of the cosmos, Heroic beauty is courageous. The activities of Heroes are the arranging of souls in an orderly manner due to their essential nature as vital beings (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.2, 83), the natural leaders of human souls, and their life-giving and purifying power (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, II.2, 83). Their activities are magnificent to behold, but not as swift as a Daimon’s. While their manifestation can further bind our souls to bodies by filling us with a desire for the Realm of Generation, they bring with them the zeal for the perfection of the soul through the virtues and a desire to perform great and heroic deeds. As a result of being farther removed from primary causes, as well as working within the natural world, Heroic fire is blended with pneumatic accretions, much like the Sub-Lunar Gods. That fire is similar to that of Daimon-kind, but not as grand or powerful, and appearing unstable at times. Being dimmer in brilliance than Daimons, Heroic presences are entirely bearable, though their presence evokes a greatness, and their arrival can cause the earth to move and sounds to occur. When appearing in a theurgic vision, the images of Heroes, like those of Daimons, are often blurred by the darkness of their fire.

Purified Souls[]

Purified Souls (Psuchai Achrantoi) are those that have either raised themselves above generation or outright never fell into it. They hold the power of Purification, and are the last of the divine beings, beneath them only being humans and irrational animal souls. Since human beings are a combination of both a Rational soul and a Irrational Soul in a single body, Iamblichus places the rational Purified Soul under the fourth Parmenidean hypothesis, since it deals with this topic. The appearance of a Purified Soul is similar to that of a Hero; though not as awe or exhilarating. Furthermore, they’re very changeable and smaller than those of a Daimon or Hero. These souls frequently have stamped upon them the dominating appearance of the God within whose train they are embedded. Their light is visible, but intermittent and dim, and even while pure they may still have remnants of their time in generation marking them. Occupying the lowest of the divine ranks, Purified Souls tend to be unaccompanied. However, the purest of these souls will manifest in a formless manner cognate with the Whole Soul. The activities of Purified Souls are primarily katagogic in nature; however, the purest of these souls may have an anagogic effect, bringing human souls still bounded to the material an awareness of the spiritual world above them. When Purified Souls manifest in a theurgic vision, they bring with them goods that can make human life more bearable in relation to the God they’re connected to. Pure Souls are particularly likened to bees by Porphyry, who writes that “All souls, however, proceeding into generation, are not simply called bees, but those who live justly, and who, having performed such things as are acceptable to the Gods, will return whence they came. For this insect loves to return to the place whence it came, and is eminently just and sober” (Porphyry, On the Cave of the Nymphs, 18).

Ethics and morality, though rooted in the Gods ontologically, do hold a degree of autonomy, because otherwise we would not be responsible for our own actions. As such, everyone is understood to have free will, and it is an integral part of understanding ourselves. Free will is part of the soul‘s essence (ousia), and is expressed through its power and activity. Because the soul expresses its free will through its power and activity, our ethical decisions not only have an effect on our physical lives, but ultimately on our spiritual lives as well.

Free will’s relation to our descent to matter[]

  • Impure souls who are reincarnated: Reincarnation, where the soul is put back into a body, occurs for the purpose of further purification. They are brought into generation by their Personal Daimon.
  • Purified souls who are reincarnated: Having aligned their wills with the Gods and Demiurge, they understand the necessity of their work and the illumination of all souls and therefore willfully and freely descends into matter. This mirrors Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, where the individual who escapes the cave bears witness to the light and truth of things, and willingly descends back into the cave to attempt freeing those still trapped inside.

Fate[]

For the large majority of us tied to material existence, however, free will isn’t an absolute since there are things beyond most of our abilities to control, such as Fate. With Fate, our free will becomes a variable, and can be easily overridden by influences of the Realm of Generation. This is because the soul is still in a state of confusion and separated from its true nature. Fate (Heimarmenē) is the nature of the world, in that it is the inherent movement of the material world towards its divine ends and the necessities of nature, which include living, dying, pain, suffering and a host of other ills that are good for nature and its functioning, but not necessarily perceived as such by us. Thus, Fate works similarly to a clockwork mechanism, and is ultimately necessary for the proper functioning of the natural cosmos. As Iamblichus describes it, Fate is the “one order that comprehends in itself all other orders” (Iamblichus Letter 8, Fragment 1). Fate’s ordering principle is based on all the higher ordering principles, such as the Intelligible moments and transcendent Time, and it functions as the ordering principle of the Sub-Lunar Realm and all things subject to Generation, including the incarnated impure soul. Only humans and beings possessing only an irrational soul (i.e., non-human animals) are subject towards Fate, and are inclined to Fate just as much as they are inclined towards generation.

Providence[]

Providence (Pronoia, literally “before intellect”) is the universal cause of being and well-being. Providence and Fate are, in truth, one and the same; but are viewed differently in a matter of perspective. While Providence is administered from above, Fate is seen by us from below.

As stated, a soul that needs purification does not recognize its own divine purpose to varying degrees, and thus ultimately works against itself, resulting in it being incarnated in a body as a means of purification and thus subjected to Fate. This is untrue, however, for Purified Souls, who are those of us who have purified themselves by realizing their true nature as souls by aligning with its divine purpose, thus freeing themselves from material existence. These souls thus see the divine movement in natural actions, thus rising above Fate and recognizing all things as Providence. Once we achieve Providence, we have true free will. This is because free will exists in the Rational Soul as part of its essence (ousia), and thus depends on the individual’s spiritual knowledge of their own soul. Those who identify entirely with their soul, rather than the material world, are freed from Fate by having aligned themselves with Providence. The Purified Soul’s free will becomes “fixed” in that the soul no longer needs to deliberate through rambling reasoning what actions to take; proper moral activity is known intuitively through gnosis. Furthermore, it is through Providence do we receive prophecy and healing, as the Gods give us a bit of Providence while keeping us subject to Fate. To quote Iamblichus on this matter, “In accord with this same essence, then, fate is interwoven with providence and, in reality, fate is providence, is established from it and around it” (Stob. II, 173). A Purified Soul, who comes to remember who and what we really, undergoes a perspective shift. They come to view creation from the divine realm, instead of viewing the divine from creation. Once we realize our true nature, we gain the opportunity to cast aside the shackles of Fate and instead participate in the unfolding of Providence. Salvation is ultimately found through philosophy, religion and, ultimately, through theurgy. Through material theurgy, we willfully participating the divine and ordering work of the Demiurge by incorporating our material natures into the supracosmic patterns. Though our lives do not immediately change with this first step of theurgy, once it is fully realized we cease to be slaves to Fate, and instead, through demiurgy, become its masters by embracing Providence. This is the goal of material theurgy, and in part, the ultimate goal of theurgy as a whole.

In Julian’s Hymn to King Helios, Apollo is identified as a lower manifestation of Zeus-Helios. Julian writes in connection to Zeus-Helios’ position as a founder of Rome, where among the arguments provided are the Temple of Apollo Palatinus being a temple of King Helios. Here he writes that “Apollo also dwells on the Palatine Hill, and Helios himself under this name of his which is commonly known to all and familiar to all.”. He writes arguments in support of this, writing that Zeus-Helios “comprehends in himself all the principles of the fairest intellectual synthesis, is himself Apollo the leader of the Muses” and with that sharing an “imperishableness and abiding sameness with Apollo,” and that Apollo ultimately “differs in no way from Helios.” Ællînismόs (Hellênismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion, stands in great contrast to the monotheistic religions with their theologies which place God in an entirely different and 'spiritual' realm. In our religion, the Gods partake of the same laws which we are governed by, to such an extent that our very substance is identical to that of the Gods. We are of the substance of Gods and they are intimately available to us as both we and they intimately partake in the natural world. We are enveloped by deity for the kózmos is divine, the universe is sacred. When people discover Ællînismόs, they arrive with preconceptions, usually acquired from Christianity. Some of the Christian ideas are in harmony with the ancient religion, but many are not. First and foremost, the Christian conception of deity is monotheist, a belief in only one God. According to their theology, this deity manifests the following qualities: God is omnipotent (all-powerful), omniscient (all-knowing), and immutable (unchanging). God is said to be ever-existing; he exists for all time, in the past and into the future. God is said to be immaterial. All of these ideas about deity are Christian concepts and are foreign to our religion. Some are Christian-Platonic; in other words, some of these ideas about deity arose from the blending of Platonic ideas with Christian ideas. None of these qualities are consistent with the pre-Platonic teaching of Orphismós nor with Ællînismόs generally. In the essay below, the Hellenic ideas concerning deity, particularly the Orphic view, will be presented, and some of the differences from the Christian conception will be become obvious. There are other qualities which the Christians attribute to divinity which are accepted as true in our religion, at least to an extent, ideas such as the the goodness of the Gods, that some of the Gods have sovereignty over the laws of nature, and that some Gods are personal. If you read Ómîros (Homer, Ὅμηρος) and Isíodos (Hesiod, Ἡσίοδος), to say nothing of all the vast mythology found in ancient literature, you will discover numerous stories which depict the Gods as larger and more powerful versions of human beings, entities of great anger, jealousy, intemperance, injustice, even foolishness and sometimes cowardice, fighting amongst each other and exacting cruel punishments on humans for what seem to be minor infractions. Any logical person can see that beings which behave in these ways cannot be worthy of worship; indeed, they cannot rationally even be called Gods.

εἰ θεοί τι δρῶσιν αἰσχρόν, οὔκ εἰσιν θεοί “If the gods do things shameful, they are not Gods.” (trans. by the author) (ἀπόσπασμα 294 Εὐριπίδου)

And these stories are often fantastic and impossible for a mature person to believe. The understanding of the myths promoted by this author is that found in the Mystíria (Mysteries, Μυστήρια), teachings of the deepest meaning of the ancient religion, which sees the mythology as allegorical. These stories are not meant to be taken literally but are, rather, vehicles which conceal great truths locked by keys. The position of the Mystíria (and other ways of interpreting myth) is the only reasonable way for an adult to understand the mythology as part of the religion. To accept the myths literally would make the ancient religion absurd. Obviously, in ancient times there were simple people who believed the myths literally, yet there were others who had a more sophisticated understanding, and this sophisticated understanding has sustained to modern times. The lists of characteristics of the Gods found later in this essay are the result of the author's limited understanding of what he has been taught. It is entirely legitimate for any reader to ask, "How can you, the author of this essay, know these things about the Gods, ideas which cannot be proved and about which there is the utmost disagreement." All of these views concerning deity are what is called akoí (akoê, ἀκοή), a word which simply means "things heard." Akoí is the tradition which has been passed down, in this case, the traditional ideas concerning the Gods. Certainly these ideas are inspired, but this author only has a hint as to their actual meaning, for we are all mortal and our understanding is limited. And for someone who is looking for proof in the existence of a God or Gods, you will not find any such thing here. This author spent the greater part of his 71 years as an agnostic, almost atheist. There is no proof that will convince anyone of the existence of deity. It is my belief that when it is necessary and beneficial for an individual to believe in Gods, the Gods themselves will reveal themselves.

The Gods are many

The view concerning deity in Ællînismόs is genuinely polytheistic. There are multitudes of Gods. These Gods are not the creation of one god; they are not emanations or aspects of one god. The Gods manifest their existence through the interaction of the two kozmogonic material substances as expounded in the teachings of the great Thæológos (Theologian, Θεολόγος) Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς). In later philosophical developments in ancient Greece, ideas emerged which approach monotheism, ideas which largely originate in the teachings of Plátôn (Plato, Πλάτων), that the Gods, indeed everything, emanates from a simple principle they refer to as the One; this idea is not held by the author of this essay nor by his teacher.

Impersonal and Personal Gods

The first distinction that must be made regarding the Gods is the differentiation between impersonal and personal deities. The impersonal deities are divine but they do not "hear your prayers," so to speak; they have no consciousness. The personal Gods have consciousness. They are aware of us and respond to us. The personal deities include the Olympian Gods, Ækátî (Hekatê, Εκάτη), Thǽmis (Themis, Θέμις), Aristaios (Aristaeus, Ἀρισταῖος), and hosts of other deities of all kinds. The personal Gods exemplify the qualities of the impersonal deities but they also have awareness, sensibility, and a great ability to communicate, if it is useful for them to do so. The personal Gods are true Gods; they are not merely personified ideas. They exist as independent entities which possess immense awareness and a sublime sensitivity. The universe is sacred and its manifestations are Gods. Such manifestations include the Natural Laws, Ílios (Helios or the Sun, Ἥλιος), Sælínî (Selênê or the Moon, Σελήνη), Ástrôn (Stars, Ἄστρων), Thálassa (the Sea, Θάλασσα), Næphǽlai (Nephelae or the Clouds, Νεφέλαι), Ióhs (Iôs or Dawn, Ἠώς), Óneiri (Oneiroi or Dreams, Ὄνειροι), Ýpnos (Hypnos or Sleep, Ὕπνος), Nǽmæsis (Nemesis, Νέμεσις), Vorǽas (Boreas or the North Wind, Βορέας), Nótos (the South Wind, Νότος), Zǽphyros (Zephyrus or the West Wind, Ζέφυρος), Ôkæanós (Ôceanus, Ὠκεανός), Thálassa (the Sea, Θάλασσα), Óhrai (Horae or the Seasons, Ὧραι), Týkhî (Tychê or Fortune, Τύχη), and all such phenomenon of Phýsis (Nature, Φύσις). Some of these are depicted in mythology as being personal deities, but it is difficult to distinguish if the depiction is poetic or actual.

Abstract Ideas of great majesty are deity

More impersonal Gods are the mighty concepts such as Arætí (Aretê or Virtue, Ἀρετή) with it four principal manifestations: Courage (Andreia, Ἀνδρεία), Temperance (Sohphrosýni, Σωφροσύνη), Justice (Dikaiosýni, Δικαιοσύνη), and Wisdom (Sophía, Σοφία). Along with those four we have myriad elevated principles such as Compassion (Ἔλεος), Syneidisis (Syneidesis or Conscience, Συνείδησις), Ælefthæría (Eleutheria or Freedom, Ἐλευθερία), and Law (Νόμος).

The Personal Gods are Generated Beings

In Ællinismόs, we have a way of discussing the origin of the Thæí (Theoi, Θεοί), the Gods; various ancient authors have given us a description of their origin. Such a description is called a thæogonía (theogony, θεογονία). The most important to our tradition is the theogony of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς) which may be read on this page: Orphic Theogony. The more familiar rendering of the story is that of Isíodos (Hesiod, Ἡσίοδος). Still yet we have the description of the formation of the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος) found in the Tímaios (Timaeus, Τίμαιος) of Plátôn (Plato, Πλάτων). While there are many other ancient thæogonies, these three are the most commonly referred to and they must be regarded as foundational, particularly for those who worship the Gods. Amongst other things, these three thæogonies have this in common: they describe a universe in which Gods are generated, this in contrast to a universe which was created by a God or Gods who have always existed. There is no one God who existed for all time and who, in turn, created the Kózmos and then the other Gods, but rather, these thæogonies describe a process by which the Gods came about through natural processes of Nature. The Gods arose and became what they are, and they also continue to progress, for something which does not change is logically impossible or simply an idea or a principle, but the personal Gods are not merely ideas or principles; they are real, living beings.

The Gods are sovereign and form a hierarchy ruled by Zefs and Íra

According to Orphéfs, the Happy Deathless Gods arose out of the primordial principle due to the interaction of the two basic kozmogonic substances, something which occurred because of Anángkî (Anangkê, Ἀνάγκη), , Necessity. From this, the Six Kings emerged resulting in the establishment of the rule of mighty Zefs (Ζεύς), king of Gods and men forever and ever, and his illustrious queen Íra (Hera, Ἥρᾱ), who is his equal, flanked by the majestic Olympian Gods and the hosts of glorious divinities. Zefs and Íra are true Gods, powerful and at the utmost elevation, as are all the deities. The capacity and power of the Gods is so tremendous that it can be said to be, in a way, terrible, as awesome as the most harrowing acts of Nature. The Gods, along with everything else in the universe, arose from the interaction of the two basic kozmogonic materials: Earth and Water. They themselves consist of Earth and Water, which is material substance. There is no immaterial "spiritual" realm in which they live. The Gods as well as everything else in the Kózmos consist of matter. The only possible deities which are immutable (unchanging) are the impersonal or abstract concepts, ideas such as Justice and Freedom, forms as identified in the dialogues of Plátôn. It is illogical to think of the personal Gods as unchanging. The great Gods, deities such as the Titánæs (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες) and the Olympians, arose from Earth and Water and through eons of time progressed to become the mighty beings which they are, worthy of worship by their nature and accomplishments. They also continue to progress and become greater. A sentient being which does not change is not possible; a sentient being which does not change is...dead. While the Gods in general are not omnipresent, it appears that Zefs (Ζεύς) possesses this quality:

...οὐδέ τίς ἐστιν αὐδὴ οὔδ' ἐνοπὴ οὐδὲ ϰτύπος οὐδὲ μὲν ὄσσα, ἣ λήθει Διὸς οὖας ὑπερμενέος Κρονίωνος. (Orphic frag. 168, lines 19 and 20) "Nothing which is, no word nor cry nor noise nor voice, escapes the ear of the mightiest son of Krónos." (trans. by the author)

The Gods are immortal

We, and all beings, have souls which are immortal, but we are subject to the cycle of birth and death; thus, despite the persistence of our souls, we are called vrotós (brotos, βροτός), mortal. Ómiros (Homer, Ὅμηρος) in Iliás (The Iliad, Ιλιάς) compares us to the leaves of trees:

φύλλα τὰ μέν τ᾽ ἄνεμος χαμάδις χέει, ἄλλα δέ θ᾽ ὕλη τηλεθόωσα φύει, ἔαρος δ᾽ ἐπιγίγνεται ὥρη: ὣς ἀνδρῶν γενεὴ ἣ μὲν φύει ἣ δ᾽ ἀπολήγει.

“Men come and go as leaves year by year upon the trees. Those of autumn the wind sheds upon the ground, but when spring returns the forest buds forth with fresh vines. Even so is it with the generations of mankind, the new spring up as the old are passing away.” (Ἰλιὰς Ὁμήρου 6.146-150, trans. Samuel Butler, 1898.) The Gods, on the other hand, have transcended the cycle of births and deaths (palingænæsía, παλιγγενεσία), reaching the end of the circle/cycle (κύκλου λήξαι) for which they are known to be Athánatos (Ἀθάνατος), Deathless or Immortal, yet we share something significant with them: “One is the race of men, one is the race of Gods, and from one Mother do we both derive our breath; yet a power that is wholly sundered parteth us, in that the one is naught, while for the other the brazen heaven endureth as an abode unshaken for evermore. Albeit, we mortals have some likeness, either in might of mind or at least in our nature, to the immortals, although we know not by what course, whether by day, nor yet in the night watches, fate hath ordained that we should run.” (Νεμεόνικαι Πινδάρου 6.1-11, trans. Sir John Sandys, 1915)

The Gods are beings of great enlightenment and they are in harmony with each other

In the mythology, the Gods are sometimes depicted with human attributes, with hatred and jealousy and lust and other mortal failings, but these qualities are used for storytelling and poetic effect. If you interpret these stories literally, you will have a distorted view of the deities which was not intended. There is great truth in the myths, but their understanding must be uncovered, because their wisdom is hidden from the profane. In truth, the Gods are beings of enormous enlightenment. There is nothing dark, evil, or petty in them. They are Gods because of this enlightenment. A sentient being who is petty and trite, who has little understanding, and who is the victim of mundane passions and hatreds cannot be a God: it is impossible, and such a being is subject to the circle of births. On the other hand, actual Gods have an understanding of the natural world that surpasses anything we can fathom, such that even their understanding of us is immensely greater than our own understanding of ourselves. Furthermore, the Gods are never malicious. There are no Gods of darkness, even the Goddess Nyx. She is called Night and is associated with darkness, not because she is wicked or mean-spirited, but rather because she cannot be understood by the mortal mind, she exists in a field which has yet to be revealed, hidden from us as though enveloped in the darkness of night. For similar reasons the Goddess Ækátî (Hecatê, Ἑκάτη) is also associated with night, but there is nothing dark or evil in her, to the contrary, like all the Gods, she is immensely enlightened and well-meaning and she is said to hold the hands of the suppliants on their journey to virtue. And finally, the Gods are in harmony both with themselves and with each other. In mythology, we see the Gods depicted as quarrelling amongst one another, but this is not correct. Sometimes these stories are told for poetic effect, at other times, there is a meaning to the "quarreling" in that natural forces represented by Gods come into conflict, or so it would seem to us. But concerning the Gods relationship with each other, their character is consistent with the eighth natural law: Armonía (Ἁρμονία); they are in harmony.

θεοῖσι δ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἔχει νόμος: οὐδεὶς ἀπαντᾶν βούλεται προθυμίᾳ τῇ τοῦ θέλοντος, ἀλλ᾽ ἀφιστάμεσθ᾽ ἀεί.

Artemis speaks: “For this is law amongst us Gods; none of us will thwart his neighbour's

will, but ever we stand aloof.” (Ἱππόλυτος Εὐριπίδου 1328-1330, trans. Edward P. Coleridge, 1891)

The Gods are free

Not only are the Gods in a state of Harmony, they also possess Ælefthæría (Eleutheria, Ἐλευθερία), they exist in a state of Freedom, hence the oft-repeated phrase: The Gods live in freedom and desire this freedom for all, therefore, they never violate our freedom nor do they impose their will. And it is further said that it is wise for mortals to imitate the Gods and that, therefore, we should not impose our will on others and deny them their freedom.

The nature of the Gods is good

The Gods are the source of all that is good, such that we can speak of the goodness of the Gods, as elucidated here by the philosopher Iámvlikhos (Iamblichus, Ἰάμβλιχος): "For it is absurd to search for good in any direction other than from the Gods. Those who do so resemble a man who, in a country governed by a king, should do honor to one of his fellow-citizens who is a magistrate, while neglecting him who is the ruler of them all. Indeed, this is what the Pythagoreans thought of people who searched for good elsewhere than from God. For since He exists as the lord of all things, it must be self-evident that good must be requested of Him alone." (Ιαμβλίχου Χαλκιδέως περί βίου Πυθαγορικού λόγος 18, trans. Thomas Taylor in 1818)

This goodness of Gods applies not only to the personal Gods, but to the natural state of the Kózmos, which is divine, the physical manifestations of the universe. The Kózmos is in a state of balance, which is defined as "good." While manifestations such as earthquakes, violent storms, and typhoons may cause great suffering, they are devoid of "evil" intentions, but, rather, are manifestations of nature achieving balance. Good and evil are actually a matter of the perspective of the short-sightedness on the part of mortals. Goodness, from this point of view, is this natural state of balance in the universe. The personal Gods, on the other hand, while having governance over these processes, have an interest in the progress of beings, a progress which is also part of the natural manifestation of the Kózmos. Because their vast understanding is manifest, the Blessed Gods emanate transcendent (exceptional) qualities such as wisdom, justice, temperance, and fortitude; these, of course, are the Four Boniform Virtues, which means that the Gods are virtuous. Their virtue is vastly superior to that of human beings and is the achievement of eons of personal effort. Virtue is possible only when there is the potentiality of change, which is one of many reasons why it is not possible that any God is immutable.

The Gods are compassionate

Orphic theogony explains how Zefs (Ζεύς) created a race of beings, as perfect as is possible constrained by natural laws, with immortal souls but with bodies subject to pain, suffering, illness, and death, only to be reborn again and endure more difficulties. While the creatures experience much beauty in their lives, they are chained to this cycle of births and deaths, a cycle which is painful. But in his unimaginable wisdom Zefs conceived a plan to alleviate us from our troubles, for he has compassion for his creatures; he has conceived a son, Diónysos (Dionysus, Διόνυσος), who with his Mysteries frees us from the vicious cycle of births. This is the providence of Zefs, and all the Gods, particularly the Olympians, participate in it, for they share his empathy for all sentient beings and have a concern for our progress. Likewise, it is the advice of the greatest of minds that we should imitate the Gods; therefore, compassion for others is paramount to the practice of our religion.

Ǽrôs is the cause of communication with Gods

The Gods are highly progressed beings of great purity, while we are not so progressed and in a profane state, so how, therefore, can we communicate with the Gods? Plátôn (Plato, Πλάτων) particularly identifies Ǽrôs (Eros, Ἔρως) as most responsible for communication with Gods: “ ‘He (Ἔρως) interprets,’ she (Diotíma of Mantíneia) replied, ‘between Gods and men, conveying and taking across to the Gods the prayers and sacrifices of men, and to men the commands and replies of the Gods; he is the mediator who spans the chasm which divides them, and therefore in him all is bound together, and through him the arts of the prophet and the priest, their sacrifices and mysteries and charms, and all prophecy and incantation, find their way. For God mingles not with man; but through Love all the intercourse and converse of God with man, whether awake or asleep, is carried on.’ ”

(Συμπόσιον Πλάτωνος 202d-203a, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

And what is Ǽrôs? There is the mundane ǽrôs involved in the physical union of creatures, but here we are not so much speaking of this sexual attraction. The power of Ǽrôs may begin in that way, however; its genesis occurs when we discover beauty and desire that beauty. If we remain faithful to the desire for beauty and are not side-tracked by the mundane, as our souls progress, we will discover a more sublime beauty. And when we are capable of catching a glimpse of divinity, Ǽrôs becomes much greater. This Ǽrôs is the invitation we send to the Gods when we perceive their purity and majesty and become enamored of them, for to recognize their beauty is to desire them, and to desire them is to give them permission to become a part of our lives, for the Gods never violate our freedom and they have awaited our invitation for a very long time. Ǽrôs is a power, an agent and a vehicle, which is perceived by the Gods. We move closer to them and they engulf us in a magnificent interchange, the beautiful dance which is our religion.

All sentient beings, whether mortal or divine, consist of the two kosmogonic substances. Everything is material; the idea of the super-natural, something above and separate from nature, is false. Nature is everything and everything is material. The Gods are material and mortals are material. Because of this, we share in the nature of the Gods. Because they are material, we can sense them, we can feel them. This is how people come to believe in Gods but are unable to explain precisely why. How can we feel the Gods? How can this be accomplished? We can feel the Gods through the veils of Aithír which surround the body. It is through the Aithír that we communicate with what is outside of our body. The Aithír is also material. There is a wall which is built up and which protects us from the "other." This wall is not the aithireal garments; it is a protective mechanism which we create. This wall functions opposite to that of the aithireal garments, which opens communication with the outside. This wall, in opposition to the aithirial garments, cuts off communication with that which is outside. To feel the Gods, we must drop this wall. It is this wall which creates the illusion of ego. It also protects us, protects us from feeling others. Therefore, it is dangerous to leave ourselves defenseless, as we can get very hurt, and this damage is distinctly real. And such an act can greatly disturb our lives, for when the wall goes down we see the other people and the other creatures; we feel them and want to help. It is the same ability which we all possess, to drop the wall and hear the crying voices of our fellows, for it is the very same wall which prevents us from feeling the Gods, which prevents us from feeling the divine by means of the Aithír, to sense and feel the Gods. When the wall begins to drop, we are then capable of glimpsing the divine, and to be overwhelmed by such beauty; and the Ǽrôs begins to flow back and forth between your soul and the souls of the Gods.

The Gods appear in dreams

In the extremely rare circ*mstance in which a God wishes to make his presence known, such an appearance (ἐπιφάνεια) will most likely occur in a dream or in the space between dreams and waking. Perhaps the use of dreams by the Gods keeps the worshipper unsure of what exactly has happened and reduces the possibility of bolstering one's self-importance. Such experiences only occur if they are necessary. Many people desire an epiphany to vanquish lingering fears that the Gods may not actually exist, but the Gods do not need for us to believe in them and an individual's progress is not dependent on belief. Some people want an "experience," something powerful to draw upon, but the Gods are not entertainment and they do not respond to anything that smells of "magic," that by performing certain rituals one could force their appearance. Therefore, we are stuck with ourselves. Either we can sense the beauty of divinity, the beauty of the Orphic ideas, the beauty of the call to develop virtue....or not, and we act accordingly.

We do not know the appearance of the Gods

In our religion, we have many statues of Gods. These statues always depict the Gods as beautiful humans, but, in fact we do not know their actual appearance. It is said that they will sometimes assume a human shape, for reasons of their own. The Gods are found in the mythology to disguise themselves, sometimes as humans, sometimes as animals, and sometimes even as what would normally be considered inanimate things. In the Odýsseia (Odyssey, Ὀδύσσεια) of Ómiros (Homer, Ὅμηρος), the Goddess Athîná (Athêna, Ἀθηνᾶ) often appears in the form of someone else, most frequently Mǽntôr (Mentôr, Μέντωρ). Zefs (Ζεύς) appeared as a swan to Lída (Lêda, Λήδα), as an eagle to Ganymídîs (Ganymêdê, Γανυμήδης), and as a shower of gold to Danáï (Danaë, Δανάη). Ærmís (Hermês, Ἑρμῆς) disguised himself as a Kýklohps (Cyclops, Κύκλωψ) (Ίαμβος ἀπόσπασμα 12 Καλλιμάχου). And there are many other examples.

Whether these stories are symbolic or simply added to embellish the narrative, there is a custom of always treating other people with kindness, for fear that you may actually be speaking to a God. This is a humanizing observance which functions conjointly with the hospitality (ξενία) promulgated by Hellenic tradition.

The Gods have names

The Gods refer to themselves by names which are unknown to us, as Plátôn (Plato, Πλάτων) says in the Kratýlos (Cratylus, Κρατύλος):

"Yes, indeed, Hermogenes; and there is one excellent principle which, as men of sense, we must acknowledge, --- that of the Gods we know nothing, either of their natures or of the names which they give themselves; but we are sure that the names by which they call themselves, whatever they may be, are true. And this is the best of all principles; and the next best is to say, as in prayers, that we will call them by any sort or kind of names or patronymics which they like, because we do not know of any other. That also, I think, is a very good custom, and one which I should much wish to observe. Let us, then, if you please, in the first place announce to them that we are not enquiring about them; we do not presume that we are able to do so; but we are enquiring about the meaning of men in giving them these names, --- in this there can be small blame."

(Κρατύλος Πλάτωνος 400d-401a, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

Nonetheless, we call them by names which are of great antiquity and are known to the Gods themselves. Therefore, these names are also sacred and they should not be spoken frivolously, and any conversation regarding them should reflect the greatest reverence; they should be spoken and written rarely, and when used, we should be exceedingly careful in how their names are placed in any sentence. We have obtained these names of the Gods, the names used by the mortals, from the great thæolóyi (theologians, θεολόγοι) Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς) and Isíodos (Hesiod, Ἡσίοδος), who were divinely inspired.

Syncretism with other pantheons of deities is thus inevitable

If it is true, as stated above, that the Gods have names for themselves which differ from those we have given them, then it is only logical that mankind, with different languages in different lands, has names for deities which differ from the names that we use for the very same Gods. A God who has the same functions in other pantheons of deities is likely the same deity but known by another name in a different country, as Plutarch says:

"Not different [Gods] for different peoples, not non-Greek and Greek, not southern and northern [Gods]; but just as sun and moon and earth and sea [are] common to all [men], though they are called by different names by different peoples, so of the Reason (Logos) that orders all things, and of one Providence that also directs powers ordained to serve under her for all [purposes], have different honours and titles been made according to their laws by different [nations]."

(Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· 26.67.2 Περὶ Ἴσιδος καὶ Ὀσίριδος, trans. G. R. S. Mead, 1906)

Even in Greece itself, most of the Gods were known by several if not hundreds of names and epithets.

The personal Gods are not the physical objects associated with them

As described above, manifestations of Nature and the Mighty Concepts are sacred. Personal deities, while having deep associations with these manifestations, are distinct from them and are not merely anthropomorphisms. For instance, Zefs (Ζεύς) may have dominion over thunder, yet he is independent from thunder and is a real and animate conscious entity. Similar statements can be decisively made concerning all the personal Gods, as is said by Plutarch:

“...they should take very good heed and be apprehensive lest unwittingly they write-off the sacred Mysteries and dissolve them into winds and streams, and sowing and ploughings, and passions of earth and changes of seasons.

“As those who [say] that Dionysus is wine and Hephæstus flame, and Persephone, as Cleanthes says somewhere, the wind that drives through the crops and is killed; and [as] some poet says of the reapers:

‘Then when they, lusty, cut Demeter’s limbs.’

“For these in nothing differ from those who regard a pilot as sails and ropes and anchor, and a weaver as yarns and threads, and a physician as potions and honey-brew and barley-water; nay, they put into men’s minds dangerous and atheistic notions, by transferring names of Gods to natures and to things that have no sense or soul, and which are necessarily destroyed by men according to their need and use. For it is not possible to consider such things in themselves as Gods.

“For a God is not a thing without a mind or soul, or one made subject to the hand of man; but it is from these things that we deduce that those who bestow them on us for our use and offer them [to us] in perpetual abundance, are Gods.”

(Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· 26.66.3 - 26.67.1 Περὶ Ἴσιδος καὶ Ὀσίριδος), trans. G. R. S. Mead, 1906)

The Gods dine on special nourishment

According to the mythology, the Gods do not consume the same food as mortals; their sustenance, if you can call it that, is of a divine nature, yet still consists of substances. There is food and drink for the Gods, but confusion as to which term refers to which. Usually amvrosía (ἀμβροσία) is said to be the food of the Gods, while nǽktar (νέκταρ) is called the drink of the Gods, but you will find instances in ancient literature which reverse this. Likewise, the Gods are said to possess divine horses whose fodder is called eidar (εἶδαρ).

The blood of Gods is different from our blood

The mythology says that in the veins of the Gods flows a golden substance called ikhóhr (ἰχώρ). Should a mortal even touch this substance, they will instantly die. Sometimes the Gods are called “bloodless” because ikhóhr is not the same as the blood of mortals.

The Gods are capable of intervening in the lives of man

Should it be expedient, the Gods can intercede in the lives of mortals. While it is superstitious to think that the Gods are continually meddling in one’s life...such thinking is a type of egotism and paranoia... it is indeed possible for them to cause any particular thing to happen, for purposes of their own design. Nonetheless, it is unlikely, should they intervene in one’s life, that you would have any suspicion of it, for, as the saying goes, the Gods are a million times wiser than us. And, should they desire to conceal something, we will never know of it. Furthermore, any such intervention would, by nature, be for the good, for the Gods are inclined to our benefit. Therefore, no man should ever be concerned about the dealings of Gods, but rather, one should rejoice at their magnificent prudence in all their actions.

ῥηΐδιον δὲ θεοῖσι, τοὶ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἔχουσιν, ἠμὲν κυδῆναι θνητὸν βροτὸν ἠδὲ κακῶσαι.

“Easy it is for the Gods, who hold broad heaven, both to glorify a mortal man and to abase him.” (Ὀδύσσεια Ὁμήρου 16.211, trans. A.T. Murray, 1919)

When the Gods swear an oath, they are bound by such an oath In the mythology, there are many stories where various Gods take oaths. An oath by a God is very extraordinary and is always made by invoking the river Styx (Στύξ). The story goes that the river Styx, like all rivers, is governed by a deity, and that this deity took the side of Zefs in the Titanomakhía (The War of the Titans, Τιτανομαχία); for this reason, Zefs declared that all the oaths of Gods were to be sworn in the name of the river Styx and will never be violated.

The jealousy of the Gods

In some ancient literature, it is said that the Gods are “jealous;” the Greek is phthónos Thæóhn (ϕθόνος Θεών). Phthónos means envy or jealousy over the good fortune of others. In the Istoríai (Histories, Ἱστορίαι) of Iródotos (Herodotus, Ἡρόδοτος) at 1.32.1, the Athenian sage Sólôn (Solon, Σόλων) replies to Krísos (Croesus; Κροῖσος), the phenomenally wealthy king of Lydia, regarding the happiness of mankind, saying that the Gods are entirely stingy and troublesome to us. Later, at 3.40-43, we find the story of Polykrátîs (Polycratês, Πολυκράτης), the tyrant of Sámos (Σάμος), who was so lucky that even when he threw his precious golden ring into the ocean, as he had been advised to do by his confidant Amásis (Αμάσις) in order to even out the balance of his fortune, a local fisherman caught a fish and gave it to the king as a gift, only for the cooks to discover the ring inside. When Amásis got news that the ring was retrieved in this way, he severed relations with Polykrátis for fear that he would become entangled in the king's fate when his fortune was reversed. Therefore, the “jealously” of the Gods is not envy of the good fortune of mortals, an emotion impossible for deity, but is connected with our perception of the world. Sólôn says that the Gods are troublesome to us in this regard, but this is poetic description of the confrontation we experience when fortunes change for the worse. Nonetheless, there is some truth that deity is involved with these fluctuations and reversals of fortune. The Olympian Gods have dominion over Natural Law; they oversee the harmonic concordance of the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος), but their intentions are never malevolent, for malevolent intentions are small and petty, inconceivable for beings of such wisdom and majesty, but it could be perceived that way by mortals, as though the Gods were meddling in our lives out of jealousy. The Gods maintain the natural balance of the Kózmos; they are also interested in the progress and the well-being of mortals, but they do not intervene in our lives in order to spoil us or obstruct us, but, rather, to build our natural resources from within the soul. When we try to force our will on life, the world resists our interference; this is often perceived as though life is preventing you from achieving happiness, i.e. as though the Gods are jealous; in reality, these are impersonal natural forces which reveal the humble nature which we actually possess, and this natural process of being forced to confront one's mortality is divine; thus there is truth in the saying.

When you examine the individual qualities of the Titánæs, you will find that they are the source of all good things: the great streams and rivers of the world; the sun, the moon, and the constellations; law and justice; as well as the very existence of mankind itself, because they are said to have created mortal beings. Indeed, the Titánæs are the source of all these gifts and many others as well.

There is an interpretation of the mythology of the castration of Ouranós which considers the image of Sky (Ouranós means "sky"), laying down on Earth, with the Titánæs at the four corners, holding him down, such that the entire Kózmos is held in place by the Titánæs, like pillars, with Kíos (Coeus, Κοῖος) in the north, Kreios (Crius, Κρεῖος) at the south, Iapætós (Iapetus, Ἰαπετός) in the east, Ypæríôn (Hyperiôn, Ὑπερίων) in the west, and Krónos (Cronus, Κρόνος), as Time, at the center. Surrounding all this, the mighty river Ôkæanós (Ôceanus, Ὠκεανός) flows.

Another interpretation is that the castration of Ouranós is the transference of the generative power in the procession of kingship, the progression of Aithír (Αἰθήρ), the active and productive element, the unfolding known as the Six Vasileis (Basileis = Kings, Βασιλεῖς), with the generative power at last being transferred to Zefs (Ζεύς).

Yet another way to understand the magnificence of the Titánæs is to consider their very antique and venerable place in the generation of the Kózmos, and their position in the family-line of the Gods. What is called the first generation of deities are the primordial Gods, those mighty ones such as Phánîs (Phanês, Φάνης), Nyx (Νύξ), Yaia and Ouranós. The Titánæs follow directly after and are the second generation of Gods. The third generation is that of the glorious Olympians. The Titánæs generate and have control over natural phenomena, while the Olympians have dominion over the underlying natural laws which govern these phenomena and all existence. Every God in the universe is worthy of worship, but these early generations of Gods are deserving of the greatest veneration and awe.

The Elder and Younger Titans

The Elder Titans are all members of the Ouranídai, that is, progeny of Ouranós and Yaia. The most important are six of the Seven Pairs of Titans, but there are others. In some lists of Titánæs, you may find names such as Phórkys (Phorcys, Φόρκυς), and less familiar deities such as Óstasos (Ostasus, Ὄστασος), Ádanos (Adanus, Ἄδανος), Ándîs (Andês, Ἄνδης), Ólymvros (Olymbrus, Ὄλυμβρος), and Ánytos (Anytus, Ἄνυτος)...but we will not be discussing most of these.

The descendants of the Elder Titánæs are called the Younger Titánæs, deities such as Dióhnî and Promithéfs, Litóh, and Astæría, to name just a few. Even Zefs and Íra are Younger Titans. And the children of the Younger Titans are also given the name Titanic, deities such as Ækáti, because she descends in the genealogy from the Titans.

THE SEVEN PAIRS OF TITANS

The first six pairs of Titans in this list are members of the Ouranídai (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου134. The last pair, Dióhni (Διώνη) and Promithéfs (Προμηθεύς), are younger Titans. Taken together, they are known as the Seven Pairs of Titans. There are other lists of pairs of Titans, but the below list is what was given to this author in this lineage.

1. Rǽa and Krónos

Krónos (Κρόνος) is the youngest (last-born) of the Titánæs (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 137) and the greatest. Krónos deposed his father Ouranós by castrating him, thus becoming the fourth in the progression of Aithír (Αἰθήρ) known as the Six Kings. He had dominion over the Kózmos in the Silver Age (Orphic frag. 140. σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Πολιτείας Πλάτωνος II 74, 26 Kr. Hesiod calls this the Golden Age.) Ouranós is a pre-form of Krónos as Krónos is a pre-form of Zefs, his son. Rǽa (Rhea, Ῥέα, meaning "easily" or "effortlessly." Etym. ῥέω "to flow, stream." [Κρατύλος Πλάτωνος 402] Also, ῥᾶ "easily."), according to Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 133, is the daughter of Ouranós (Οὐρανός) and Yî (Gê, Γῆ), like her brother and husband Krónos. To Krónos she bore Æstía (Ἑστία), Íra (Ήρα), Ploutôn (Πλούτων), Poseidóhn (Ποσειδῶν), and Zefs (Ζεύς). There was an oracle warning Krónos that one of his children would usurp him, so he devoured them as each was born, and would have done so to Zefs as well, but for a trick of Rǽa. When Zefs was born, Rǽa became Dîmítîr (Δημήτηρ) (Orphic frag. 145 σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 403e). She deceived Krónos by wrapping a rock in swaddling clothes. He swallowed the rock and vomited up all the children. When Zefs grew sufficiently in strength, he deposed and castrated Krónos (Orphic frag. 154: ὃ καὶ πάσχει ὁ Κρόνος καὶ δεθεὶς ἐκτέμνεται ὡς ὁ Οὐρανός). The Olympians, under the rule of Zefs, have assumed power over the Kózmos forever. Rǽa is equated with the Mother of the Gods, the Phrygian Kyvǽlî (Κυβέλη), who taught Diónysos the Mysteries (Βιβλιοθήκη Ἀπολλοδώρου Book 3.5.1). Diónysos imparted the Mystíria to Khárôps (Χάρωψ), to whom he gave the kingdom of Thrákî (Θράκη). Khárôps gave them to his son Íagros (Οἴαγρος), who in turn taught them to his son, Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς). Orphéfs disseminated the Mysteries throughout the world and thereby provides the means to be freed from the sorrowful circle of births (κύκλος γενέσεως). Rǽa is the second in the progression of Earth known as the Three Vasíleiai (βασίλειαι), the Three Queens: Yaia, Rǽa, and Íra. Rǽa is, therefore, a pre-form of Íra.

2. Tîthýs and Okæanós

Okæanós (Oceanus or Ocean, Ὠκεανός) is the God of the great river which surrounds the earth; Tîthýs (Tethys, Τηθύς. Etym. τήθη "grandmother."), his sister and wife, is its Goddess. By Okæanós, Tîthýs gave birth to the mighty fresh-water rivers (Ποταμοί). She gave birth to her daughters the Nýmphai (Νύμφαι) of the streams, springs, and fountains who are called the Okæanídæs (Ὠκεανίδες) [Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 337-370]; and she gave birth to the Clouds (Νεφέλαι) [Orphic Hymn 22, line 7]. Okæanós, according to the mythology, is the first-born of the Titánæs, as said in Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου. The opening of the Orphic Hymn to Okæanós attributes to him an intimate connection to the birth of the Gods: "Ocean I call, whose nature ever flows, From whom at first both Gods and men arose." (Trans. Thomas Taylor, 1792.) This same thought occurs in Ἰλιάς as Íra (Ἥρα) speaks (line 200): "I am going to the world's end, to visit Oceanus, from whom all we Gods proceed..." (Ἰλιὰς Ὁμήρου 14.200, trans. Samuel Butler 1898.) Amongst many other children of these Gods, Okæanós bore by Tîthýs the river Styx (Στύξ) by which the Gods swear oaths which may not be broken.

3. Phívî and Kíos

Phívî (Phoebê, Φοίβη, "the bright one.") is the great deity by whose means oracular ability is passed down. To her husband Kíos (Κοῖος), Phívî bore Astæría (Ἀστερία, the "starry one") who, in turn, bore Ækátî (Ἑκάτη) [Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 409-412], the great Goddess of Virtue who gives oracles concerning areas which are hidden to us, as though in darkness. And Phívî and Kíos also brought forth Lîtóh (Λητώ) [Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 404-406], who coupled with Zefs and gave birth to Ártæmis (Ἄρτεμις) and Apóllôn (Ἀπόλλων). Apóllôn is the mighty God of light, who speaks the oracles of his father. Phívî had possession of the oracle at Dælphí (Δελφοί). Yaia (Γαῖα) held it first, but Yaia gave it to Thǽmis (Θέμις), who in turn gave it to Phívî. Finally, Phívî made a present of the Dælphic Oracle to Apóllôn (Ὀρέστεια Εὐμενίδες Αἰσχύλου opening verse), who, thereby, is in possession of the oracle of both Earth (through Phívî) and Heaven (through Zefs). Κοῖος is the Ionic spelling of ποῖος, which is a word of querying; hence, Kíos is thought of as a God of the intellect, the questioning mind. The Latin mythographer Hyginus calls him Polus, after the Greek Pólos (Πόλος), which is the axis of the celestial sphere. His wife, Phívî (Φοίβη), had dominion over Dælphí (Δελφοί); Dælphí is the axis of the earth, corresponding to the celestial axis of her husband Kíos.

4. Theia Evrypháæssa and Ypæríohn

Theia (Theia Euryphaessa, Θεία Εὐρυφάεσσα. Etym. θεία means "aunt," or from θειάζω, which means “inspired” or “oracular,” also θέα, “sight.” Εὐρυφάεσσα is an epithet of the Goddess meaning "far-shining.") Theia is the Titan Goddess of light and is associated with glittering gold, the colour most associated with the Gods. Her light illuminates not only the precious metals of gold and silver, but it shines through and glorifies the precious gems of the world. Theia is bound in love to her husband, Ypæríôn, by whom she bore illustrious children of light: Sælínî (Σελήνη), the Goddess of the Moon; Ióhs (Ἠώς), the Goddess of the Dawn; and Ílios (Ἥλιος), the God of the Sun [Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 371]. Ypæríôn: (Hyperiôn, Ὑπερίων. Etym. ὑπέρ “above,” “the high one.”) As stated above, Ypæríôn and Theia are the parents of the Sun, the Moon, and Dawn. Ypæríôn is the source of these heavenly bodies, admirable not only for their light, but also for how they assist mankind in the measurement of time, in particular, the months and days.

5. Thǽmis and Iapætós

Thǽmis (Themis, Θέμις. Etym. θέμις is "law and justice as established by custom.") was the wife of Zefs before Íra (Ἥρα). By him she bore the Órai (Ὧραι): Evnomía (Good Order, Εὐνομία), Díki (Justice, Δίκη), and Eiríni (Peace, Εἰρήνη), which is indicative of the nature of Thǽmis as being the great Goddess of divine Law. Thǽmis also bore by Zefs the Mírai (Μοῖραι): Klôthóh (Κλωθώ), Lákhæsis (Λάχεσις), and Átropos (Ἄτροπος). All this can be found in Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου at 901-906. After these events, Thǽmis is bound in marriage to Iapætós. Thǽmis reveals the will of the Gods and divine law and justice to mankind by means of her oracular ability (Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορικὴ Διοδώρου Σικελιώτου Book V. 67. 4). Yaia (Γαῖα) held the oracle at Dælphí (Δελφοί) and gave it to Thǽmis; Thǽmis gave the oracle to Phívî, who then made a present of it to Apóllôn (Ὀρέστεια Εὐμενίδες Αἰσχύλου opening verse). Iapætós (Iapetus or Japetus, Ἰαπετός. Etym. ἰάπτω meaning “to wound,” “pierce,” “spear”) is a great benefactor and ancestor of mankind and all things mortal, for his son, Promîthéfs is said to have created the race of men (Βιβλιοθήκη Ἀπολλοδώρου 1.7.1). The sons of Iapætós are all by Klymǽni (Κλυμένη) [Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 371] who is always listed as his wife. Nonetheless, there is an interesting confusion with this mythology where, for instance, in Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης Αἰσχύλου (8, 211, and 873) it says that Thǽmis or Yaia is the mother of Promîthéfs. This author was taught that the pair of Iapætós is Thǽmis, whom he loved, but that she rejected him for Zefs. My teacher also taught me the more common view of Klymǽni being the wife of Iapætós, so perhaps the idea of Thǽmis as the pair of Iapætós is more the view of the Mystíria. The sons of Iapætós are:

Átlas (Ἄτλας,"endurance")

Promîthéfs (Προμηθεύς, “forethought”)

Æpimîthéfs (Ἐπιμηθεύς, “hindsight”)

Mænítios (Μενοίτιος, "doomed might")

6. Mnimosýni and Kriós

Mnîmosýnî (Mnêmosynê, Μνημοσύνη) is the great Goddess of Memory, by which we can understand the past, with even the possibility of remembering past lives. "...everything is worn and withered away by time, whereas time itself never ages, but remains immortal because of memory." (Τὰ ἐς τὸν Τυανέα Ἀπολλώνιον Φιλοστράτου 1.14, trans. F. C. Conybeare, 1912.)

Kriós (Crius, Κριός; "ram.") loved Mnîmosýnî but she rejected him and accepted Zefs by whom she is the mother of the Mousai (Μοῦσαι) (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 53). She is the great Titanís who discovered the use of reason and the power of using names, thereby enabling us to use speech (Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορικὴ Διοδώρου Σικελιώτου 5. 67. 3). Kriós is the father by Evryvía (Εὐρυβία) of Astraios (Ἀστραῖος), Pállas (Πάλλας), and Pǽrsîs (Πέρσης). Kriós is connected with the constellation which bears his name (Κριός/Aries), which is associated with the beginning of spring and the agricultural year, and standing at the beginning, he is thought of as representing and conducting all the great constellations of the heavens and the measurement of the temporal portions of the year.

7. Dióhnî and Promithéfs

Dióhnî (Dione, Διώνη; feminine of Διός, the genitive of Ζεύς) is not one of the Ouranídai (although Hyginus in the preface to his book of mythology and Βιβλιοθήκη Ἀπολλοδώρου 1.2 disagrees), for she is the daughter of Okæanós and Tithýs (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 353).

Ἰλιὰς Ὁμήρου Book 5.370 says that Dióhnî is the mother of Aphrodítî by Zefs (also Orphic frag. 183 σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 406c), who Plátôn calls Pándîmos (Πάνδημος) Aphrodítî, the common or popular Aphrodítî of sexual union (Συμπόσιον 180 d-e). Dióhnî accompanies Zefs in his oracular ability (Γεωγραφικὰ Στράβωνος 7.7.12) as his temple-associate. Dióhnî is a pre-form of Dîmítîr.

Promîthéfs (Prometheus, Προμηθεύς. Etym. from προμήθεια “foresight,” “forethought.”) is actually a Younger Titán, being a son of Iapætós and Klymǽnî (Κλυμένη), according to Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 507 (As stated above, Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης Αἰσχύλου [8, 211, and 873] says that Thǽmis or Yaia is the mother of Promîthéfs). There are various stories about Promîthéfs but they can be summarized thus: he is said to have created the human race out of Earth and Water (Βιβλιοθήκη Ἀπολλοδώρου 1.7.1 [Frazer]). He is the father of Defkalíôn (Δευκαλίων) (Βιβλιοθήκη Ἀπολλοδώρου 1.7.2 [Frazer]), and, thus, is a direct ancestor of the human race. Following this, Promîthéfs proved to be a great friend to mankind, bestowing great benefits on us while often suffering greatly for his efforts on our behalf.

Aiskhýlos (Αἰσχύλος), the tragedian, describes the importance of Promîthéfs to mankind:

Promîthéfs: Through me mankind ceased to foresee death.

Leader of Chorus: What remedy could heal that sad disease?

Promîthéfs: Blind hopes I made to dwell in them.

Leader of Chorus: O merciful boon for mortals.

Promîthéfs: And more than all I gave them fire.

Leader of Chorus: And so in their brief life they are lords of flaming fire

Promîthéfs: Through it they will learn many arts. (Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης Αἰσχύλου 250-256, trans. Paul Elmer More, 1899.)

And in a passage commonly referred to as the Catalog of the Arts: Promîthéfs speaks: "...listen to the sad story of mankind, who like children lived until I gave them understanding and a portion of reason; yet not in disparagement of men I speak, but meaning to set forth the greatness of my charity. For seeing they saw not, and hearing they understood not, but like as shapes in a dream they wrought all the days of their life in confusion. No houses of brick raised in the warmth of the sun they had, nor fabrics of wood, but like the little ants they dwelt underground in the sunless depth of caverns. No certain sign of approaching winter they knew, no harbinger of flowering spring or fruitful summer; ever they labored at random, till I taught them to discern the seasons by the rising and the obscure setting of the stars. Numbers I invented for them, the chiefest of all discoveries; I taught them the grouping of letters, to be a memorial and record of the past, the mistress of the arts and mother of the Muses. I first brought under the yoke beasts of burden, who by draft and carrying relieved men of their hardest labors; I yoked the proud horse to the chariot, teaching him obedience to the reins, to be the adornment of wealth and luxury. I too contrived for sailors sea-faring vessels with their flaxen wings. Alas for me! such inventions I devised for mankind, but for myself I have no cunning to escape disaster.... (Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης Αἰσχύλου 444-471, trans. Paul Elmer More, 1899.)

ONE MORE PAIR OF TITÁNÆS

Phórkys and Kîtóh

Phórkys (Phorcys, Φόρκυς) is the son of Póndos (Πόντος) and Yaia (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 237). He is a great God of the Sea who fathered many giant sea-monsters by Kîtóh (Cêtô, Κητώ). In Orphic fragment 114 (σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος) he is included in the list of Titánæs rather than Promithéfs (as in our list of the seven above). This author was taught that Promîthéfs holds the seventh seat.

THE YOUNGER TITÁNÆS

The following list does not pretend to be complete.

Ækáti - (Hecate, Ἑκάτη) Ækátî is the daughter of Astæría (Ἀστερία) and Pǽrsîs (Πέρσης). Her mother Astæría is the daughter of the Elder Titans Phívî and Kíos. Her father Pǽrsîs was the son of Evryvía (Εὐρυβία) and the Elder Titan Kriós.

Astæría - (Asteria, Ἀστερία; “of the stars”) Astæría is one of the Younger Titanídæs (Τιτανίδες), the daughter of Kíos and Phívi. Astæría is the sister of Litóh (Λητώ) and the mother of Ækáti (Ἑκάτη). With these close relationships to Phívi, Apóllôn (Ἀπόλλων), and Ækáti, Astæría is connected with oracular power.

Following the battle of the Titánæs, Astæría was pursued by Zefs (Ζεύς) and avoided him by transforming herself into a quail, falling into the sea and becoming the island Astæría, later called Ortiyía (Ορτυγία. Etym. ὄρτυξ "quail."), and finally called Dílos (Δήλος "famous"), where she agreed to be the birthplace of Apóllôn, but there is confusion regarding the island, whether there were two islands (Ortiyía and Dílos) with Ártæmis (Ἄρτεμις) born on Ortiyía previous to her brother.

Átlas - (Ἄτλας) Átlas is the son of Iapætós and Klymǽni, according to Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 507. He led the Titánæs in their war against Zefs, thereby being condemned to carry the heavens on his shoulders. According to Ὀδύσσεια Ὁμήρου I.51-54: νῆσος δενδρήεσσα, θεὰ δ᾽ ἐν δώματα ναίει, Ἄτλαντος θυγάτηρ ὀλοόφρονος, ὅς τε θαλάσσης πάσης βένθεα οἶδεν, ἔχει δέ τε κίονας αὐτὸς μακράς, αἳ γαῖάν τε καὶ οὐρανὸν ἀμφὶς ἔχουσιν.

“Tis a wooded isle (the island of Ὠγυγίη), and therein dwells a Goddess (Καλυψώ), daughter of Atlas of baneful mind, who knows the depths of every sea, and himself holds the tall pillars which keep earth and heaven apart.” (trans. A. T. Murray, 1919.)

Díki – See Órai.

Dióhnî - (Διώνη) the daughter of Okæanós and Tithýs

Eiríni – See Órai.

Evnomía – See Órai.

Ílios - (Hêlios, Ἥλιος) Ílios is the God of the Sun, the daughter of Theia and Ypæríôn.

Ióhs - (Eôs, Ἠώς) Ióhs is the Goddess of Dawn, the daughter of Theia and Ypæríôn.

Kalypsó – (Calypsô, Καλυψώ) daughter of Átlas and Pleiónî (Pleionê, Πλειόνη), who delayed the journey of Odysséfs (Ὀδυσσεύς) on his way back home.

Kourítæs - (Curêtes, Κουρῆτες) According the Orphic theogony, the Kourítæs are sons of Rhǽa (Ῥέα) (Orphic fragment 150 ἀπορίαι καὶ λύσεις περὶ τῶν πρώτων ἀρχῶν Δαμασκίου 278): μόνη δὲ ἡ Ῥέα τους Κούρητας ἀπογεννᾶι = "where Rǽa alone generated the Kourítæs" (trans. by the author)

Thus, being progeny of an Elder Titanís, they are members of the Younger Titánæs.

Mírai - (Moirae, Μοῖραι): The Mírai or the Fates are daughters of Thǽmis and Zefs. They are: Klôthóh (Κλωθώ), Lákhæsis (Λάχεσις), and Átropos (Ἄτροπος).

Mousai - (Muses, Μοῦσαι) The Mousai, nine great Goddesses of the arts, are daughters of Mnimosýnî and Zefs. They are the companions of Apóllôn, who is their leader. The Mousai are: Kleióh (Κλειώ), Eftǽrpî (Εὐτέρπη), Tháleia (Θάλεια), Mælpomǽnî (Μελπομένη), Tærpsikhóra (Τερψιχόρα), Æratóh (Ἐρατώ), Polýmnia (Πολύμνια), Ouranía (Οὐρανία), and Kalliópî (Καλλιόπη).

Lîtóh - (Lêtô, Λητώ) The daughter of Phívî and Kíos. Lîtóh is the mother of twins: Ártæmis and Apóllôn.

Næphǽlai - (Nephelae, Νεφέλαι) The water-Nýmphai of the clouds, daughters of Tîthýs and Okæanós.

Okeanídæs – (Oceanides, Ὠκεανίδες) The three-thousand water Nýmphai daughters of Tîthýs and Okæanós.

Olympians - Because they are the progeny of the Elder Titánæs Rǽa and Krónos, the following Olympians are Younger Titánæs: Æstía, Dîmítîr, Íra, Ploutôn, Poseidóhn, and Zefs. Because they are the progeny of the Younger Titánæs Íra and Zefs, the following Olympians are also Younger Titánæs: Árîs and Íphaistos. Because they are the progeny of the Younger Titán Zefs, the following Olympians are also Younger Titánæs: Athîná and Ærmís, Ártæmis, and Apóllôn.

Órai - (Horae, Ὧραι) The Órai are daughters of Thǽmis and Zefs. They are: Evnomía (Good Order, Εὐνομία), Díkî (Justice, Δίκη), and Eirínî (Peace, Εἰρήνη).

Potamí – (Potamoi, Ποταμοί) The Gods of the rivers and streams, children of Tîthýs and Okæanós.

Promîthéfs - (Promêtheus, Προμηθεύς) Promîthéfs is the son of Klymǽnî and Iapætós. Aiskhýlos says he is the son of Thǽmis or Yaia.

Sælínî - (Selênê, Σελήνη) Sælínî is the Goddess of the Moon, the daughter of Theia and Ypæríôn.

THE ORPHIC HYMN TO THE TITÁNÆS (trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792.)

37. Titánæs [Titans, Τιτᾶνες] The Fumigation from Frankincense.

O Mighty Titans, who from heav'n and earth

Derive your noble and illustrious birth,

Our fathers sires, in Tartarus profound

Who dwell, deep merg'd beneath the solid ground:

Fountains and principles, from whom began

Th' afflicted, miserable, race of man:

Who not alone in earth's retreats abide,

But in the ocean and the air reside;

Since ev'ry species from your nature flows,

Which all prolific, nothing barren knows:

Avert your rage, if from th' infernal seats

One of your tribe should visit our retreats.

37. Τιτάνων, θυμίαμα λίβανον.

Τιτῆνες, Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀγλαὰ τέκνα, ἡμετέρων πρόγονοι πατέρων, γαίης ὑπένερθεν

οἴκοις Ταρταρίοισι μυχῶι χθονὸς ἐνναίοντες, ἀρχαὶ καὶ πηγαὶ πάντων θνητῶν πολυμόχθων, εἰναλίων, πτηνῶν τε καὶ οἳ χθόνα ναιετάουσιν· ἐξ ὑμέων γὰρ πᾶσα πέλει γενεὰ κατὰ κόσμον. ὑμᾶς κικλήσκω μῆνιν χαλεπὴν ἀποπέμπειν, εἴ τις ἀπὸ χθονίων προγόνων οἴκοις επελάσθη.

GLOSSARY OF THE TITÁNÆS

Ouranídai - (Uranidae; Gr. Οὐρανίδαι, ΟΥΡΑΝΙΔΑΙ. Noun. Οὐρανίδης is singular.) Ouranídai is another name for the Ouraníônæs (Οὐρανίωνες), the children of Ouranós.

Ouraníônæs - (Uraniônes; Gr. Οὐρανίωνες, ΟΥΡΑΝΙΩΝΕΣ. Noun. Fem. is θεαὶ Οὐρανιῶναι.) Ouraníônæs is another name for the Ouranídai, the children of Ouranós; it can also be used as a general term for the Gods.

Titán - (Gr. Τιτάν, ΤΙΤΑΝ. Noun. Plural is Τιτᾶνες. Etym. τιταίνω "to stretch," as in stretching the string of a bow, also it can be the act of gathering one's energy to put something into action; the Titánæs "stretch" and thereby open the centers of the soul and help us gather energy to do so.) Titan. Cf. Titánæs.

Titánæs - (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες, ΤΙΤΑΝΕΣ. Noun. Plural) Titans. Cf. Titán.

Titánia - (Gr. Τιτάνια, ΤΙΤΑΝΙΑ. Noun.) Titánia is a festival of the Titánæs.

Titanídæs - (Gr. Τιτάνιδες, ΤΙΤΑΝΙΔΕΣ. Noun. Feminine plural.) Titan Goddesses. Cf. Titanís.

Titanís - (Gr. Τιτανίς, ΤΙΤΑΝΙΣ. Noun. Feminine singular.) Titan Goddess. Cf. Titanídæs.

Titanographía - (Gr. Τιτανογραφία, ΤΙΤΑΝΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ. Noun.) Titanographía is a history of the Titánæs.

Titanomakhía - (Titanomachia, Gr. Τιτανομαχία, ΤΙΤΑΝΟΜΑΧΙΑ. Noun.) Titanomakhía is the battle of Titánæs. This is a story which can be found in the Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου but is absent from the Orphic fragments. This does not mean that a similar story was not originally present in the Orphic theogony, simply that there are no extant fragments which support it, but there are some scholars (such as M. L. West) who think that it would be illogical for the Τιτανομαχία to have been included because the Titans would need to have been condemned to Tartaros (Τάρταρος) and then restored again in order to participate in the sacrifice of Zagréfs (Ζαγρεύς).

Titanóömai - (Gr. τιτανόομαι, ΤΙΤΑΝΟΟΜΑ. Verb. Etym. τίτανος, a white earth, likely gypsum) Titanóömai is to be whitened or plastered. The Titánæs whitened their faces with chalk and offered the basket of toys to Diónysos.

Poseidóhn is described as holding the earth, because his dominion, the Sea, is thought to surround the earth, and, therefore, he has the ability to shake the earth, i.e. to produce earthquakes. Poseidóhn is Zefs of the Sea and the Middle Sky. His dominion begins above the surface of the Earth (perhaps about 60 feet) and just above the sea-floor. Ploutôn, however, has dominion of the sea-floor and the Earth (and about 60 feet above), but beyond this is the domain of Poseidóhn. The area which includes the Sea, extending above the Sea and above the Earth up to the yposælínia (hyposelênia, ὑποσελήνια), the area just below the moon, is the domain of Poseidóhn. The Middle Sky, the area from the Earth up to the moon, is where the souls are said to float between lives; it is here where also dwell particular deities, the Gods and Goddesses of the Middle Sky, such as Ækátî (Hecatê, Ἑκάτη). According to Dioyǽnîs Laǽrtios (Diogenês Laërtius, Διογένης Λαέρτιος) in his biography of the ancient philosopher Pythagóras (Πυθαγόρας): "When cast out upon the earth, it (ed. the soul) wanders in the air like the body. Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. The whole air is full of souls ..." Poseidóhn has dominion over all the souls in the Sea; he also has dominion over all the souls of those who are between lives who dwell in the Middle Sky, and also, he has dominion over the deities who bide there. "He (Ζεὺς Ὀλυμπικός) is also the summit of the three, has the same name with the fontal Jupiter, is united to him, and is monadically called Jupiter. But the second is called dyadically, marine Jupiter (Ζεὺς), and Neptune (Ποσειδῶν). And the third is triadically denominated, terrestrial (χθόνιος) Jupiter, Pluto, and Hades (Ἅιδης-Πλούτων). The first of these also preserves, fabricates, and vivifies summits, but the second, things of a second rank, and the third those of a third order. Hence this last is said to have ravished Proserpine (Περσεφόνη), that together with her he might animate the extremities of the universe." Zefs wields the thunderbolt. Ploutôn possesses the Áïdos kynǽîn (Aïdos kuneên, Ἄϊδος κυνέην), the dog-skin cap which renders the wearer invisible. All these weapons, which are symbols of the power of the Three Zefs, were created by the Kýklôpæs (Cyclopes, Κύκλωπες). Poseidóhn wields the Tríaina (Trident, Τρίαινα), which has the power to cause earthquakes, sea-storms, crack rocks, and even to cause springs of sea-water to flow when struck on the ground. It indicates his power over the sea. According to Ploutarkhos (Plutarch, Πλούταρχος), the three prongs of the Tríaina are representative of his dominion over the third region (Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· Περὶ Ἴσιδος καὶ Ὀσίριδος 75.381f), while Zefs and Ploutôn have dominion over the other two, as described above.

Come, Phívos Apóllôn, Apóllôn Phosphoros, God of Immeasurable Light! Apóllôn Patroos my Father! Apóllôn, the Healer! Be with me today, tomorrow, and forever, closer than my own heart. You who are dearest to me, you who are first in my life: the most beloved of my

Heart. Oh, mighty slayer of the Python, my handsome, lovable God: bless me, bring me good things, bring me happiness, and guide my life. And may I please you in every way, for I love you, my golden-haired Father, with all my heart.

Τριπλῆ Καρδία

Ἔλθὲ Φοίβε Ἀπόλλων, Ἀπόλλων φωσφόρε, Θεὲ ἀπεράτου φωτός! Ἀπόλλων πάτερ! Ἀπόλλων ἰητρέ!Ἕσο μεθ' ἐμοῦ σήμερον, αὔριον, ἔς χρόνον πάντα, ἐγγὺς τῆς καρδίας ἐμοῦ.

Ο πρὸς ἐμὲ ϕίλτατος, του βίου ἐμοῦ πρῶτος· τῆς καρδίας ἐμοῦ ϕίλτατος.

Ω, ἰσχυρὲ Πυθοκτόνε, κάλλιστε ἐμοί, ϕίλτατε Θεέ· εὐλόγησον με, κόμισον μοι ἀγαθά,

ϕέρε ἐμοὶ τύχην ἀγαθὴν καὶ τὸν ἐμοῦ βίον ὁδήγησον.

Καὶ εὐχομένου ἴνα εὐχαριστῶ σε παντὶ τρόπω, ὡς γάρ ϕιλῶ σε, χρυσοκώμα πάτερ, μεθ'

οὔλης τῆς καρδίας ἐμοῦ.

Apóllôn is the ambassador of the Solar Powers, the higher Olympian Gods and, as such, he is at the same level as Zefs of this, our system, and thus truly merits the title Ánax (Ἄναξ), the Great King. Apóllôn is sympárædros (symparedros, συμπάρεδρος) to Zefs of our system, meaning that they hold the throne jointly [1]. (See Thomas Taylor's notes to the Orphic Hymn to the Sun.) The Solar Powers are represented by the two intertwined snakes of the Kîrýkeion (Caduceus or Cêryceion, Κηρύκειον, one of the major symbols of Zefs) which Apóllôn gives to Ærmís (Hermês, Ἑρμῆς).

Apóllôn is the voice of Zefs on Earth

Apóllôn speaks out the unfailing testament of his father Zefs (Ζεύς), at whose right hand he sits. Apóllôn is the voice of Zefs on Earth for which he is called the Orthós Lógos (Ὀρθός Λόγος), the True Word, for Apóllôn does not lie:

"For he (the Dælphic Oracle, i.e. Apóllôn) does not lie, since this is not lawful to him."

As Diónysos (Dionysus, Διόνυσος) is the action of Zefs on Earth, Apóllôn is the voice of Zefs on Earth, who declares his will.

εἴη μοι κίθαρίς τε φίλη καὶ καμπύλα τόξα,

χρήσω δ᾽ ἀνθρώποισι Διὸς νημερτέα βουλήν.

“The lyre and the curved bow shall ever be dear to me,

and I will declare to men the unfailing will of Zeus.”

(Ὁμηρικὸς Ὕμνος 3.131-132 Εις Ἀπόλλωνα [Δήλιον] , trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914)

Zefs is the source of all prophecy, articulated by Apóllôn

Zefs (Ζεύς) is the source of all prophecy:

"The eagle dropped the fawn by the altar on which the Achaeans sacrificed to Zeus the lord of omens (πανομφαῖος)." [3]

Nonetheless, it is said that oracle was first spoken by Yi (Ge = Earth, Γῆ) and handed down to Thǽmis (Themis, Θέμις), who gave it to Phívi (Phoebe, Φοίβη), and eventually became the possession of Apóllôn who holds this power eternally:

The Pythia speaks:

"First, in this prayer, of all the Gods I name

The prophet-mother Earth; and Themis next,

Second who sat-for so with truth is said-

On this her mother's shrine oracular.

Then by her grace, who unconstrained allowed,

There sat thereon another child of Earth-

Titanian Phoebe. She, in after time,

Gave o'er the throne, as birthgift to a god,

Phoebus, who in his own bears Phoebe's name.

He from the lake and ridge of Delos' isle

Steered to the port of Pallas' Attic shores,

The home of ships; and thence he passed and came

Unto this land and to Parnassus' shrine.

And at his side, with awe revering him,

There went the children of Hephaestus' seed,

The hewers of the sacred way, who tame

The stubborn tract that erst was wilderness.

And all this folk, and Delphos, chieftain-king

Of this their land, with honour gave him home;

And in his breast Zeus set a prophet's soul,

And gave to him this throne, whereon he sits,

Fourth prophet of the shrine, and, Loxias hight,

Gives voice to that which Zeus his sire decrees." [4]

Loxías (Λοξίας) is an epithet of Apóllôn meaning "he who is the prophet and interpreter of Zefs."

Apóllôn states that it is forbidden to practice soothsaying, even for the Gods, in the Homeric Hymn to Ærmís (Hermes, Ἑρμῆς):

"...μαντείην δέ, ϕέριστε, διοτρεϕές, ἣν ἐρεείνεις, οὔτε σὲ θέσϕατόν ἐστι δαήμεναι οὔτε τιν' ἄλλον ἀθανάτων· τὸ γὰρ οἶδε Διὸς νόος·"

"But as for sooth-saying, noble, heaven-born child, of which you ask, it is not lawful for you to learn it, nor for any other of the deathless Gods: only the mind of Zeus knows that." [5]

Apóllôn goes on to say that he reserves the power of oracle to himself:

"I am pledged and have vowed and sworn a strong oath that no other of the eternal Gods save I should know the wise-hearted counsel of Zeus." [5]

Apóllôn will use his power to both help and impair mankind:

"As for men, I will harm one and profit another, sorely perplexing the tribes of unenviable men." [5]

Why would Apóllôn "harm one and profit another," as the hymn states? Because Apóllôn distinguishes between the mortals who choose to live in justice and those who choose to live in injustice, and he keeps them separate.

Apóllôn is the great God of enlightenment

Apóllôn is the God of Light, for which he is known as Phívos (Phoebus, Φοίβος), the shining one, who has dominion over the Sun (Ἥλιος) itself. Apóllôn is not the same as the Sun, despite what some ancient literature would have one believe; he has dominion over the Sun. (See Thomas Taylor's notes to the Orphic hymn to the Sun for an explanation which is reasonable.). Apóllôn is the great God of enlightenment, for he fosters everything which brings about understanding: reason, education, logic, knowledge, and every kind of expansive thinking.

Apóllôn possesses a great fire

Apóllôn, like his sister Ártæmis, possesses the bow and arrow. He rules over the realms of archery. This arrow is a mighty fire that pushes the soul forward to great progress and arætí (arete, ἀρετή), virtue. His arrows never miss the mark and are also said to avert evil and punish the unjust.

Apóllôn presides over music, knowledge, and all the arts

Apóllôn plays the kithára (cithara = a type of lyre, κιθάρα), an instrument which, in the mythology, he acquired from his brother Ærmís, who, in the Homeric hymn to Ærmís, created the instrument from the shell of a turtle and gave it to his brother in exchange for his stolen cattle. The kithára of Apóllôn has seven strings, a number associated with the God, and represents the Seven Centers of the Soul. Therefore, with his beautiful music, Apóllôn causes these centers to vibrate and spin and thus propels the soul to progress and deification.

Apóllôn is involved with all which is splendid, illustrated by his association with the Mousai (Muses, Μοῦσαι), who are the Goddesses of all the arts: of music, song, poetry, theater, dance, science, astronomy, history, and literature. They are his entourage, and for this reason Apóllôn is known by the epithet Mousayǽtas (Mousagetes, Μουσαγέτας), leader of the Mousai.

Apóllôn is the great God of freedom

Apóllôn, being an Olympian, has dominion over one of the Natural Laws: Freedom. After the soul is harmonized by Aphrodítî (Aphroditê, Αφροδίτη) at the Eighth House, Apóllôn frees it at the Ninth.

Apóllôn is the guardian of the Mysteries and deification

Apóllôn is the principal guardian of the Mystiría (Mysteries, Μυστήρια). This can be seen in a mythological interpretation of the Iliás (The Iliad, Ἰλιάς) where Ælǽni (Helen of Troy, Ἑλένη), meaning "basket," is the symbol of the Mysteries, and Apóllôn is defending the Trojans.

Apóllôn is the principal deity of deification, and when Apóllôn kills, in Iliás and wherever found in the myths, he deifies: always, as does his father Zefs and all the Olympians.

All the Mysteries come through Zagréfs-Diónysos (Zagreus-Dionysus, Ζαγρεύς-Διόνυσος) and Apóllôn is intertwined in his mythology. In the following quotation, Apóllôn is called Dionysodótîs (Διονυσοδότης), “the one who gives Diónysos”: ὁ γὰρ Διόνυσος, ὅτε τὸ εἴδωλον ἐνέθηκε τῶι ἐσόπτρωι, τούτωι ἐφέσπετο, καὶ οὕτως εἰς τὸ πᾶν ἐμερίσθη. ὁ δε Απόλλων συναγείρει τε αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνάγει καθαρτικός ὢν θεὸς καὶ τοῦ Διονύσου σωτὴρ ὡς ἀληθῶς, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο Διονυσοδότης ἀνυμνεῖται. (σχόλιον Ὀλυμπιοδώρου επὶ Φαίδωνος Πλάτωνος B ρκή p. 111, 14 William Norvin) “For Diónysos, when he set his image into the mirror, pursued it, and in this way, was scattered everywhere. But Apóllôn (Ἀπόλλων) gathers him together and revives him, for he being a purifying God, and truly the savior of Diónysos, is thus celebrated as ‘he who gives us Diónysos’ (Διονυσοδότης).” (trans. by the author)

After the dismemberment and sacrifice of Zagréfs, Zefs sends Athîná (Athêna, Ἀθηνᾶ) to retrieve his still-beating heart and he sends Apóllôn to gather his limbs; Phívos then inters the limbs at his sanctuary on Mount Parnassós (Parnassus, Παρνασσός).

Apóllôn rules medicine

Apóllôn is the God who cares and helps, and, as such, he is the principal deity of Medicine and Healing for which he is called Paián (Paean, Παιάν). The Kǽndavros (Centaur, Κένταυρος) Kheirôn (Chirôn, Χείρων) taught medicine to Asklipiós (Asclepius, Ἀσκληπιός), the son of Apóllôn and the most renowned physician after him. Asklipiós in turn, taught his own sons and daughters medicine, a whole host of healers. Apóllôn is mentioned first in the Hippocratic Oath: "I swear by Apollo the physician, and Aesculapius (Ἀσκληπιός), and Health (Ὑγεία), and All-heal (Πανάκεια), and all the Gods and Goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath..." (trans. Francis Adams).

Apóllôn and death and his involvement with mankind

It is said that the Gods avoid death for whom it is a pollution. For example, it is not appropriate to bury a dead body within the walls or grounds of a temple. In reality, the actual pollution is the corpse itself. This is the tradition of respect for the Gods, but this convention is somewhat misunderstood. The truth is that the Gods cannot be polluted, despite the fact that the literature presents them as removing themselves directly before death; nonetheless, there is something to the belief. Apóllôn, however, is shown in the opening section of the Álkîstis (Alcêstes, Ἄλκηστις) of Evripídîs (Euripidês, Εὐριπίδης) bargaining with Death itself to extend the life of his mortal friend Ádmîtos (Admêtus, Ἄδμητος). While the play is, after all, a play, it nonetheless reflects on the character of the God who not only must deal with mortal death because of his role as the principal deity of medicine, but also reveals his willingness to become intimately involved in the affairs of man and individuals. This involvement is also demonstrated in the Orǽsteia (Oresteia, Ὀρέστεια) of Aiskhýlos (Aeschylus, Αἰσχύλος) in which he stands fiercely loyal to Orǽstîs (Orestês, Ὀρέστης) and struggles for mankind along with Zefs and Athîná, resulting in a great progress for mankind in the trial of Orǽstis.

The seat of Apóllôn on Earth is Dælphí

The principal seat of Apóllôn on Earth is Dælphí (Delphi, Δελφοί). It is the oracular seat (Θρόνος) of the God, the most famous oracle of the ancient world. In antiquity, the pronouncements of the oracle were viewed as the voice of Apóllôn himself.

Dælphí was once the dominion of Poseidóhn (Poseidôn, Ποσειδῶν) and Yi (Ge, Γῆ), but Apóllôn took Dælphí and gave Poseidóhn the island of Kalavría (Calauria, Καλαυρία) in exchange.

It was at Dælphí that Apóllôn slew the Pýthôn (Pythôn, Πύθων). In one version of the story, the Pýthôn tormented Apóllôn's mother Litóh at the behest of the Goddess Íra (Hêra, Ἥρα). According to this myth, because the Pýthôn was sacred to Yi (Earth), Zefs exiled Apóllôn, and coerced him to become a shepherd for nine years in the service of Ádmîtos, King of Thæssalía (Thessaly, Θεσσαλία). (There is another myth, probably more common, which attributes this "punishment" to Apóllôn's killing of the Kýklôps [Cyclôps, Κύκλωψ], who forged the weapon that killed Apóllôn's son, Asklipiós.)

In winter, Apóllôn departs from Dælphí to the land of the Ypærvóreii (the Hyperboreans, Υπερβόρειοι) who have great devotion to the God. During this time Diónysos assumes the throne. Apóllôn then returns to Dælphí in spring. Apóllôn shares the throne at Dælphí with Diónysos because of their relationship with Zefs: Apóllôn is the voice of Zefs on Earth. Diónysos is the action of Zefs on Earth and the fulfillment of his providence by means of his Mysteries.

Apóllôn also had oracular shrines at Dílos (Dêlos, Δήλος), Kláros (Claros, Κλάρος), Tǽnædos (Tenedos, Τένεδος), Dídyma (Δίδυμα), Pátara (Πάταρα), and elsewhere.

Apóllôn is a pastoral God and a great God of fruitfulness

Apóllôn protects flocks and cattle, and is a great God of fruitfulness, who, himself being a twin, is said to have the ability bestow twins (of cattle, lambs, goats, etc.): "Phoebus and Nomius we call him, ever since the time when by Amphrysus he tended the yokemares, fired with love of young Admetus. Lightly would the herd of cattle wax larger, nor would the she-goats of the flock lack young, whereon as they feed Apollo casts his eye; nor without milk would the ewes be nor barren, but all would have lambs at foot; and she that bare one would soon be the mother of twins."

Apóllôn cares for boys and children and has an interest in their education

"For men say that the young of all creatures cannot be quiet in their bodies or in their voices; they are always wanting to move and cry out; some leaping and skipping, and overflowing with sportiveness and delight at something, others uttering all sorts of cries. But, whereas the animals have no perception of order or disorder in their movements, that is, of rhythm or harmony, as they are called, to us, the Gods, who, as we say, have been appointed to be our companions in the dance, have given the pleasurable sense of harmony and rhythm; and so they stir us into life, and we follow them, joining hands together in dances and songs; and these they call choruses, which is a term naturally expressive of cheerfulness. Shall we begin, then, with the acknowledgment that education is first given through Apollo and the Muses?"

And in Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου at line 346, Apóllôn is said to have boys in his care, and who along with the Okæanídæs (Oceanids, Ὠκεανίδες, sea-nymphs.), the three-thousand daughters of Tîthýs (Têthys, Τηθύς) and Okæanós (Oceanus, Ὠκεανός), raise them to become men.

In iconography Apóllôn is portrayed as a youth of consummate beauty. His body exhibits perfect proportions, neither soft nor overly muscular.

"And ever beautiful is he and ever young: never on the girl cheeks of Apollo hath come so much as the down of manhood. His locks distil fragrant oils upon the ground; not oil of fat do the locks of Apollo distil but very Healing of All (Πανάκεια)."

He often carries a kithára (cithara = lyre, κιθάρα), or a bow and arrows, or sometimes a sword. Frequently Apóllôn is accompanied by the Mousai (Muses, Μοῦσαι). The head of Apóllôn is adorned with long golden hair and is typically crowned with laurel. His eyes are green. Sometimes he is shown holding a branch of myrtle, emblematic of prophecy, or an apple, the prize of the Pythian Games. He is sometimes accompanied by a raven, sacred to him, or the Lýkos (Λύκος), the wolf, a symbol of the power of Apóllôn. The wolf is known as the Æôsphóros (Eosphoros, Εωσφόρος), the herald of the Dawn or the Light of the Dawn because wolves are usually seen at the break of dawn.

"The character under which this God is represented, is often suggested by the taste and caprice of the sculptor or the poet. He appears at Lesbos (Λέσβος) holding a branch of myrtle, a tree considered by the ancients to be emblematical of divination: sometimes he holds an apple, the prize at the Pythian games. At Delos (Δήλος), he has a bow in his right hand, and in his left the three Graces (Χάριτες), each of them bearing an instrument of music, the lyre, the flute, and the Sýrinx (Σύρινξ). As the sun, he has a co*ck on his hand, is crowned with rays, and traverses the zodiac (ζῳδιᾰκός) in a car, drawn by four white horses, to which the names, Philogæus (Φιλόγαιος), Erythræus (Ερυθραίος), Ethon, Actæon (Ἀκταίων), and Pyrois, are variously given. At other times, he appears upon Parnassus (Παρνασσός), surrounded by the Muses (Μοῦσαι), with his lyre in his hand, and a wreath of laurel on his head. The Persians, who confounded Apollo with the sun, represent him with the head of a lion and human features, surmounted by a tiara, and holding by the horns an infuriated bull, an emblem of Egyptian origin. The Egyptians, who identify him with Orus (Horus), represent him as an infant, swathed in variegated clothes, holding in one hand a staff, which terminates in the head of a hawk, and in the other a whip with three thongs; but he is most generally represented as tall, beardless, in the beauty and vigour of youth, with flowing locks, holding in his hand a bow, and sometimes a lyre (κιθάρα), his head being crowned with laurel, and surrounded with beams of light. In the temple of Assyrian Juno (Ἥρα) at Hierapolis (Ἱεράπολις), he is seen, near the throne of the sun, as an old man with a long beard. The statue of the God which has acquired the greatest celebrity, is that of Apollo Belvidere, which represents him at the moment of having discharged the arrow from his bow. Homer (Ὅμηρος), and the most ancient mythologists, considered the sun and Apollo as two distinct divinities; whereas Plato (Πλάτων), Cicero, and the Greeks, generally identified them. Upon antique monuments and coins they are almost invariably distinguished from each other; and more recent inquiries into this part of mythology tend to confirm the propriety of the distinction, ..."

“For the origin and completion are both in your care,

The cause of the blooming of all things; with your resonant lyre you harmonize the entire axis of the heavens,

At one time advancing to the lowest pitch,

And at another to the highest, at times in the Dorian mode,

You temper the entire axis; you keep the tribes of living creatures distinct,

You have mingled in harmony the share of all mortal men,

You have mixed an equal measure of winter and summer,

You have arranged the highest three strings in the winter, the lowest in the summer,

You are the seasonal Dorian flower of the lovely spring,

Thereupon the mortals celebrate and call you lord and

Pan, the two-horned God who sends the whistling winds,

Wherefore you bear the formative seal of the entire Kózmos.

"Gesner well observes, in his notes to this Hymn, that the comparison and conjunction of the musical and astronomical elements are most ancient; being derived from Orpheus and Pythagoras , to Plato. Now, according to the Orphic and Pythagoric doctrine, the lyre of Apollo is an image of the celestial harmony, or the melody caused by the orderly revolutions of the celestial spheres. But I cannot believe that Orpheus and Pythagoras considered this harmony as attended with sensible sounds, according to the vulgar acceptation of the word: for it is surely more rational to suppose, that they meant nothing more by the music of the spheres, than their harmonical proportions to each other. Indeed these wise men, to whom metaphors were familiar, may be easily conceived by vulgar sound and vulgar harmony to insinuate internal sound, and harmony subsisting in its origin and cause. Hence we may consider the souls of the celestial spheres, together with the soul of the world, as composing the choir of the nine Muses (ed. Mousai; Gr. Μοῦσαι) (who are called by the Platonists nine Syrens [ed. Seirínæs; Gr. Σειρῆνες]) and dancing in numerical order round Apollo the sun of the intellectual world. But these nine Muses are far different from the marine Syrens of the poets who, resident as it were in the sea of material delights, draw us aside by their alluring melody, from the paths of rectitude. For these are divine Syrens inviting us to the proper end of our nature; and forming from the eight tones of the eight spheres, one perfect and everlasting harmony.

"The following quotation from the Platonic Nichomachus (Νικόμαχος), Harm. i. p. 6. illustrates the meaning of the Hypate (Ὑπάτη) and Nete (Νεάτη), or the highest and lowest string. From the motion of Saturn (Κρόνος), (says he) 'The most remote of the planets, the appellation of the gravest sound, Hypate, is derived: but from the lunar motion, which is the lowest of all, the most acute sound is called νεάτη, Nete, or the lowest.' But Gesner observes, that a more ancient, and as it were archetypal appellation, is derived from the ancient triangular lyre, a copy of which was found among the pictures lately dug out of the ruins of Herculaneum; where the highest chord next to the chin of the musicians is the longest, and consequently (says he) the sound is the most grave. Gesner proceeds in observing, that the three seasons of the year are so compared together in a musical ratio, that Hypate signifies the Winter, Nete the Summer, and the Dorian measure represents the intermediate seasons, Spring and Autumn. Now the reason why the Dorian melody is assigned to the Spring, is because that measure wholly consists in temperament and moderation, as we learn from Plut. de Mus. p. 1136. E. and consequently is with great propriety attributed to the Spring, considered as placed between Summer and Winter; and gratefully tempering the fervent heat of the one, and the intense cold of the other."

The lýra of Orphéfs

"...and one may see among the stars the Lyre, its arms spread apart in heaven, with which in time gone by Orpheus charmed all that his music reached, making his way even to the ghosts of the dead and causing the decrees of hell to yield to his song. Wherefore it has honour in heaven and power to match its origin: then it drew in its train forests and rocks; now it leads the stars after it and makes off with the vast orb of the revolving sky."

"Next, with the rising of the (ed. constellation) Lyre, there floats forth from Ocean the shape of the tortoise-shell, which under the fingers of its heir gave forth sound only after death; once with it did Orpheus, Oeagrus' son, impart sleep to waves, feeling to rocks, hearing to trees, tears to Pluto, and finally a limit to death. Hence will come endowments of song and tuneful strings, hence pipes of different shapes which prattle melodiously, and whatever is moved to utterance by touch of hand or force of breath. The child of the Lyre will sing beguiling songs at the banquet, his voice adding mellowness to the wine and holding the night in thrall. Indeed, even when harassed by cares, he will rehearse some secret strain, tuning his voice to a stealthy hum; and, left to himself, he will ever burst into song which can charm no ears but his own. Such are the ordinances of the lyre..."

The above quotations from the ancient astrologer Marcus Manilius refer to the constellation Lýra and its effects in the affairs of the world. This grouping of stars was given this name by the astronomer Klávdios Ptolæmaios (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος); he named the constellation after the famous singer and mystic of our religion, Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς). The great Thæológos (Θεολόγος), as he is known, was given a lýra by Apóllôn; therefore, the lyre of Orphéfs is the lyre of Apóllôn. The conception of the lyre of Apóllôn above us in the heavens brings to mind other celestial ideas associated with the power of music and the mystical kithára, now associated with Orphéfs, the Apollonian soul who most exemplified his father.

We have a note from a scholiast on Virgil which talks of the lyre of Orphéfs: "But some say that Orpheus' lyre had seven strings corresponding to the seven circles of heaven."

This would seem to refer to the divisions of the heavens, i.e., the sky, where it was believed that the divine beings dwelled, but the quotation goes on to say: "Varro says there was an Orphic book about summoning the soul, called the Lyre. It is said that souls need the cithara in order to ascend."

This would imply that the music of the kithára of Apóllôn has the ability to cause a transformation in the soul, enabling it to ascend or progress. In antiquity, it was generally believed that the earth was the center of the universe, but the idea was that our planet was the grossest part, not the most important. What was above the earth was not merely more elevated, but it was the realm of divine beings. The heavens were believed to produce musical tones and one means to access the divine was through music which is in harmony with these realms. This is described in a composition by Cicero known as the dream of Scipio, being a dream that Africanus is supposed to actually have experienced: " What is this loud and agreeable sound that fills my ears?" "That is produced," he replied, "by the onward rush and motion of the spheres themselves; the intervals between them, though unequal, being exactly arranged in a fixed proportion, by an agreeable blending of high and low tones various harmonies are produced; for such mighty motions cannot be carried on so swiftly in silence; and Nature has provided that one extreme shall produce low tones while the other gives forth high. Therefore this uppermost sphere of heaven, which bears the stars, as it revolves more rapidly, produces a high, shrill tone, whereas the lowest revolving sphere, that of the Moon, gives forth the lowest tone; for the earthly sphere, the ninth, remains ever motionless and stationary in its position in the centre of the universe. But the other eight spheres, two of which move with the same velocity, produce seven different sounds, ---a number which is the key of almost everything. Learned men, by imitating this harmony on stringed instruments and in song, have gained for themselves a return to this region, as others have obtained the same reward by devoting their brilliant intellects to divine pursuits during their earthly lives."

The important point being that the mystical lýra is not merely an instrument for pleasure and amusem*nt, but that it has a deeper function: to enable the listener to access the divine and that this instrument is the possession of Apóllôn and Apollonian souls such as Orphéfs.

The source of genuine oracle is Zefs (Ζεύς), for which he is known by the epithet Panomphaios (Πανομφαῖος), as says Ómiros (Homer, Ὅμηρος) in the epic poem, Iliás (The Iliad, Ἰλιάς):

"Beside the beautiful altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn where the Achaeans were used to offer sacrifice to Zeus from whom all omens come (Πανομϕαίῳ)."

Why, as Ómiros states, do all oracles come from Zefs? ...for many reasons, not the least of which is that he has dominion over and complete knowledge of Destiny, which he shares with and administers through the Mírai (Moerae, Μοῖραι), the Fates. Zefs is Ýpatos (Ὕπατος), the highest, supreme deity, who even holds sway over the lives of mortals and the course of events.

Since oracle comes from Zefs himself, a most important divinity, it is necessary to understand how it is used and not used in Ællinismόs (Hellenismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion.

Oracle was first spoken by Earth and the gift of oracle was given to Thǽmis (Themis, Θέμις) and passed down, eventually becoming the possession of Apóllôn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων), who holds it permanently.

Thǽmis (Themis, Θέμις) is the daughter of Ouranós (Uranus, Οὐρανός) and Yi (Ge = Earth, Γῆ). Ouranós is a pre-form of Zefs. Thǽmis is the face and voice of divine Law and with her oracular power reveals it to mortals. The Orphic hymn to Thǽmis does not speak of her dominion over Law and Justice, the dominions of which are usually associated with her, but, rather, speaks of her oracular ability; this oracular ability, however, is intimately connected with Law and Justice, as is elaborated by Diódohros Sikælióhtis (Diodorus Siculus, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης) in his Library of History:

"Themis, the myths tell us, was the first to introduce divinations and sacrifices and ordinances which concern the Gods, and to instruct men in the ways of obedience to laws and of peace. Consequently men who preserve what is holy with respect to the Gods and the laws of men are called ‘law-guardians’ (θεσμοϕύλακας) and ‘law-givers’ (θεσμοθέτας), and we say that Apollo at the moment when he is to return the oracular responses, is ‘issuing laws and ordinances’ (θεμιστεύειν), in view of the fact that Themis was the discoveress of oracular responses."

What is the source of the oracles of Thǽmis? The Homeric hymn to Zefs states that he...

"...whispers words of wisdom to Themis as she sits leaning towards him."

Thǽmis received the oracle from her mother Yi (Earth). Thǽmis then gave the oracle to Apóllôn (Ἀπόλλων) for which he is known by the epithet Loxías (Λοξίας), the prophet and interpreter of Zefs. Some sources say that she first gave it to Phívi (Phoebe, Φοίβη) who then gave it to Apóllôn:

The Pythia speaks: "First, in this prayer, of all the Gods I name

The prophet-mother Earth; and Themis next,

Second who sat-for so with truth is said-

On this her mother's shrine oracular.

Then by her grace, who unconstrained allowed,

There sat thereon another child of Earth-

Titanian Phoebe. She, in after time,

Gave o'er the throne, as birthgift to a God,

Phoebus, who in his own bears Phoebe's name.

He from the lake and ridge of Delos' isle

Steered to the port of Pallas' Attic shores,

The home of ships; and thence he passed and came

Unto this land and to Parnassus' shrine.

And at his side, with awe revering him,

There went the children of Hephaestus' seed,

The hewers of the sacred way, who tame

The stubborn tract that erst was wilderness.

And all this folk, and Delphos, chieftain-king

Of this their land, with honour gave him home;

And in his breast Zeus set a prophet's soul,

And gave to him this throne, whereon he sits,

Fourth prophet of the shrine, and, Loxias hight,

Gives voice to that which Zeus his sire decrees."

The important point is that Thǽmis had the oracle and it was at last given to Apóllôn and that by this oracle, Apóllôn is "the spokesman for his father, Zeus."

"... Apollo learned the art of prophecy from Pan (Πᾶν), the son of Zeus and Hybris (Ὕβρεως in the text), and came to Delphi (Δελφοί), where Themis at that time used to deliver oracles; and when the snake Python (Πύθων), which guarded the oracle, would have hindered him from approaching the chasm, he killed it and took over the oracle." [5

Thus Thǽmis is a pre-form of Apóllôn, and Apóllôn, like Thǽmis, speaks the will of his father:

"...for Apollo hath power, for that he sitteth on the right hand of Zeus." [6]

This image of Apóllôn sitting on the right hand of Zefs (Ζεύς), Sympárædros (Συμπαρεδρος = joint-throne-holder) to Zefs, can be likened to that of Thǽmis receiving Zefs' whispered words, making Apóllôn the chief minister of Nómos, (Νόμος) the manifestation of the Law and Justice of Zefs. Thus, oracle is intimately connected with Law, Justice, and the will of Zefs, the father of Gods and man. Therefore, oracle and how it is used is no small matter. In ancient times, Apóllôn spoke the mind of Zefs by means of the Pythía (Πυθία) at the sanctuary of Dælphí (Delphi, Δελφοί). The Pythía was merely the vehicle for Apóllôn, as the God himself is the true Oracle of Dælphí (Manteio tôn Dælphóhn, Μαντείο των Δελφών) and Apóllohn speaks the very will of Zefs himself, for which he is called the genuine Mántis (Μάντῐς), the Prophet, because he knows and speaks the mind of Zefs (Ζεύς).

Near the conclusion of the Homeric hymn to to Ærmís (Hermes, Ἑρμῆς), Apóllôn says to his brother:

"...μαντείην δέ, ϕέριστε, διοτρεϕές, ἣν ἐρεείνεις, οὔτε σὲ θέσϕατόν ἐστι δαήμεναι οὔτε τιν' ἄλλον ἀθανάτων· τὸ γὰρ οἶδε Διὸς νόος·"

"But as for sooth-saying, noble, heaven-born child, of which you ask, it is not lawful for you to learn it, nor for any other of the deathless Gods: only the mind of Zeus knows that."

Apóllôn goes on to say that he reserves the power of oracle to himself:

"I am pledged and have vowed and sworn a strong oath that no other of the eternal Gods save I should know the wise-hearted counsel of Zeus."

Further, the God warns people who might consult soothsayers with these words:

"But whoso shall trust to idly-chattering birds and shall seek to invoke my prophetic art contrary to my will, and to understand more than the eternal Gods, I declare that he shall come on an idle journey..."

If Apóllôn says that it is not lawful for a God to learn the art of divination, so much more for a mortal.

Returning to the text, Apóllôn goes on to say a most unusual thing:

"There are certain holy ones, sisters born---three virgins gifted with wings: Their heads are besprinkled with white meal, and they dwell under a ridge of Parnassus. These are teachers of divination apart from me, the art which I practised while yet a boy following herds, though my father paid no heed to it. From their home they fly now here, now there, feeding on honey-comb and bringing all things to pass. And when they are inspired through eating yellow honey, they are willing to speak truth; but if they be deprived of the Gods' sweet food, then they speak falsely."

In the hymn, Apóllôn definitively connects divination with oracle (oracle in Greek is khrismós, χρησμός), for he uses the word "sooth-saying" (μαντείην in the ancient text) in regard to asking for an ability which is forbidden [8] and that soothsaying infringes on his oracular dominion, for Apóllôn states that "only the mind of Zeus knows it" and that "no other of the eternal Gods save I should know the wise-hearted counsel of Zeus." This prohibition can be assumed to apply even more so to mortals. These words are worthy of repetition and grave deliberation. The most important oracular sanctuary in the ancient world was Dælphí (Delphi, Δελφοί), which was the geographical heart of Ællinismόs as it was thought to be the center of the world. Dælphí is the principal seat of Apóllôn where oracles were delivered by a priestess called the Pythía (Πυθία), who sat upon a tripod and uttered answers to questions. These came in the form of riddles which were somewhat interpreted by priests. Ultimately, it was up to the recipient to decipher the meaning of the oracle, and this was determined by their virtue, for Apóllôn uses his oracular power to both assist and impair mankind:

"As for men, I will harm one and profit another, sorely perplexing the tribes of unenviable men."

It was universally accepted that the oracles delivered by the Pythía were from Apóllôn himself, and, as explained above, the authority of this mighty God is based on his perfect knowledge of the will of his father, Ýpatos (Supreme, Ὕπατος) Zefs. The Oracle of Dælphí was consulted by all who were able to do so, rulers and common folk, sometimes journeying great distances to have their questions answered. These oracles figure prominently in the history of the ancient world as momentous decisions were made based upon the advice received; there are several hundreds of these which have been preserved. There were many other oracular centers in antiquity; some of the more notable include the following, grouped according to the deity associated with the sanctuary:

Apóllôn: The sanctuary at Dídyma (Δίδυμα) was an oracular shrine of Apóllôn Philísios (Philesius, Φιλήσιος), Apollo the amicable. The oracles given there were interpreted by priests after having been delivered by a priestess who sat above a sacred spring. The entire proceedings were conducted by the priestly Vrángkhidai (Branchidae, Βράγχιδαι), descendants of Vrángkhos (Branchos, Βράγχος), a beautiful youth to whom Apóllôn gave the gift of prophecy. And there were more oracular sanctuaries dedicated to Apóllôn, those at Ávai (Abae, Ἄβαι) and Dílos (Delos, Δήλος), as well as many others. Zefs: At Dohdóhna (Dodona, Δωδώνᾱ), the sanctuary was dedicated to Zefs and Dióhni (Dione, Διώνη), and the oracles were construed from the sounds of the rustling leaves of oak, a tree sacred to Zefs. This place is regarded as the oldest oracular temple complex of the ancient Hellenic world. The sanctuary of Zefs at Olympía (Ολυμπία) was also an oracular shrine. The sanctuary of Zefs-Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in Egypt was another notable source of oracles; it was visited by Alǽxandros (Alexander the Great, Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας) as he journeyed east.

Etherial father, mighty Titan, hear,

Great sire of Gods and men, whom all revere:

Endu'd with various council, pure and strong,

To whom perfection and decrease belong.

Consum'd by thee all forms that hourly die,

By thee restor'd, their former place supply;

The world immense in everlasting chains,

Strong and ineffable thy pow'r contains;

Father of vast eternity, divine,

O mighty Saturn, various speech is thine:

Blossom of earth and of the starry skies,

Husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wise.

Obstetric Nature, venerable root,

From which the various forms of being shoot;

No parts peculiar can thy pow'r enclose,

Diffus'd thro' all, from which the world arose,

O, best of beings, of a subtle mind,

Propitious hear to holy pray'rs inclin'd;

The sacred rites benevolent attend,

And grant a blameless life, a blessed end.

"For he (ed. the Dimiourgós = Demiurge, Δημιουργός) divides the soul into parts, harmonizes the divided parts, and renders them concordant with each other. But in effecting these things, he energizes at one and the same time Dionysiacally [i.e. Bacchically] and Apolloniacally. For to divide, and produce wholes into parts, and to preside over the distribution of forms, is Dionysiacal; but to perfect all things harmonically, is Apolloniacal. As the Demiurgus, therefore, comprehends in himself the cause of both these Gods, he both divides and harmonizes the soul. For the hebdomad (= seven, ἑβδομάς) is a number common to both these divinities, since theologists (Orphic) also say that Bacchus (Βἀκχος) was divided into seven parts.

You will inevitably grow, Zidine.

Gaea’s Orphic Hymn:

Nature, all parent, ancient, and divine,

O Much-mechanic mother, art is thine;

Heav'nly, abundant, venerable queen,

In ev'ry part of thy dominions seen.

Untam'd, all-taming, ever splendid light,

All ruling, honor'd, and supremly bright.

Immortal, first-born, ever still the same,

Nocturnal, starry, shining, glorious dame.

Thy feet's still traces in a circling course,

By thee are turn'd, with unremitting force.

Pure ornament of all the pow'rs divine,

Finite and infinite alike you shine;

To all things common and in all things known,

Yet incommunicable and alone.

Without a father of thy wond'rous frame,

Thyself the father whence thy essence came.

All-flourishing, connecting, mingling soul,

Leader and ruler of this mighty whole.

Life-bearer, all-sustaining, various nam'd,

And for commanding grace and beauty fam'd.

Justice, supreme in might, whose general sway

The waters of the restless deep obey.

Ætherial, earthly, for the pious glad,

Sweet to the good, but bitter to the bad.

All-wife, all bounteous, provident, divine,

A rich increase of nutriment is thine;

Father of all, great nurse, and mother kind,

Abundant, blessed, all-spermatic mind:

Mature, impetuous, from whose fertile seeds

And plastic hand, this changing scene proceeds.

All-parent pow'r, to mortal eyes unseen,

Eternal, moving, all-sagacious queen.

By thee the world, whose parts in rapid flow,

Like swift descending streams, no respite know,

On an eternal hinge, with steady course

Is whirl'd, with matchless, unremitting force.

Thron'd on a circling car, thy mighty hand

Holds and directs, the reins of wide command.

Various thy essence, honor'd, and the best,

Of judgement too, the general end and test.

Intrepid, fatal, all-subduing dame,

Life-everlasting, Parca, breathing flame.

Immortal, Providence, the world is thine,

And thou art all things, architect divine.

O blessed Goddess, hear thy suppliant's pray'r,

And make my future life, thy constant care;

Give plenteous seasons, and sufficient wealth,

And crown my days with lasting, peace and health.

σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 28c (I 312, 26 Diehl):

αἰθέρος εὐρείης ἠδ' οὐρανοῦ άγλαὸν ὕψος,

πόντου τ' ἀτρυγέτου γαίης τ' ἐρικυδέος ἕδρη,

Ὠκεανός τε μέγας καὶ νείατα Τάρταρα γαίης

καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ πόντος ἀπείριτος ἄλλα τε πάντα

πάντες τ' ἀθάνατοι μάκαρες θεοί ἠδὲ θέαιναι,

ὅσσα τ' ἔην γεγαῶτα καὶ ὕστερον ὁππός' ἔμελλεν, ἐνγένετο, Ζηνὸς δ' ἐνὶ γαστέρι σύρρα πεφύκει. (v. fr. 169)

"the luminous summit of immense aithír and heaven, the seat of the barren sea and illustrious earth, great Ocean and deep Tártaros (Τάρταρος) beneath the earth, and rivers and the limitless sea and all other, all the deathless happy Gods and Goddesses, all that existed and all that will to come to be, all come about and bestrewn in the belly of Zefs (Ζεὺς).”

Is the Kózmos (Κόσμος) good? Is the Kózmos evil? At its most fundamental level, the Kózmos is neither good nor evil, these ideas being a point of view only, a perspective. The Universe IS. There is no evil nor good in Nature. From another perspective, the natural state can be defined as Good. That which deviates from Natural Law strays into false concepts of reality which could be defined as delusion or ignorance. A sentient being who has erroneous views of reality has the potential to act based on such views. Gross acts that violate natural law, acts such as enslaving others, murder, torture etc. are acts of a deviant mind, acts of stupidity and ignorance. Such acts could be defined as 'evil' and are symbolically represented by darkness, because in darkness we cannot see. As darkness is the absence of light, so 'evil' is the manifestation of the absence of an accurate perception of reality, ignorance.

The Gods are beings of great light.

The Gods are in harmony with nature. Their understanding reflects this harmony, as well as their action in the Kósmos. As darkness symbolizes ignorance and delusion, light symbolizes wisdom, understanding, and knowledge. Thus, the Gods enlighten the universe with their wisdom and understanding. There is nothing dark or evil in them. Evil is small thinking involving great ignorance; it is the absence of something. The Gods are highly evolved beings whose thinking is vast, enlightened, and full, the exact opposite of evil. Their vision is accurate and based on a great progression of the soul. Because of the qualities of the Gods...harmony with nature, wisdom and knowledge, and many other surpassing virtues...because of these, the Gods are defined as Good.

DIOGǼNIS LAǼRTIOS (Diogenes Laertius, Διογένης Λαέρτιος), relating the views of the school of Zínôn (Zeno, Ζήνων):

"They also say that God is an animal immortal, rational, perfect, and intellectual in his happiness, unsusceptible of any kind of evil, having a foreknowledge of the world and of all that is in the world; however, that he has not the figure of a man; and that he is the creator of the universe, and as it were, the Father of all things in common, and that a portion of him pervades everything...."

(Βίοι καὶ γνῶμαι τῶν ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εὐδοκιμησάντων Διογένους Λαερτίου Book 7 Ζήνων Section 72, trans. C. D. Yonge, 1828 [R.D. Hicks numbers this passage 7.147]).

IÁMVLIKHOS (Iamblichus, Ἰάμβλιχος):

"For it is absurd to search for good in any direction other than from the Gods. Those who do so resemble a man who, in a country governed by a king, should do honor to one of his fellow-citizens who is a magistrate, while neglecting him who is the ruler of them all. Indeed, this is what the Pythagoreans thought of people who searched for good elsewhere than from God. For since He exists as the lord of all things, it must be self-evident that good must be requested of Him alone." (Ιαμβλίχου Χαλκιδέως περί βίου Πυθαγορικού λόγος 18, trans. Thomas Taylor)

KHALDAIAN ORACLES:

Πάντα γὰρ ἀνθρώποισι Θεοῦ πέλει ἀγλαὰ δῶρα· εἴτ΄ ἀγαθόν τι πέφυκε καὶ ὄλβιον͵ εἴ τι φέριστον, εἴ τι ἐραστόν͵ πᾶσι Θεοῦ καλὰ δῶρα τέτυκται. (Didymus, De Trinitate, III, 28; P. G., 39, 945 c-d) “For all beautiful gifts come to mankind from God; accordingly, he has brought forth something good and happy, whether it be something excellent, or something lovely. Beautiful gifts from God are made ready for all.’ ” (trans. by the author)

PLÁTÔN (Plato, Πλάτων):

"Whereas, the truth is that God is never in any way unrighteous--he is perfect righteousness; and he of us who is the most righteous is most like him." (Θεαίτητος Πλάτωνος 176, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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"Let me tell you then why the creator made this world of generation. He was good (ed. Plátohn's exact words: agathós in; Gr. ἀγαθὸς ἦν), and the good can never have any jealousy of anything. And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should be as like himself as they could be. This is in the truest sense the origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on the testimony of wise men: God desired that all things should be good and nothing bad, so far as this was attainable." (Τίμαιος Πλάτωνος 29d-e, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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"Then God, if he be good (ed. the text again is using the word agathós, Gr. ἀγαθός), is not the author of all things, as the many assert, but he is the cause of a few things only and not of most things that occur to men. For few are the goods of human life, and many are the evils, and the good is to be attributed to God alone; of the evils the causes are to be sought elsewhere, and not in him." (Πολιτεία Πλάτωνος 2.379, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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"For I maintain that the true life should neither seek for pleasures, nor, on the other hand, entirely avoid pains, but should embrace the middle state, which I just spoke of as gentle and benign, and is a state which we by some divine presage and inspiration rightly ascribe to God." (Νόμοι Πλάτωνος 7.792e, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

PLÍTHOHN (Plethon; Gr. Πλήθων):

Νόμοι μὲν δή, οὕς ὡς μάλιστα πρὸς τῶν ἀεὶ θείων ἀνδρῶν γενομένων παρειλήφαμεν, οἵδε εἰσί· Θεοὺς εἶναι σύμπασαν τὴν κρείττω τε καὶ μακαριωτέραν ἢ κατ' ἄνθρωπον φύσιν, οὕς δὴ καὶ ἀνθρώπων τῇ ἀγαθῶν τῶν σφετέρων περιουσίᾳ προνοεῖν, κακοῦ μὲν οὐδ' ὁτουοῦν οὐδενός, τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἁπάντων αὐτοὺς ὄντας τοὺς αἰτίους, εἱμαρμένη τε ἀμεταστρόφῳ καὶ ἀπαρατρέπτῳ τὸ ἀεὶ βέλτιστον ἐκ τῶν ἐνόντων ἑκάστοις ἀπονέμοντας. Εἶναί τε αὐτοὺς πλείους μέν, οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς δὲ θεότητι. Ἀλλὰ μέγιστον μὲν καὶ ἐξαίρετον ἕνα αὐτῶν, τῶν βασιλέα Δία, τῶν γε ἄλλων τῇ τε ἀξίᾳ καὶ φύσει ἀμηχάνῳ ὅσῳ διαΙφέροντα,

"The laws most certainly binding, those very ones which we received from a continuous progression of men who always become divine, these (laws) have been: that the Gods are altogether mighty and happy and thus producing man. Verily, it is they who do good for men and provide from their own plenitude. Indeed, they are never the source of anything evil, but are responsible for all which is good. While fate is unalterable and not able to be perverted, they always portion out the best to each. But indeed, are we ourselves complete? Not ourselves but divinity (is). But in truth the greatest and most exalted one of these (is) Zefs the king, (exalted over) those others by both the value and difference of their inexplicable great nature." (trans. by the author)

(Νόμοι Συγγραφή Πλήθωνος Γεμιστού Εʹ)

PRÓKLOS (Proclus, Πρόκλος):

"The first argument by which we make clear that the cosmos is everlasting is taken from the goodness of the creator. For no persuasion is firmer than the demonstration from [this] fact: the all resembles that [paradigm] by virtue of which reality came to [it], and from which its being is. That [resemblance] follows since the coming to be of the all is due to goodness alone. Hence [goodness] produces [the all], because it is inconceivable to say that his making is due to [anything] other than goodness, while not [at the same time saying that] he is sometimes good and sometimes not good. Thus [goodness] was always a cause for the being of the cosmos, because the coming into being of the cosmos was congruent with the being of the maker. For we do not find anything which in any way could have only made the world because it is good and yet not to be making it eternally while it is eternally good."

(De Aeternitate Mundi Πρόκλου, opening of Argument I, as published in On the Eternity of the World - De Aeternitate Mundi - Proclus by Helen S. Lang and A. D. Macro; Argument I translated from the Arabic by Jon McGinnis, Univ. of California Press [Berkeley - Los Angeles - London], 2001, where this quotation may be found on p. 157. This work, found only as quotations in a refutation by Ioánnis o Philóponos [Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος, 490-570 CE] of the Proklos' text, is also known as Eighteen Arguments in Favor of the Eternity of the World Against the Christians, as designated by the scholar Laurence Jay Rosán in The Philosophy of Proclus: The Final Phase of Ancient Thought, 1949, where this reference can be found on , p. 42, the text has been re-published by Prometheus Trust [Wiltshire UK] in 2009.)

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from The Theology of Plátôn of Próklos

CHAPTER XVI

Again, from another principle we may be able to apprehend the theological demonstrations in the Republic. For these are common to all the divine orders, similarly extend to all the discussion about the Gods, and unfold to us truth in uninterrupted connexion with what has been before said. In the second book of the Republic therefore, Socrates describes certain theological types for the mythological poets, and exhorts his pupils to purify themselves from those tragic disciplines, which some do not refuse to introduce to a divine nature, concealing in these as in veils the arcane mysteries concerning the Gods. Socrates therefore, as I have said, narrating the types and laws of divine fables, which afford this apparent meaning, and the inward concealed scope, which regards as its end the beautiful and the natural in the fictions about the Gods, - in the first place indeed, thinks fit to evince, according to our unperverted conception about the Gods and their goodness, that they are the suppliers of all good, but the causes of no evil to any being at any time. In the second place, he says that they are essentially immutable, and that they neither have various forms, deceiving and fascinating, nor are the authors of the greatest evil lying, in deeds or in words, or of error and folly. These therefore being two laws, the former has two conclusions, viz. that the Gods are not the causes of evils, and that they are the causes of all good. The second law also in a similar manner has two other conclusions; and these are, that every divine nature is immutable, and is established pure from falsehood and artificial variety. All the things demonstrated therefore, depend on these three common conceptions about a divine nature, viz. on the conceptions about its goodness, immutability and truth. For the first and ineffable fountain of good is with the Gods; together with eternity, which is the cause of a power that has an invariable sameness of subsistence; and the first intellect which is beings themselves, and the truth which is in real beings.

CHAPTER XVII

That therefore, which has the hyparxis (ed. essential nature) of itself, and the whole of its essence defined in the good, and which by its very being produces all things, must necessarily be productive of every good, but of no evil. For if there was any thing primarily good, which is not God, perhaps some one might say that divinity is indeed a cause of good, but that he does not impart to beings every good. If, however, not only every God is good, but that which is primarily boniform (ed. responsive to the excellence of virtue) and beneficent is God, (for that which is primarily good will not be the second after the Gods, because every where, things which have a secondary subsistence, receive the peculiarity of their hyparxis from those that subsist primarily) - this being the case, it is perfectly necessary that divinity should be the cause of good, and of all such goods as proceed into secondary descents, as far as to the last of things. For as the power which is the cause of life, gives subsistence to all life, as the power which is the cause of knowledge, produces all knowledge, as the power which is the cause of beauty, produces every thing beautiful, as well the beauty which is in words, as that which is in the phænomena, and thus every primary cause produces all similars from itself and binds to itself the one hypostasis (ed. underlying substance) of things which subsist according to one form, - after the same manner I think the first and most principal good, and uniform hyparxis, establishes in and about itself, the causes and comprehensions of all goods at once. Nor is there any thing good which does not possess this power from it, nor beneficent which being converted to it, does not participate of this cause. For all goods are from thence produced, perfected and preserved; and the one series and order of universal good, depends on that fountain. Through the same cause of hyparxis therefore, the Gods are the suppliers of all good, and of no evil. For that which is primarily good, gives subsistence to every good from itself, and is not the cause of an allotment contrary to itself; since that which is productive of life, is not the cause of the privation of life, and that which is the source of beauty is exempt from the nature of that which is void of beauty and is deformed, and from the causes of this. Hence, of that which primarily constitutes good, it is not lawful to assert that it is the cause of contrary progeny; but the nature of goods proceeds from thence undefiled, unmingled and uniform." (first paragraph only)

(Περὶ τῆς κατὰ Πλάτωνα θεολογίας Πρόκλου Book 1, Chapters 16 and 17, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1816. )

"The belief that the Gods are never the cause of any evil, it seems to me, contributes greatly to proper conduct towards the Gods. For evils proceed from vice alone, while the Gods are of themselves the causes of good, and of any advantage, though in the meantime we slight their beneficence, and surround ourselves with voluntary evils. That is why I agree with the poet who says, ----that mortals blame the Gods as if they were the causes of their evils! ----though not from fate, But for their crimes they suffer woe! (Ὀδύσσεια Ὁμήρου 1.32-34)

Many arguments prove that God is never in any way the cause of evil, but it will suffice to read [in the first book of the Republic] the words of Plato

"that as it is not the nature of heat to refrigerate, so the beneficent cannot harm; but the contrary."

Moreover, God being good, and from the beginning replete with every virtue, cannot harm nor cause evil to anyone; on the contrary, he imparts good to all willing to receive it, bestowing on us also such indifferent things as flow from nature, and which result in accordance with nature." (Ίεροκλῆς The Ethical Fragments of Hierocles 1, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1822)

ÓMIROS (Homer, Ὅμηρος):

Zeus speaking to assembled Gods:

"Perverse mankind! whose wills, created free,

Charge all their woes on absolute decree;

All to the dooming Gods their guilt translate,

And follies are miscall'd the crimes of fate.

When to his lust Ægysthus gave the rein,

Did fate, or we, the adulterous act constrain?

Did fate, or we, when great Atrides died,

Urge the bold traitor to the regicide?

Hermes I sent, while yet his soul remain'd

Sincere from royal blood, and faith profaned;

To warn the wretch, that young Orestes, grown

To manly years, should re-assert the throne,

Yet, impotent of mind, and uncontroll'd,

He plunged into the gulf which Heaven foretold."

Zeus speaking to the assembled Gods. (Ὀδύσσεια Ὁμήρου 1.37-52; trans. by Alexander Pope,1725-26)

PLÁTÔN (Plato, Ρλάτων):

Socrates: ...the friend of the Gods may be supposed to receive from them all things at their best, excepting only such evil as is the necessary consequence of former sins?

Glaucon: Certainly.

Socrates: Then this must be our notion of the just man, that even when he is in poverty or sickness, or any other seeming misfortune, all things will in the end work together for good to him in life and death: for the Gods have a care of any one whose desire is to become just and to be like God, as far as man can attain the divine likeness, by the pursuit of virtue?

Glaucon: Yes… (Πολιτεία Πλάτωνος 10.612e-613a, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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Socrates: "...no God is the enemy of man." (Θεαίτητος Πλάτωνος 151.d, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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ed. According to the Myth of Er, the life we were born into was chosen by ourselves. A man name Er has died in battle along with many others, but Er's body does not decay. Many days after his death, he revives and recounts in detail the activities he has witnessed in the afterlife: "When Er and the spirits arrived, their duty was to go at once to Lachesis (ed. one of Moirae, the Fates); but first of all there came a prophet who arranged them in order; then he took from the knees of Lachesis lots and samples of lives, and having mounted a high pulpit, spoke as follows: 'Hear the word of Lachesis, the daughter of Necessity. Mortal souls, behold a new cycle of life and mortality. Your genius will not be allotted to you, but you will choose your genius; and let him who draws the first lot have the first choice, and the life which he chooses shall be his destiny. Virtue is free, and as a man honours or dishonours her he will have more of less of her; the responsibility is with the chooser--God is justified.' When the Interpreter had thus spoken he scattered lots indifferently among them all, and each of them took up the lot which fell near him, all but Er himself (he was not allowed), and each as he took his lot perceived the number which he had obtained. Then the Interpreter placed on the ground before them the samples of lives; and there were many more lives than the souls present, and they were of all sorts. There were lives of every animal and of man in every condition. And there were tyrannies among them, some lasting out the tyrant's life, others which broke off in the middle and came to an end in poverty and exile and beggary; and there were lives of famous men, some who were famous for their form and beauty as well as for their strength and success in games, or, again, for their birth and the qualities of their ancestors; and some who were the reverse of famous for the opposite qualities. And of women likewise; there was not, however, any definite character in them, because the soul, when choosing a new life, must of necessity become different. But there was every other quality, and they all mingled with one another, and also with elements of wealth and poverty, and disease and health; and there were mean states also. And here, my dear Glaucon, is the supreme peril of our human state; and therefore the utmost care should be taken. Let each one of us leave every other kind of knowledge and seek and follow one thing only, if peradventure he may be able to learn and find some one who will make him able to learn and discern between good and evil, and so to choose always and everywhere the better life as he has opportunity. He should consider the bearing of all these things which have been mentioned severally and collectively upon virtue; he should know what the effect of beauty is when combined with poverty or wealth in a particular soul, and what are the good and evil consequences of noble and humble birth, of private and public station, of strength and weakness, of cleverness and dullness, and of all the natural and acquired gifts of the soul, and the operation of them when conjoined; he will then look at the nature of the soul, and from the consideration of all these qualities he will be able to determine which is the better and which is the worse; and so he will choose, giving the name of evil to the life which will make his soul more unjust, and good to the life which will make his soul more just; all else he will disregard....... "All the souls had now chosen their lives, and they went in the order of their choice to Lachesis, who sent with them the genius whom they had severally chosen, to be the guardian of their lives and the fulfiller of the choice: this genius led the souls first to Clotho (ed. one of the Fates), and drew them within the revolution of the spindle impelled by her hand, thus ratifying the destiny of each; and then, when they were fastened to this, carried them to Atropos (ed. one of the Fates), and when they had all passed, they marched on in a scorching heat to the plain of Forgetfulness, which was a barren waste destitute of trees and verdure; and then towards evening they encamped by the river of Unmindfulness, whose water no vessel can hold; of this they were all obliged to drink a certain quantity, and those who were not saved by wisdom drank more than was necessary; and each one as he drank forgot all things. Now after they had gone to rest, about the middle of the night there was a thunderstorm and earthquake, and then in an instant they were driven upwards in all manner of ways to their birth, like stars shooting." (Πολιτεία Πλάτωνος 10.617-622, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

PLOUTARKHOS (Plutarch, Πλούταρχος) Ploutarkhos (46-120 CE) is most famous for his biographies of famous Greeks and Romans, and also for his immense collection of essays called The Morals, but what is not so well known of him is that he was a priest of Apóllôn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων) at the God's greatest sanctuary and the naval of the world, Dælphí (Delphi, Δελφοί), which gives him an authority concerning the Gods which must be considered. Ploutarkhos believes that it is preferable to be an atheist than to think that the Gods are evil:

"Why, for my part, I should prefer that men should say about me that I have never been born at all, and that there is no Plutarch, rather than that they should say 'Plutarch is an inconstant fickle person, quick-tempered, vindictive over little accidents, pained at trifles.' " (Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· 14. Περὶ δεισιδαιμονίας [On Superstition, De superstitione) Section 10, 169f-170, trans. Frank Cole Babbitt, 1928.)

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"11. Is it, then, an unholy thing to speak meanly of the Gods, but not unholy to have a mean opinion of them? Or does the opinion of him who speaks malignly make his utterance improper? It is a fact that we hold up malign speaking as a sign of animosity, and those who speak ill of us we regard as enemies, since we feel that they must also think ill of us. You see what kind of thoughts the superstitious have about the Gods: they assume that the Gods are rash, faithless, fickle, vengeful, cruel, and easily offended; and, as a result, the superstitious man is bound to hate and fear the Gods. Why not, since he thinks that the worst of his ills are due to them, and will be due to them in the future? As he hates and fears the Gods, he is an enemy to them. And yet, though he dreads them, he worships them and sacrifices to them and besieges their shrines; and this is nothing surprising; for it is equally true that men give welcome to despots, and pay court to them, and erect golden statues in their honour, but in their hearts they hate them..." (Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· 14. Περὶ δεισιδαιμονίας [On Superstition, De superstitione) Section 11, 170d-e, trans. Frank Cole Babbitt, 1928)

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"...the ridiculous actions and emotions of superstition, its words and gestures, magic charms and spells, rushing about and beating of drums, impure purifications and dirty sanctifications, barbarous and outlandish penances and mortifications at the shrines---all these give occasion to some to say that it were better there should be no Gods at all than Gods who accept with pleasure such forms of worship, and are so overbearing, so petty, and so easily offended. "13. Would it not then have been better for those Gauls and Scythians to have had absolutely no conception, no vision, no tradition, regarding the Gods, than to believe in the existence of Gods who take delight in the blood of human sacrifice and hold this to be the most perfect offering and holy rite?" (Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· 14. Περὶ δεισιδαιμονίας [On Superstition, De superstitione) Section 12 & 13, 171b-c, trans. Frank Cole Babbitt)

THE GODS REWARD GOODNESS:

PLÁTÔN (Plato, Ρλάτων):

Glaucon: Yes, if he is like God he will surely not be neglected by him.

Socrates: And of the unjust may not the opposite be supposed?

Glaucon: Certainly.

Socrates: Such, then, are the palms of victory which the Gods give the just?

Glaucon: That is my conviction." (Πολιτεία Πλάτωνος 10.613, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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Socrates to the jurors, after he had been condemned to death: "Wherefore, O judges, be of good cheer about death, and know of a certainty, that no evil can happen to a good man, either in life or after death. He and his are not neglected by the Gods..." (Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους Πλάτωνος 41, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892)

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"Socrates: Then this must be our notion of the just man, that even when he is in poverty or sickness, or any other seeming misfortune, all things will in the end work together for good to him in life and death: for the Gods have a care of any one whose desire is to become just, and to be like God, as far as man can attain the divine likeness, by the pursuit of virtue? Glaucon: Certainly" (Πολιτεία Πλάτωνος 10.613, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892.)

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Plátôn and others warned about being misled by depictions of the Gods in the writings of ancient times. The mythology contains enormous richness and truth, but it must be understood that these truths are hidden in the stories. If the keys to the mythology are not understood correctly, the reader may come to false conclusions about the behavior of deities.

"The same authority tells us, as I have already mentioned, that he received his doctrines from Themistoclea, at Delphi. And Hieronymus says, that when he descended to the shades below, he saw the soul of Hesiod bound to a brazen pillar, and gnashing its teeth; and that of Homer suspended from a tree, and snakes around it, as a punishment for the things that they said of the Gods." (Βίοι καὶ γνῶμαι τῶν ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εὐδοκιμησάντων Διογένους Λαερτίου Book 8 Pythagóras, chapter XIX, trans. by C. D. Yonge, 1828 [R.D. Hicks numbers this passage 8.21])

THE GOODS AND THE ILLS: ALL the Goods were once driven out by the Ills from that common share which they each had in the affairs of mankind; for the Ills by reason of their numbers had prevailed to possess the earth. The Goods wafted themselves to heaven and asked for a righteous vengeance on their persecutors. They entreated Jupiter that they might no longer be associated with the Ills, as they had nothing in common and could not live together, but were engaged in unceasing warfare; and that an indissoluble law might be laid down for their future protection. Jupiter granted their request and decreed that henceforth the Ills should visit the earth in company with each other, but that the Goods should one by one enter the habitations of men. Hence it arises that Ills abound, for they come not one by one, but in troops, and by no means singly: while the Goods proceed from Jupiter, and are given, not alike to all, but singly, and separately; and one by one to those who are able to discern them. (Aesop's Fables, trans. George Fyler Townsend, 1871)

Ælefthæría (Freedom: Eleutheria, Ἐλευθερία. Pronounced ĕh-lĕf-thĕh-REE-ah)

Freedom is instinctual in all sentient beings and beloved of the Gods. It is a major principle in Ællînismόs (Hellênismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. As such, Ællînismόs is tolerant of a vast multitude of viewpoints. All the glorious Gods are free and they desire and promote this freedom for all. Since freedom is so fundamental to our religion, Ællînismόs does not and has never supported institutions such as slavery or the domination of peoples, despite the behavior of ancient civilizations. Slavery and any effort to impose bondage on others, is completely incompatible with the Hellenic religion. The foundation of Ællînismόs is securely grounded in freedom and tolerance. This can be demonstrated even in the manner in which we worship: we do not kneel or prostrate (προσκύνησις) as they do in other religions (although we do, of course, have the freedom to do so, if we so wish). Justice, the means to rectify imbalances of freedom in society, is upheld by all the Gods and is overseen by Zefs (Ζεὺς) himself. Justice is so highly esteemed that it is viewed as one of the Four Cardinal Virtues. The imposition of injustice is a violation of freedom and a transgression against the will of the Gods. Many other examples can be drawn where lack of virtue imposes bondage, not only on others, but on oneself as well. Freedom is a Natural Law and is particularly the dominion of Apóllôn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). Freedom is also very much associated with Diónysos (Διόνυσος). Both of these deities share the epithet ælefthǽrios (eleutherius, ἐλευθέριος) meaning liberator, he who makes free.

Freedom is the compassion of Zefs

In the Orphic theogony we learn that Zefs established a new generation of creatures --- our generation --- beings endowed with immortal souls like the Gods themselves, but whose bodies are subject to sickness, violence, and death. Through the process of reincarnation (παλιγγενεσία), our souls return in new bodies in an involuntary circle of births (κύκλος γενέσεως) replete with sorrows. Although we experience much beauty in our lives, the mortal condition is also inherently painful. This is the best possible world which could be created due to constraints of nature. Zefs is aware of this and devised a great plan to alleviate us from our misery; he conceived a mighty son, Diónysos, who is the fulfillment of his providence. Through his Mysteries, Diónysos frees us from the endless circle of births. The compassion of Zefs is freedom.

The Four Laws of Freedom

Freedom is a great and ancient law; it is never violated by the happy deathless Gods. There are four manifestations of this law which provide important guidance to the practice of our religion; these are called The Four Laws of Freedom (Τέσσαρες Νόμοι τῆς Ἐλευθερίας):

1. The happy, deathless Gods live in a state of freedom.

2. The Gods want us to have this same freedom.

3. Thus, the Gods never violate our freedom.

4. It is always wise to imitate the Gods, and, therefore, we should never violate the freedom of others and impose our will on them.

The Four Laws of Freedom provide solutions to many problems in our relationship with our fellows, for often, merely remembering these simple ideas will help us to choose a correct path in life and save us from many avoidable complications.

Lord Byron on Freedom:

It is not that I adulate the people: Without me, there are demagogues enough, And infidels, to pull down every steeple, And set up in their stead some proper stuff. Whether they may sow scepticism to reap hell, As is the Christian dogma rather rough, I do not know; --- I wish men to be free As much from mobs as kings --- from you as me.” (Lord Byron Don Juan Canto the Ninth XXV)

A human being is defined as a rational soul combined with a physical body. As such, Iamblichus places the soul under the fifth Parmenidean hypothesis: “irrational souls are “woven into” rational souls” (Kupperman 2014, 145).

Our souls are derived the divine Demiurge and common father of all, Zeus, through “the Whole Soul via the World Soul” (Kupperman 2014, 145). The divine Julian writes that as Zeus was setting all things in order, there fell from Him drops of sacred blood, and from these drops of divine blood arose the race of man (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307).

Ousia-Dunamis-Energia Triad[]

All beings, including human souls, can be analyzed into three:

  1. Their Essence/Substance (Ousia)
  2. Their Power (Dunamis)
  3. Their Activity (Energeia)

I. Essence[]

All beings have Essence/Substance (Ousia). The essence is a being’s inner-most or most fundamental self. The existence of human souls is lowest, “deficient, and relatively imperfect” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7) (Shaw 2014, 87).

Typically, an entity’s essence is difficult to access or even recognize. In humanity’s case, the difficulty is made worse.

Iamblichus follows Plato and the language of the Chaldean Oracles by dividing humanity into three different groups.

  1. The great herd of humanity, whose soul is combined with a body and self-identifies as that body
  2. The beginning theurgist and philosopher, whose soul is combined with a body and self-identifies as that body, however is midway to knowing their separateness.
  3. The theurgic sage, whose souls are the only ones who are fully and experientially aware of their ultimate separateness from the body which it inhabits.

The combined nature of the human soul, of humanity, is a unique trait of a unique kind of soul.

Where the soul comes from[]

Iamblichus writes that the human soul comes after Nous (the Celestial Demiurge). A soul is separate from all the greater kinds and is the mean between fully immaterial, indivisible beings and fully material, divisible ones. Further, the soul descends completely into a body upon incarnation, with none of it remaining outside of generation.

This tells us significant information about the nature of the soul.

  • Firstly, the soul depends from the level of Nous as it extends into the Psychic Cosmos. This makes the soul distinct from, inferior to, and dependent upon the rest of the greater kinds.
  • Although the human soul is connected to Nous it also exists on its own, separated from Nous beneath the World Soul, and so must participate in Nous in order to experience Intellect in its fullest. In this lower position, human souls are the mediators between the divine and physical realms and their inhabitants.
  • This recalls the divine Julian’s descriptions of King Helios as Celestial Demiurge as a mean between the Intelligible and sensible realms, leading and uniting these two otherwise separate levels. Just as the Celestial Demiurge leads the celestial realm, so too does the human soul participating Nous through demiurgic theurgy.

The soul descends by the will of the Gods for two reasons:

  • The soul’s descent is to complete creation in a uniform manner, as in accordance with Plato’s Timaeus.
  • The soul descends in order to manifest the life of the Gods in creation.

In both cases the will of the Gods is carried out by the soul in generation. Since the nature of the Gods is ultimately good, the descent of the soul is likewise good.

II. Power[]

Power (Dunamis) is an entity’s potential expression of its essence. Essentially, it’s what it can do. Human souls lack the power to “do all things, neither at one time, nor in an instant, nor uniformly” (Shaw 2014, 87) (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7).

The easiest way to understand an entity’s essence is through its powers and activities. Although the human soul eventually falls into generation and becomes incarnated into a physical body, the soul’s power only reside in the soul, and not the body and soul together. Some powers are expressed when the soul exists away from the body while others are expressed only when soul and body are conjoined. Further, incarnation causes some of the soul’s disincarnate powers to express differently while incarnate. This is in line with Plato’s Phaedo’s view of the soul’s ability to comprehend truth being lessened while incarnate.

Iamblichus’ De Mysteriis makes it clear that a human has two souls, one rational and one irrational.

  • The rational soul “Partak[es] of the power of the Demiurge” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.6, 321). In Plato’s Timaeus, the Celestial Demiurge creates what is immortal. Meaning that it is He is responsible for the creation of the rational soul.
  • The irrational soul, “is contributed to us from the circuit of the heavenly bodies” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.6, 321). Going back to Plato’s Timaeus: while the Celestial Demiurge creates what is immortal, it is the Gods under Him who create everything that is mortal in the soul, i.e., the irrational soul. Through the irrational soul our irrational powers become active, either stemming from irrational powers found in the rational soul itself or originating in the irrational soul. The Irrational Soul is the same thing as the Shade, as like the Irrational Soul the Shade lacks cognizance until it is empowered by offerings, and thus we can deduce that these faculties are not native to it.

Plato gives a metaphorical tripirate division of the rational soul. This is not to be taken literally; as the rational soul is only one part. However, it is convenient to divide the soul into three to better understand the soul’s relation to the virtues:

  • Reason: Which allows us to learn
  • Spirited: Which allows us to feel strong emotions such as anger
  • Appetitive: Which allows us to desire physical things

The soul’s actual powers, though, are different from the parts, and include:

  • Growth
  • Imagination
  • Perception
  • Opinion
  • Thought that moves the body
  • Desire for good and evil
  • Intellection
  • Memory or the mental retention of images

Just as the soul has a life alone and a life with the body, some of the soul’s powers are connected to one or the other of the soul’s modes of existence.

III. Activity[]

Activity (Energeia) is a soul’s power in action. Human souls have the nature to “incline and turn itself towards the things generated and governed by it” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7) (Shaw 2014, 87).

and can arise either from:

  • The soul itself
  • From the passions of the body
  • A combination of the two

All the causes of activities are the soul. We can’t attribute any activity to the body alone, even those that arise from bodily passions, because bodies are incapable of self-movement. We can think of the soul as the batteries of the body.

Iamblichus likens the One of the soul, the soul’s principle of unity and Intellect, to a ship’s helmsman, and a ship to a body:

  • The helmsman controls the ship and sets its course, even if wind and other factors influence the ship’s response to the helmsman’s command.
  • The ship has movements proper to it when controlled by the helmsman, but the helmsman (the One of the soul) has activities proper to it when separate from its ship. These include divine possession, immaterial thinking, and union with the divine.

Unlike the activities of the Gods and Archangels, human activities, which only occur when soul and body are conjoined, are disconnected from the essence and life of the soul. Specifically, these activities include “change, divisibility, corporeality dimensionality, and extension.” (Iamblichus De Anima, III.16, 43) Such activities cannot belong to the non-physical soul as it exists by itself, as they are immortal, unchanging and unextended.

Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 54 (from Damascius) (trans. West) (Greek hymns C3rd - C2nd B.C.):

"Originally there was Hydros (Water), he [Orpheus] says, and Mud, from which Ge (Gaea, the Earth) solidified: he posits these two as first principles, water and earth . . . The one before the two [Thesis, Creation], however, he leaves unexpressed, his very silence being anintimation of its ineffable nature. The third principle [Khronos (Chronos), Time] after the two was engendered by these--Ge (Earth) and Hydros (Water), that is--and was a Serpent (Drakon) with extra heads growing upon it of a bull and a lion, and a god's countenance in the middle; it had wings upon its shoulders, and its name was Khronos (Chronos, Unaging Time) and also Herakles (Heracles). United with it was Ananke (Inevitability, Compulsion), being of the same nature, or Adrastea, incorporeal, her arms extended throughout the universe and touching its extremities. I think this stands for the third principle, occuping the place of essence, only he [Orpheus] made it bisexual [as Phanes] to symbolize the universal generative cause. And I assume that the theology of the [Orphic] Rhapsodies discarded the two first principles (together with the one before the two, that was left unspoken) [i.e., the Orphics discarded the concepts of Thesis, Khronos and Ananke], and began from this third principle [Phanes] after the two, because this was the first that was expressible and acceptable to human ears. For this is the great Khronos (Unaging Time) that we found in it [the Rhapsodies], the father of Aither (Aether, Light) [upper air] and Khaos (Chaos, the Chasm) [lower air]. Indeed, in this theology too [the Hieronyman Rhapsodies], this Khronos (Time), the serpent has offspring, three in number: moist Aither (Aether, Light)--I quote--, unbounded Khaos (Chaos), and as a third, misty Erebos (Darkness) . . . Among these, he says, Khronos (Chronos, Time) generated an egg--this tradition too making it generated by Khronos, and born ‘among’ these because it is from these that the third Intelligible triad is produced [Protogonos-Phanes]. What is this triad, then? The egg; the dyad of the two natures inside it--male and female--[Ouranos (Uranus) and Gaia (Gaea), Heaven and Earth], and the plurality of the various seeds between; and thirdly an incorporeal god [Phanes] with golden wings on his shoulders, bulls' heads growing upon his flanks, and on his head a monstrous serpent, presenting the appearance of all kinds of animal forms . . . And the third god of the third triad this theology too celebrates as Protogonos (First-Born) [Phanes], and it calls him Zeus the order of all and of the whole world, wherefore he is also called Pan (All). So much this second genealogy supplies concerning the Intelligible principles."

Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 57 (from Athenogoras):

"The gods, as they [the Greeks] say, did not exist from the beginning, but each of them was born just as we are born . . . and Orpheus--who was the original inventor of the gods' names and recounted their births and said what they have all done, and who enjoys some credit among them as a true theologian, and is generally followed by Homer, above all about the gods--also making their first genesis from water: ‘Okeanos (Oceanus), who is the genesis of the all.’ For Hydros (Water) was according to him the origin of everything, and from Hydros (the Water) mud formed, and from the pair of them a living creature was generated with an extra head growing upon it of a lion, and another of a bull, and in the middle of them a god's countenance; its name was Herakles (Heracles) and Khronos (Chronos, Time). This Herakles generated a huge egg, which, being filled full, by the force of its engenderer was broken in two from friction. Its crown became Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven), and what had sunk downwards, Gaia (Gaea, Earth). There also came forth an incorporeal god [Protogonos-Phanes]."

[N.B. Athenogoras afterwards goes on to describe the birth of the Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires), the Kyklopes (Cyclopes) and the Titanes, the castration of Ouranos (Uranus), etc.]

Orphic, Theogonies Fragments 101 - 102 (from Proclus):

"[Phanes] placed his distinguished sceptre [the rulership of the universe] in the hands of goddess Nyx (Night), that she hold royalty . . . [Nyx] holding in her hands the glorious sceptre of Erikepaios (Ericepaeus) [Phanes]."

Orphica, Theogonies Fragment (from the Deveni Papyrus):

"Zeus, when from his father the prophesied rule and strength in his hands he took and the glorious daimon . . . the god [Phanes] who first sprang forth into the Aither (Light).

Kronos (Cronus, Time) who did a mighty deed to Ouranos (Uranus, Sky), son of Nyx (Night), who became king first of all; following him again Kronos, and then Zeus the contriver. Zeus when, from his father the prophecy having heard, strength in his hands he took, and the glorious daimon [Phanes], the reverend one, he swallowed, who first sprang forth into the Aither.

[So Zeus swallowed the body] of the Firstborn king [Phanes], the reverend one. And with him all the immortals became one, the blessed gods and goddesses and rivers and lovely springs and everything else that then existed: he became the only one."

Orphica, Rhapsodies Fragment 66:

"This Khronos (Chronos, Unaging Time), of immortal resource, begot Aither (Aether, Light) [upper air] and great Khaos (Chaos, the Chasm) [lower air], vast this way and that, no limit below it, no base, no place to settle. Then great Khronos fashioned from (or in) divine Aither (Aether) a bright white egg [from which Phanes was born]."

Orphica, Rhapsodies Fragment 167:

"So then, [Zeus] by engulfing Erikepaios (Ericepaeus) the Firstborn [Phanes], he had the body of all things in his belly, and he mixed into his own limbs the god's power and strength. Because of this, together with him, everything came to be again inside Zeus, the broad air and the lofty splendour of heaven, the undraining sea and earth's glorious seat, great Okeanos (Oceanus) and the lowest Tartara of the earth, rivers and boundless sea and everything else, and all the immortal blessed gods and goddesses, all that had existed and all that was to exist afterwards became one and grew together in the belly of Zeus. After he had hidden them all away, again into the glad light from his holy heart he brought them up, performing mighty acts."

Orphica, Epicuras Fragment (from Epiphanius):

"And he [Epicurus] says that the world began in the likeness of an egg, and the Wind [Khronos (Time) and Ananke (Inevitability) entwined?] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then began to constrict nature. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force, it divided the world into the two hemispheres [Ouranos and Gaia, heaven and earth]."

Orphica, Epicuras Fragment (from Epiphanius):

"And he [Epicurus] says that the world began in the likeness of an egg, and the Wind [the entwined forms of Khronos (Chronos, Time) and Ananke (Inevitability)] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then began to constrict nature. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force, it divided the world into the two hemispheres, and after that the atoms sorted themselves out, the lighter and finer ones in the universe floating above and becoming the Bright Air [Aither (Aether)] and the most rarefied Wind [probably Khaos (Chaos, Air)], while the heaviest and dirtiest have veered down, become the Earth (Ge) [Gaia], both the dry land and the fluid waters [Pontos the Sea]. And the atoms move by themselves and through themselves within the revolution of the Sky and the Stars, everything still being driven round by the serpentiform wind [of Khronos and Ananke]."

Orphica, Argonautica 12 ff (trans. West) (Greek epic C4th to C6th A.D.):

"Firstly, ancient Khaos's (Chaos') stern Ananke (Inevitability), and Khronos (Chronos, Time), who bred within his boundless coils Aither (Aether, Light) and two-sexed, two-faced, glorious Eros [the primordial Eros], ever-born Nyx's (Night's) father, whom latter men call Phanes, for he first was manifested."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. 1 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.):

"Ere land and sea and the all-covering sky were made, in the whole world the countenance of nature was the same, all one, well named Chaos, a raw and undivided mass, naught but a lifeless bulk, with warring seeds of ill-joined elements compressed together. No Titan [Helios the Sun] as yet poured light upon the world, no waxing Phoebe [Selene the Moon] her crescent filled anew, nor in the ambient air yet hung the earth, self-balanced, equipoised, nor Amphitrite's [the Sea's] arms embraced the long far margin of the land. Though there were land and sea and air, the land no foot could tread, no creature swim the sea, the air was lightless; nothing kept its form, all objects were at odds, since in one mass cold essence fought with hot, and moist with dry, and hard with soft and light with things of weight. This strife a God (Deus) [probably Phanes], with nature's blessing, solved; who severed land from sky and sea from land, and from the denser vapours set apart the ethereal sky; and, each from the blind heap resolved and freed, he fastened in its place appropriate in peace and harmony. The fiery weightless force of heaven's vault flashed up and claimed the topmost citadel; next came the air in lightness and in place; the thicker earth with grosser elements sank burdened by its weight; lowest and last the girdling waters pent the solid globe. So into shape whatever god it was reduced the primal matter and prescribed its several parts. Then first, to make the earth even on every side, he rounded it into a mighty disc, then bade the sea extend and rise under the rushing winds, and gird the shores of the encircled earth. Springs too he made and boundless fens and lakes, and rivers hemmed in winding banks to flow, which, in their diverse journeyings, sometimes the earth absorbs, sometimes they reach the sea and in its broad domain, instead of banks, with new-found freedom beat upon the shores. He bade the plains spread wide, the valleys sink, the craggy mountains rise, the forest trees don their green leaves; and as the vault of heaven has five divisions, two zones on the right, two on the left, and hottest burns the fifth, with that same number Providence divine parcelled in zones the solid earth below. The midmost uninhabitable heat claims for its own; two lie clothed deep in snow; two, in between, were given a temperate clime where warmth and cold combine in harmony. The air hangs high above them, weightier than the empyrean in the same degree as earth than water. There he bade the mists and there the clouds to have their dwelling-place, and thunder that should shake the hearts of men, and lightning flashing through the freezing gales. The World's Creator (Fabricator Mundi) [probably Phanes] did not grant the Venti (Winds) [Anemoi] full freedom of the sky; who, even so, though each in separate regions rules his blasts, can well nigh tear the world apart, so fierce is brother's strife . . .

Scarce had he thus all things in finite bounds divided when the Sidera (Stars) [Astra], in darkness blind long buried, over all the spangled sky began to gleam; and, that no part or place should lack fit forms of life, the firmament he made the home of gods and goddesses and the bright constellations; in the sea he set the shining fish to swim; the land received the beasts, the gusty air the birds. A holier creature, of a loftier mind, fit master of the rest, was lacking still. Then man was made, perhaps from seed divine formed by the great World's Creator (Origo Mundi) [probably Phanes], so to found a better world, perhaps the new-made earth, so lately parted from the ethereal heavens, kept still some essence of the kindred sky--earth that son of Iapetus [Prometheus] moulded, mixed with water, in likeness of the gods that govern the world."

ORPHIC HYMN TO PHANES[]

Orphic Hymn 6 to Protogonus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.):

"To Protogonos [i.e. Phanes], Fumigation from Myrrh. O mighty Protogonos (First-Begotten), hear my prayer, twofold, egg-born, and wandering through the air; bull-roarer, glorying in thy golden wings, from whom the race of Gods and mortal springs. Erikapaios (Ericapaeus), celebrated power, ineffable, occult, all-shining flower. 'Tis thine from darksome mists to pure the sight, all-spreading splendour, pure and holy light; hence, Phanes, called the glory of the sky, on waving pinions through the world you fly. Priepos (Priapus), dark-eyed splendour, thee I sing, genial, all-prudent, ever blessed king. With joyful aspect on these rites divine and holy consecration (telete) propitious shine."

Alcman, Fragment 5 (from Scholia) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C7th B.C.):

"‘[First came] Thetis (Creation). After that, ancient Poros (Contriver) [perhaps Khronos (Chronos)] and Tekmor (Tecmor, Ordinance) [perhaps Ananke]’: Tekmor came into being after Poros . . . thereupon . . . called him Poros (Contriver) since the beginning provided all things; for when the matter began to be set in order, a certain Poros came into being as a beginning. So Alkman (Alcman) represents the matter of all things as confused and unformed.

Then he says that one came into being who set all things in order, then that Poros came into being, and that when Poros had passed by Tekmor followed. And Poros is as a beginning, Tekmor like an end. When Thetis (Creation) had come into being, a beginning and end of all things came into being simultaneously, and all things have their nature resembling the matter of bronze, while Thetis has hers resembling that of a craftsman, Poros and Tekmor resembling a beginning and the end.

He uses the word ancient for old. ‘And the third, Skotos' (Scotus, Darkness) [Erebos]’: since neither sun nor moorn had come into being yet, but matter was still undifferentiated. So at the same moment there came into being Poros and Tekmor and Skotos. ‘Amar (Day) [Hemera] and Melana (Moon) [Selene] and third, Skotos (Darkness) as far as Marmarugas (Flashings)’: days does not mean simply day, but contains the idea of the sun. Previously there was only darkness, and afterwards, when it had been differentiated, light came into being."

II. THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY[]

Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 54 (from Damascius) (trans. West) (Greek hymns C3rd - C2nd B.C.):

"Originally there was Hydros (Water), he [Orpheus] says, and Mud, from which Ge (Gaea, the Earth) solidified: he posits these two as first principles, water and earth . . . The one before the two [Thesis, Creation], however, he leaves unexpressed, his very silence being anintimation of its ineffable nature. The third principle [Khronos (Chronos), Time] after the two was engendered by these--Ge (Earth) and Hydros (Water), that is--and was a Serpent (Drakon) with extra heads growing upon it of a bull and a lion, and a god's countenance in the middle; it had wings upon its shoulders, and its name was Khronos (Chronos, Unaging Time) and also Herakles (Heracles). United with it was Ananke (Inevitability, Compulsion), being of the same nature, or Adrastea, incorporeal, her arms extended throughout the universe and touching its extremities. I think this stands for the third principle, occuping the place of essence, only he [Orpheus] made it bisexual [as Phanes] to symbolize the universal generative cause. And I assume that the theology of the [Orphic] Rhapsodies discarded the two first principles (together with the one before the two, that was left unspoken) [i.e., the Orphics discarded the concepts of Thesis, Khronos and Ananke], and began from this third principle [Phanes] after the two, because this was the first that was expressible and acceptable to human ears. For this is the great Khronos (Unaging Time) that we found in it [the Rhapsodies], the father of Aither (Aether, Light) [upper air] and Khaos (Chaos, the Chasm) [lower air]. Indeed, in this theology too [the Hieronyman Rhapsodies], this Khronos (Time), the serpent has offspring, three in number: moist Aither (Aether, Light)--I quote--, unbounded Khaos (Chaos), and as a third, misty Erebos (Darkness) . . . Among these, he says, Khronos (Chronos, Time) generated an egg--this tradition too making it generated by Khronos, and born ‘among’ these because it is from these that the third Intelligible triad is produced [Protogonos-Phanes]. What is this triad, then? The egg; the dyad of the two natures inside it--male and female--[Ouranos (Uranus) and Gaia (Gaea), Heaven and Earth], and the plurality of the various seeds between; and thirdly an incorporeal god [Phanes] with golden wings on his shoulders, bulls' heads growing upon his flanks, and on his head a monstrous serpent, presenting the appearance of all kinds of animal forms . . . And the third god of the third triad this theology too celebrates as Protogonos (First-Born) [Phanes], and it calls him Zeus the order of all and of the whole world, wherefore he is also called Pan (All). So much this second genealogy supplies concerning the Intelligible principles."

Orphica, Epicuras Fragment (from Epiphanius):

"And he [Epicurus] says that the world began in the likeness of an egg, and the Wind [the entwined forms of Khronos (Chronos, Time) and Ananke (Inevitability)] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then began to constrict nature. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force, it divided the world into the two hemispheres, and after that the atoms sorted themselves out, the lighter and finer ones in the universe floating above and becoming the Bright Air [Aither (Aether)] and the most rarefied Wind [probably Khaos (Chaos, Air)], while the heaviest and dirtiest have veered down, become the Earth (Ge) [Gaia], both the dry land and the fluid waters [Pontos the Sea]. And the atoms move by themselves and through themselves within the revolution of the Sky and the Stars, everything still being driven round by the serpentiform wind [of Khronos and Ananke]."

Orphica, Argonautica 12 ff (trans. West) (Greek epic C4th to C6th A.D.):

"Firstly, ancient Khaos's (Chaos') stern Ananke (Inevitability), and Khronos (Chronos, Time), who bred within his boundless coils Aither (Aether, Light) and two-sexed, two-faced, glorious Eros [the primordial Eros], ever-born Nyx's (Night's) father, whom latter men call Phanes, for he first was manifested."

ANANKE GODDESS OF NECESSITY[]

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 217 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.):

"He [Agamemnon] donned the yoke of Necessity (anankê), with veering of mind [agreed to sacrifice his daughter Iphigeneia to appease the goddess Artemis so she would allow the Greek fleet to sail for Troy]."

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 103 ff:

"I [Prometheus] must bear my allotted doom [to be chained to a mountain] as lightly as I can, knowing that the might of Necessity (anankê) permits no resistance."

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 510 ff:

"Prometheus: Not in this way is Moira (Fate), who brings all to fulfillment, destined to complete this course. Only when I have been bent by pangs and tortures infinite am I to escape my bondage. Skill is weaker by far than Ananke (Necessity).

Chorus: Who then is the helmsman of Ananke (Necessity)?

Prometheus: The three-shaped (trimorphoi) Moirai (Moirae, Fates) and mindful (mnêmones) Erinyes (Furies).

Chorus: Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do?

Prometheus: Yes, in that even he cannot escape what is foretold.

Chorus: Why, what is fated for Zeus except to hold eternal sway?

Prometheus: This you must not learn yet; do not be over-eager.

Chorus: It is some solemn secret, surely, that you enshroud in mystery.

[N.B. Prometheus has knowledge of a secret prophecy that any son born of Zeus and Thetis would depose the god.]"

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 1050 ff:

"[Prometheus bound to Mount Kaukasos (Caucasus) speaks:] Let him [Zeus] lift me on high and hurl me down to black Tartaros with the swirling floods of stern Necessity (anankê): do what he will, me he shall never bring to death [i.e. because Prometheus is immortal]."

Euripides, Alcestis 962 ff (trans. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.):

"Chorus: I have soared aloft with poetry and with high thought, and though I have laid my hand to many a reflection, I have found nothing stronger than Ananke (Necessity), nor is there any cure for it in the Thracian tablets set down by the voice of Orpheus nor in all the simples [cures] which Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon] harvested in aid of trouble-ridden mortals and gave to the sons of Asklepios (Asclepius)."

Empedocles, Fragments (Greek philosopher C5th B.C.):

"There is a law of stern Ananke (Necessity), the immemorial ordinance of the gods made fast for ever, bravely sworn and sealed: should any Daimon (Spirit, God), born to enduring life, be fouled with sin of slaughter, or transgress by disputation, perjured and forsworn, three times ten thousand years that soul shall wander an outcast from Felicity, condemned to mortal being, and in diverse shapes with interchange of hardship go his ways. The Heavens force him headlong to the Sea; and vomited from the Sea, dry land receives him, but flings unwanted to the burning Sun; from there, to the heavenly vortex backward thrown, he makes from host to host, by all abhorred."

Plato, Republic 617c (trans. Shorey) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.):

"And there were another three who sat round about at equal intervals, each one on her throne, the Moirai (Moirae, Fates), daughters of Ananke, clad in white vestments with filleted heads, Lakhesis (Lachesis), and Klotho (Clotho), and Atropos (Atropus), who sang in unison with the music of the Seirenes, Lakhesis singing the things that were, Klotho the things that are, and Atropos the things that are to be . . . Lakhesis, the maiden daughter of Ananke (Necessity)."

Plato, Symposium 197b (trans. Lamb):

"Mousai (Muses) in music, Hephaistos (Hephaestus) in metal-work, Athene (Athena) in weaving and Zeus ‘in pilotage of gods and men.’ Hence also those dealings of the gods were contrived by Eros (Love)--clearly love of beauty--astir in them, for Eros (Love) has no concern with ugliness; though aforetime, as I began by saying, there were many strange doings among the gods, as legend tells, because of the dominion of Ananke (Necessity). But since this god arose, the loving of beautiful things has brought all kinds of benefits both to gods and to men."

Herodotus, Histories 8. 111. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.):

"Themistokles (Themistocles) [the historical Greek general] gave them [the people of Andros] to understand that the Athenians had come with two great gods to aid them, Peitho (Persuasion) and Ananke (Necessity), and that the Andrians must therefore certainly give money, they said in response, ‘It is then but reasonable that Athens is great and prosperous, being blessed with serviceable gods. As for us Andrians, we are but blessed with a plentiful lack of land, and we have two unserviceable gods who never quit our island but want to dwell there forever, namely Penia (Poverty) and Amekhania (Amechania, Helplessness). Since we are in the hands of these gods, we will give no money; the power of Athens can never be stronger than our inability.’"

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 430 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.):

"Men serve no harsher mistress than Ananke (Necessity), who drives me now and forced me to come here at another king's behest."

Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 122 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.):

"Ananke (Necessity) is a great goddess. It is not I who refuse."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 678 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.):

"All the bitter things which the wreathed spindle of apportioned Necessity (ananke) has spun for your fate,--if the threads of the Moirai (Moirae, Fates) ever obey!"

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 10. 90:

"[Ino fleeing her murderous husband laments:] ‘Ananke (Necessity) is a great god!--where will you flee?’"

Suidas s.v. Anankei (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.):

"Anankei: With Anankei (Necessity) not even gods fight."

Suidas s.v. Ananke:

"Ananke (Necessity): In the Epigrams: ‘See how all-wise Ananke (Necessity) taught him to find an escape from Hades.’ And a proverb: ‘The gods do not fight against Ananke (Necessity).’ It recommends that one should be satisfied with what is available."

Before the ocean and the earth appeared—

before the skies had overspread them all—

the face of Nature in a vast expanse

was naught but Chaos uniformly waste.

It was a rude and undeveloped mass,

that nothing made except a ponderous weight;

and all discordant elements confused,

were there congested in a shapeless heap.

As yet the sun afforded earth no light,

nor did the moon renew her crescent horns;

the earth was not suspended in the air

exactly balanced by her heavy weight.

Not far along the margin of the shores

had Amphitrite stretched her lengthened arms,—

for all the land was mixed with sea and air.

The land was soft, the sea unfit to sail,

the atmosphere opaque, to naught was given

a proper form, in everything was strife,

and all was mingled in a seething mass—

with hot the cold parts strove, and wet with dry

and soft with hard, and weight with empty void.

But God, or kindly Nature, ended strife—

he cut the land from skies, the sea from land,

the heavens ethereal from material air;

and when were all evolved from that dark mass

he bound the fractious parts in tranquil peace.

The fiery element of convex heaven

leaped from the mass devoid of dragging weight,

and chose the summit arch to which the air

as next in quality was next in place.

The earth more dense attracted grosser parts

and moved by gravity sank underneath;

and last of all the wide surrounding waves

in deeper channels rolled around the globe.

And when this God —which one is yet unknown—

had carved asunder that discordant mass,

had thus reduced it to its elements,

that every part should equally combine,

when time began He rounded out the earth

and moulded it to form a mighty globe.

Then poured He forth the deeps and gave command

that they should billow in the rapid winds,

that they should compass every shore of earth.

he also added fountains, pools and lakes,

and bound with shelving banks the slanting streams,

which partly are absorbed and partly join

the boundless ocean. Thus received amid

the wide expanse of uncontrolled waves,

they beat the shores instead of crooked banks.

At His command the boundless plains extend,

the valleys are depressed, the woods are clothed

in green, the stony mountains rise. And as

the heavens are intersected on the right

by two broad zones, by two that cut the left,

and by a fifth consumed with ardent heat,

with such a number did the careful God

mark off the compassed weight, and thus the earth

received as many climes.—Such heat consumes

the middle zone that none may dwell therein;

and two extremes are covered with deep snow;

and two are placed betwixt the hot and cold,

which mixed together give a temperate clime;

and over all the atmosphere suspends

with weight proportioned to the fiery sky,

exactly as the weight of earth compares

with weight of water.

And He ordered mist

to gather in the air and spread the clouds.

He fixed the thunders that disturb our souls,

and brought the lightning on destructive winds

that also waft the cold. Nor did the great

Artificer permit these mighty winds

to blow unbounded in the pathless skies,

but each discordant brother fixed in space,

although His power can scarce restrain their rage

to rend the universe. At His command

to far Aurora, Eurus took his way,

to Nabath, Persia, and that mountain range

first gilded by the dawn; and Zephyr's flight

was towards the evening star and peaceful shores,

warm with the setting sun; and Boreas

invaded Scythia and the northern snows;

and Auster wafted to the distant south

where clouds and rain encompass his abode.—

and over these He fixed the liquid sky,

devoid of weight and free from earthly dross.

And scarcely had He separated these

and fixed their certain bounds, when all the stars,

which long were pressed and hidden in the mass,

began to gleam out from the plains of heaven,

and traversed, with the Gods, bright ether fields:

and lest some part might be bereft of life

the gleaming waves were filled with twinkling fish;

the earth was covered with wild animals;

the agitated air was filled with birds.

But one more perfect and more sanctified,

a being capable of lofty thought,

intelligent to rule, was wanting still

man was created! Did the Unknown God

designing then a better world make man

of seed divine? or did Prometheus

take the new soil of earth (that still contained

some godly element of Heaven's Life)

and use it to create the race of man;

first mingling it with water of new streams;

so that his new creation, upright man,

was made in image of commanding Gods?

On earth the brute creation bends its gaze,

but man was given a lofty countenance

and was commanded to behold the skies;

and with an upright face may view the stars:—

and so it was that shapeless clay put on

the form of man till then unknown to earth.

In Poimandres of the Corpus Hermeticism

“From the will of God, which, holding the Word and seeing the beautiful cosmos made one exactly like it, fashioned from her own constituent elements and the offspring of souls.

Nous, God, being male and female, beginning as life and light, gave birth, by the Word, to another Nous, the Creator of the world; he, being the god of fire and air, formed seven powers who encompass in their circles the sensory world, and the governance of these powers is called destiny.

Immediately, the Word of God leapt forth from the downward moving elements to the pure work of the Creator, and was united with the Creator Nous (for he was the same substance) and the downward moving elements of the creation were left behind, without the Word, to be matter alone.

Nous, the Creator, together with the Word, encompassing the spheres and spinning them round with a rushing motion, caused those things he had made to revolve and he allowed them to revolve from no fixed beginning to an end without limit, for it begins where it ends. The rotation of these spheres, as Nous willed, brought forth from the downward moving elements living beings without speech (for they did not contain the Word) and the air produced winged creatures and the water swimming creatures. The earth and the water were separated from each other, as Nous willed, and the earth brought forth from herself what she possesses, four-footed animals, reptiles, beasts; wild and tame.

Nous, the Father of all, who is life and light, brought forth Man, the same as himself, whom he loved as his own child, for Man was very beautiful, bearing the image of his Father. It was really his own form that God loved, and he handed over to him all his creation.

Thus, the Platonic Demiurge still exists within a polytheistic framework. Like Phanes (or perhaps it is Phanes) it is a primordial entity that personifies the act of creation and the ultimate state of perfection. The gods and goddesses as we know them still exist in this model, and still deserve worship. To put it in my own terms, “God” in the singular is the Absolute, and gods and goddesses — while they are all divine, and none inferior — are too limited in their scope to be the Absolute.”

I’d say to thee in a simplified form that Khronos is the fabric of Space-Time, Ananke is Force (all/any force), Phanes is Heat and Light (or all/any energy), and Nyx and Erebus are the corresponding lack thereof (the cold and dark vacuum of space).

In Orphic theogonies, the Orphic Egg is a cosmic egg from which hatched the primordial hermaphroditic deity Phanes/Protogonos, who in turn created the other gods. The egg is often depicted with the serpentine Ananke, the goddess of inevitability, necessity, and compulsion, wound about it. Phanes is the golden winged primordial being who was hatched from the shining cosmic egg that was the source of the universe. Called Protogonos (First-Born) or Eros, an ancient Orphic hymn addresses him thus: “Ineffable, hidden, brilliant scion, whose motion is whirring, you scattered the dark mist that lay before your eyes and, flapping your wings, you whirled about, and through this world you brought pure light.”

And so it was written:[]

Only Eros, that Love which is most gratuitous and most undeserved, which is beyond all reason and necessity, can break free of Ananke.[]

Before the beginning of all that is: The Unutterable Principle

First: Water and solid matter that hardened into Earth.

Out of Water and Earth came a serpent with the heads of a bull and a lion between which was the face of a God, with wings on its shoulders: his name was Unageing Time (Chronos, Χρόνος) and Iraklís (Heracles, Ἡρακλῆς). Along with and united with Khrónos was born Anángki (Necessity, Ἀνάγκη) and Adrásteia (Ἀδράστεια) whose extended arms stretch to the limits of the Kózmos.

Time has triple offspring: moist Aithír (Ether, Αἰθήρ), unlimited Kháos (Chaos, Χάος), and misty Ǽrævos (Erebos, Ἔρεβος) (described as "a great yawning gulf, and darkness over all"). Among these, Khrónos creates an Egg and from among these the third intelligible triad emerges: The Egg; the Dyad of the two natures (male and female) with the plurality of the seeds in between; and thirdly, the incorporeal God with the golden wings on his shoulders, Phánis (Phanes, Φάνης), the son of Aithír. Phánis is described as being incorporeal, yet having golden wings on his shoulders, the head of a bull emerging from his shanks, and a massive serpent, showing the form of every type of animal.

Further, this theology has a hymn to Prôtogónos (Protogonos = the First-born = Phánis, Πρωτογόνος), calling him Zefs (Ζεύς) who ministers the whole Kózmos, calling him Pan (Pan = All, Πᾶν).

Outline of the Theogony According to Évdimos (Eudemus)

We have very little theogony of Évdimos (Eudemus, Εὔδημος) but this significant quotation of Damáskios:

"The theology described in the Peripatetic Eudemus as being that of Orpheus is silent about the entire realm of the intelligible for it is completely inexpressible and unknowable by the method of exposition and narration: it made its start from Night, from whom also Homer begins, although he (sc. Homer) did not make his genealogy continuous. For we should not believe Eudemus when he says that he (sc. Homer) begins from Okeanos and Tethys. For he too manifestly knows that Night is the greatest divinity, so that even Zeus feels awe before her..." [5]

While this is literally all that Damáskios directly quotes from Évdimos, he extends out with some further ideas. M. L. West in his book The Orphic Poems, considers these ideas and extends further, giving us a proposed summary of this theogony:

"In the beginning was Night. From her came Uranus and Ge (ed. Earth or Yaia); from them Oceanus and Tethys; from them the twelve Titans. Rhea bore children to Kronos, but he swallowed them as they were born. Zeus, however, was born secretly in a cave in Crete (Ida/Dicte), nursed by nymphs, and guarded by the Kouretes. Kronos was given a stone to swallow. When Zeus was grown up, Rhea made Kronos drunk with honeycombs, whereupon Zeus tied him up, castrated him, and with the help of Metis induced him to regurgitate his children. His three sons drew lots, and Hades took the lower world, Poseidon the sea, and Zeus Heaven, whither he proceeded on a goat. "Zeus fathered children by several Goddesses, and others of the younger Gods also had families. Persephone bore Dionysus to Zeus in Crete. There followed the story of the murder of Dionysus by the Titans and his restoration to life. The Titans were blasted to Tartarus, and mankind came into being from the sooty fall-out. So theirs is a bad inheritance; Dionysus, however, can help them by his purification rites, which were first established in Crete but soon spread everywhere." [6] The story of Iásohn (Jason, Ἰάσων) and the Argonáftai (Argonauts, Ἀργοναῦται) has several variants, the most common being that which was told by Apollohnios Rothios (Apollonios of Rhodes, Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος), but there is a one which is in the Orphic tradition which includes a brief kozmogony.

GLOSSARY OF ORPHIC KOZMOGONY AND THEOGONY (under construction)

Diakózmisis - (diacosmeses; Gr. διακόσμησις, ΔΙΑΚΟΣΜΗΣΙΣ. Noun.) Lexicon entry: διακόσμησις, εως, ἡ, setting in order, regulation, ἡ περί τι δ. Pl.Smp.209a. 2. the orderly arrangement of the Universe, esp. in the Pythagorean system, Arist.Metaph.986a6, Plu.Per.4, etc. 3. Stoic t. t., of the new order after ἐκπύρωσις, Zeno Stoic.1.28, etc. 4. order, class of beings, Procl.Inst.144, Dam.Pr.301. (L&S p. 398, right column, within the entries beginning with διακοσμέω, edited for simplicity.)

Kozmogonía - (Cosmogony; Gr. Κοσμογονία, ΚΟΣΜΟΓΟΝΙΑ) Lexicon entry: κοσμογονία, ἡ, creation or origin of the world; applied to the poem of Parmenides. (L&S p. 984, right column, within the entries beginning with κοσμογένεια, edited for simplicity.)

Kózmos - (cosmos; Gr. κόσμος, ΚΟΣΜΟΣ) Lexicon entry: κόσμος, ὁ, order: generally, of things, natural order. 2. good order, good behaviour, = κοσμιότης; discipline. 3. form, fashion. 4. of states, order, government. II.ornament, decoration, esp. of women. 2. metaph., honour, credit. III. ruler, regulator, title of chief magistrate in Crete, etc.; collectively, body of κόσμοι. IV. Philos., world-order, universe. 2. metaph., microcosm; of living beings in general. 3. in later Gr., = οἰκουμένη, the known or inhabited world. 4. men in general; esp. of the world as estranged from God by sin (ed. in Christian literature). 5. οὗτος ὁ κ. this present world, i.e. earth, opp. heaven (ed. in Christian literature). V. Pythag.name for six, Theol.Ar.37; for ten, ib.59. (L&S p. 985, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Thæogonía (Theogony; Gr. Θεογονία, ΘΕΟΓΟΝΙΑ. Θεοί "Gods" + γέννα "birth.") Thæogonía is a story telling the genealogy or birth of the Gods.

If we approach love like a child, with simplicity, innocence, and imagination, we are able to see the great beauty of the Gods; it is by this attraction that we approach them. This attraction is called ǽrôs (eros, ἔρως). Ǽrôs, who the Romans called Cupid, is often depicted in iconography as a childlike, winged being shooting arrows, but ǽrôs is not a personal God; ǽrôs is a force, an energy, the force of attraction. Ællinismόs (Hellenismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion, is based on ǽrôs. There is a great law that the Gods never violate: they never impose their will, forcing us to honor them in fear of horrible punishments, for the Gods live in freedom and they desire this freedom for all beings. Therefore, the Gods patiently wait for our progress, through many incarnations, until we are able to perceive their beauty. When the progress of the soul is great enough to perceive the beauty of divinity, such a soul is given a glimpse of that divinity, which the soul rightly perceives as beautiful, and the natural reaction to perceiving beauty is to want it. This wanting, this attraction, is an invitation which the Gods have been waiting for a great deal of time. They accept our invitation, which they perceive as beautiful, and draw close to us. And now ǽrôs flows back and forth between Gods and men. Ours is an erotic religion, based not on sex but on the passionate relationship between Gods and mortals. Ǽrôs is the reaction that occurs when the soul directly perceives beauty, and desires it passionately. So the beautiful becomes the object of our rapturous desire, and we become the object of the love of Gods. This great power is known by the epithet pyrphóros (πυρφόρος), which means “fire-bearer,” for ǽrôs is passionate. Ǽrôs is the catalyst which propels the construction of the Four Pillars of Ællinismόs, for ǽrôs arouses the desire to learn the religion (Akoí, Ἀκοή); ǽrôs makes possible communication between Gods and men (Theurgy, Θεουργία); ǽrôs motivates the mind to develop wisdom (Philosophía, Φιλοσοφία), for we become attracted to the truth; and ǽrôs stirs the soul to achieve virtue (Arætí, Ἀρετή) as we become attracted to achieve balance in our lives and we burn inside to make this accessible to all people.

There is another form of ǽrôs which is the dominion of pándimos (popular, πάνδημος) Aphrodítî (Ἀφροδίτη); this is the attraction involved with the sexual union of mortals, which is not our current subject.

EXCERPTS from the Συμπόσιον Πλάτωνος:

“What! Said I, must Love (Ἔρως) then be a mortal? - Far from that, replied she. - Of what nature was he then? I asked her. - Of like kind with those natures we have just now been speaking of, an intermediate one, between the mortal and the immortal. - But what in particular, O Diotima? - A great dæmon, replied she. For the dæmon-kind is of an intermediate nature between the divine and the human. - What is the power and virtue of this intermediate kind of being? - To transmit and to interpret to the Gods what comes from men; and to men, in like manner, what comes from the Gods; from men their petitions and their sacrifices; from the Gods in return, the revelation of their will.”

“Διοτίμα: No God is a philosopher or seeker after wisdom, for he is wise already; nor does any man who is wise seek after wisdom. Neither do the ignorant seek after wisdom. For herein is the evil of ignorance, that he who is neither good nor wise is nevertheless satisfied with himself: he has no desire for that of which he feels no want.

Σωκράτης: But who then, Diotima, are the lovers of wisdom, if they are neither the wise nor the foolish?

Διοτίμα: A child may answer that question. They are those who are in a mean between the two; Love is one of them. For wisdom is a most beautiful thing, and Love is of the beautiful; and therefore Love is also a philosopher or lover of wisdom, and being a lover of wisdom is in a mean between the wise and the ignorant.”

“Διοτίμα: What is the cause, Socrates, of love, and the attendant desire? See you not how all animals, birds, as well as beasts, in their desire of procreation, are in agony when they take the infection of love, which begins with the desire of union; whereto is added the care of offspring, on whose behalf the weakest are ready to battle against the strongest even to the uttermost, and to die for them, and will let themselves be tormented with hunger or suffer anything in order to maintain their young. Man may be supposed to act thus from reason; but why should animals have these passionate feelings? Can you tell me why?

Σωκράτης: I replied that I did not know.

Διοτίμα: And do you expect ever to become a master in the art of love, if you do not know this?

Σωκράτης: But I have told you already, Diotima, that my ignorance is the reason why I come to you; for I am conscious that I want a teacher; tell me then the cause of this and of the other mysteries of love.

Διοτίμα: Marvel not if you believe that love is of the immortal, as we have several times acknowledged; for here again, and on the same principle too, the mortal nature is seeking as far as is possible to be everlasting and immortal: and this is only to be attained by generation, because generation always leaves behind a new existence in the place of the old.”

EXCERPT from Ἀλκιβιάδης α Πλάτωνος:

“Σωκράτης: And if any one has fallen in love with the person of Alcibiades, he loves not Alcibiades, but the belongings of Alcibiades?

Ἀλκιβιάδης: True.

Σωκράτης: But he who loves your soul is the true lover?

Ἀλκιβιάδης: That is the necessary inference.

Σωκράτης: The lover of the body goes away when the flower of youth fades?

Ἀλκιβιάδης: True.

Σωκράτης: But he who loves the soul goes not away, as long as the soul follows after virtue?

Ἀλκιβιάδης: Yes.

Σωκράτης: And I am the lover who goes not away, but remains with you, when you are no longer young and the rest are gone?

Ἀλκιβιάδης: Yes, Socrates; and therein you do well, and I hope that you will remain.” [7]

PLOUTARKHOS:

According to Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· Ἐρωτικός (Amatorius, The Dialogue on Love) 17.761f, it is Ἔρως by which Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς) is able to move Aidîs (Hades, Ἅιδης) to allow the soul to become free from death.

ὅτι μόνῳ θεῶν ὁ Ἅιδης Ἔρωτι ποιεῖ τὸ προσταττόμενον· “that alone of the Gods, Áidis considers the prescriptions of Ǽrôs” (trans. by the author)

PRÓKLOS:

σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Ἀλκιβιάδου αʹ Πλάτωνος 109 e p. 509, 9 Cous.:

ἐν γὰρ τῶι Διὶ ὁ Ἔρως ἐστί. καὶ γὰρ Μῆτίς ἐστι πρώτως (l. πρῶτος) γενέτωρ καὶ Ἔρως πολυτερπής, καὶ ὁ Ἔρως πρόεισιν ἐκ τοῦ Διὸς καὶ συνυπέστη τῶι Διὶ πρώτως ἐν τοῖς νοητοῖς· ἐκεῖ γὰρ ὁ Ζεὺς ὁ πανόπτης ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ Διὸς ἁβρὸς ῎Ερως (fr. 83), ὡς 'Ορϕεὺς ϕησι. συγγενῶς οὖν ἔχουσι πρὸς ἀλλήλους, μᾶλλον δὲ ήνωνται ἀλλήλοις καὶ φίλιος αὐτῶν ἑκάτερός ἐστι. “for Ǽrôs (Ἔρως) is within Zefs (Ζεὺς). In fact Mítis (Μῆτις) is first-begetter and much-delighting Ǽrôs, and Ǽrôs both proceeds from Zefs and coexists with Zefs primarily in the intelligibles; for all-seeing Zefs is in the intelligible world and pretty Ǽrôs is of Zefs, as Orphéfs (Ορϕεὺς) says. They are certainly of like kind to each other, but, better yet, they are united to each other, and each of them is the friend of the other.”

Thus, the Orphic Hymns amplify its respective word-based sayer boundlessly.

Highly honored Zefs, imperishable Zefs, we verily offer you

This redemptive testimony and prayer.

Oh King, by means of your accomplishment all things are made clear,

Earth Goddess mother, and the towering high places of the mountains,

The sea, and everything, as many as are arranged within the sky;

Kronian Zefs, bearing the scepter, descending in thunder and lightning, strong-hearted one,

All-generating Father, origin and end of everything,

Earth-shaker, increaser, purifier, shaker of everything,

Bearing lightning, thundering and wielding it, yet you are the great nurturer of life.

Hear me, God of changeful form. Grant me blameless health,

With godly peace, as well as riches and good reputation.

Alternate ending (see above):

Self-generated one; father of the happy Gods and men.

In gratitude for our libations, fulfill all fitting aspirations.

A happy life, united with queen health,

And the brightly-venerated child-loving Goddess of peace;

And a life always rich with cheerful thoughts.

Zefs is the first and the last, the lord of lightning. 1

Zefs is the head and center, for all things are from Zefs.

Zefs is born male; immortal Zefs comes forth a nýmphi (νύμφη/female).

Zefs is the foundation of earth and starry heaven.

Zefs is sovereign of all for he is the first cause of all things. 5

In one divine power, emerging one divinity, the commander of the world.

One regal body in which everything revolves:

Fire and Water and Earth and Aithír, and both Night and Day,

and Mítis (Μήτις), the first-begotten one and lovely Ǽrohs (Ἔρως).

For these are all in the mighty body of Zefs. 10

Behold his head and handsome countenance,

the radiant sky. Around his golden hair

are the gleaming stars twinkling beautifully.

And there are great golden bull’s horns on either side of his head,

the rising and setting (sun), the heavenly pathway of the Gods.

His eyes are Ílios (Helios), reflected in the Moon.

His mind is kingly truth itself, the immortal Aithír,

hearing and considering all: nothing which is,

no word nor cry nor noise nor voice,

escapes the ear of the mightiest son of Krónos.

Thus indeed his immortal head and mind,

now then his radiant body, boundless, undisturbed.

His fearless, strong limbs, exceedingly mighty are formed thus:

the shoulders and chest and broad back of the God,

formed of the air all surrounding. He generates wings

whereupon he flies everywhere. His divine belly is

Earth, the mother of all, with her imposing hills and mountain peaks.

The belt about his middle is a wave of the deep-voiced sea

and ocean! His feet, the foundation of earth,

are dank Tártaros and earth's furthermost limit!

Hiding all things yet causing them to newly emerge into delightful light,

he brings them forth again from his heart, acting in divine wonderment!

“Now look at the wisdom of the Greeks, and examine it as follows. The authors of the Orphic hymns supposed Zeus to be the mind of the world, and that he created all things therein, containing the world in himself. Therefore in their theological systems they have handed down their opinions concerning him thus:

(The above Orphic Rhapsodic Hymn to Zefs appears at this point in the text)

“Zeus, therefore, is the whole world, animal of animals, and God of Gods; but Zeus, that is, inasmuch as he is the mind from which he brings forth all things, and by his thoughts creates them. When the theologians had explained the nature of God in this manner, to make an image such as their description indicated was neither possible, nor, if any one thought of it, could he show the look of life, and intelligence, and forethought by the figure of a sphere.

“But they have made the representation of Zeus in human form, because mind was that according to which he wrought, and by generative laws brought all things to completion; and he is seated, as indicating the steadfastness of his power: and his upper parts are bare, because he is manifested in the intellectual and the heavenly parts of the world; but his feet are clothed, because he is invisible in the things that lie hidden below. And he holds his sceptre in his left hand, because most close to that side of the body dwells the heart, the most commanding and intelligent organ: for the creative mind is the sovereign of the world. And in his right hand he holds forth either an eagle, because he is master of the gods who traverse the air, as the eagle is master of the birds that fly aloft----or a victory, because he is himself victorious over all things.”

  • The user can control definitions such as Ecpyrosis where they can then change things as all things in existence are born by the destroyed cosmos that was destroyed by fire as they then control Empeiricus which is the material substance that exists throughout the entire universe as they then control Eros which is the concept of love on the spiritual level as the user can control the soul to any extent they desire where the user can make anyone vulnerable including even the Olympic Gods such as Aphrodite or Zeus. They can then control Aestheseis which is the senses as a concept allowing the user to control as they then control the idea of Aesthesis which is the idea of controlling the substance that originated the universe where they then control Aestheticus which is the very definition and understanding of perception as they control the sense of sight to any degree.

Ækpýrohsis - (Ecpyrosis; Gr. Ἐκπύρωσις, ΕΚΠΥΡΩΣΙΣ. Noun.) Ækpýrohsis is conversion into fire, conflagration. Iráklitos (Heracl*tus; Gr. Ἡράκλειτος) believed in the periodic destruction of the Kózmos by fire, only to rise again; that all things in existence are born from and dissolve into fire. (Διογένης Λαέρτιος Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Book 10.6 Iráklitos) The early Stoics held a similar belief. Cf. Diakósmisis.

Æmbeirikós - (empeiricus; Gr. ἐμπειρικός, ΕΜΠΕΙΡΙΚΟΣ. Adjective. [modern Greek would be βιωματικός]) experiential, empirical. The universe consists entirely of material substance, available through the senses, therefore, our understanding of the world is largely experiential (ἐμπειρικός) rather than rational (λόγον ἔχων).

Ǽrohs - (Eros; Gr. Ἔρως, ΕΡΩΣ) Ǽrohs is attraction. When your soul is secured by the fortress of ego, you are unable to properly feel the other, but when this barricade dissolves, you can sense others, because they, like yourself, consist of material substances. If you sense and feel others, it becomes possible to perceive their beauty. We are naturally attracted to beauty, so there is the possibility of moving towards our fellows and developing empathy. Likewise, if you open your soul and become vulnerable, it is possible to perceive and feel the Gods, who also consist of material substances. If you perceive the beauty of the Gods, you become attracted to them. This attraction and vulnerability is very beautiful to the Gods, who also want beauty, and, they are thus attracted to you. An interchange flows back and forth between the divine and the mortal. This attraction to the beautiful is at the center of our religion. Thus, Orphismós is sensual and erotic (ἐρωτικός). Because of the material nature of the universe, we can sense and feel the other and develop compassion (ἔλεος), thereby, sharing in the providence of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), who feels us and senses our difficulties.

Aisthíseis - (aestheseis; Gr. αἰσθήσεις, ΑΙΣΘΗΣΕΙΣ. Noun. Plural of αἴσθησις.) Aisthíseis are the senses. Because everything consists of material substances, we can perceive and interact with such a world by means of our senses. The traditional senses are sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. We also communicate within ourselves and with the outside world by means of the aithirial garments (αιθερική χιτῶνας) which surround the soul (περί πνεύμα).

Aisthisis - (aesthesis; Gr. αἴσθησις, ΑΙΣΘΗΣΙΣ) sensation. The universe consists of material substance only. We perceive materials substance by means of the senses. Therefore, we live in a universe of sensation.

Aisthitikós - (aestheticus; Gr. αἰσθητικός, ΑΙΣΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ. Adjective.) perceptive, sensitive, perceptible. Material substance is perceptible by means of the senses.

Aisthitís - (aesthetes; Gr. αἰσθητῆς, ΑΙΣΘΗΤΗΣ. Noun.) one who perceives.

  • They can then control Aether which is the air breathed by the Gods where they then control the Aristotaeelis which is the earth, water, air and fire as Platonic concepts where they then control time who is Khronos, who is further described as boundless.

Aisthitós - (aesthetus; Gr. αἰσθητός, ΑΙΣΘΗΤΟΣ. Adjective.) sensible, perceptible. Material substance is perceptible by means of the senses. Cf. Aisthíseis.

Aithír - (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ, ΑΙΘΗΡ. Noun.) In the mythology, Aithír is the pure air breathed by the Gods. In Ἡσίοδος (Hesiod), Aithír is the son of Ǽrævos (Erebos = Darkness; Gr, Ἔρεβος) and Nyx (Gr. Νύξ). (Θεογονία 124).

Aristotǽlis (Ἀριστοτέλης) calls aithír the "fifth element" (quinta essentia), earth, water, air, fire, and aithír. So there are various ways of understanding Aithír.

In the Orphic theogony of the Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά (13-14) Aithír is the child of Khrónos (Chronus or Time; Gr. Χρόνος) and Anángki (Anangke or Necessity; Gr. Ἀνάγκη).

καί Κρόνον, ὡς ἐλόχευσεν ἀπειρεσίοις ὑπό κολποίς

Αἰθέρα

“and Time, who of himself, from his boundless womb, brought forth

Aithír” (trans. by the author)

  • This idea of Aether is used to create souls, being inseparable and eternal as it is the divine energy of creation considering that it is Zeus as to create souls, Aether enters into the divisible substance known as Earth which then spins and fills all the space which draws all the particles into its centre and unites, creating the Platonic concept of Form which are unchanging and eternal, going beyond the very definition of time and space as they can then control Anangi which is the force of necessity in tandem with the concept of logic, which allows the user to control the concept of movement including even inertia as Anangi is described as the demiurgic force of creation and thus the most powerful form of the universe and with Time, causes the Arritos Arkhi, which is the primordial and original state of creation to be understood. In addition, Arkhi is the concept of beginning as Arritos is the concept of something beyond understanding that is unutterable because it cannot be rationally understood with Arritos Arkhi being the primordial state of the universe as its parts have yet to be expressed or seen, and is thus incomprehensible due to there being no relativity with transcends physics, mathematics, gravity, time, space and thus all forms of understanding. They can then control the idea of Diacosmesis which is a description of creation where the Cosmos unfolds and generates itself in an orderly manner.

Aithír is one of the two basic material kosmogonic substances, tied by important characteristics with Fire and Water such that in Orphic literature all three are referred to as simply Water or sometimes Aithír. These three are indeed different, but they have the continuous (συνεχής) quality in common. The Aithír is inseparable or continuous: it is the Divine Energy, above all the Gods, for the Aithír is Zefs (Ζεύς). To create souls, the Aithír enters into the Mæristi (divisible) Substance (Earth). The Aithír is spinning, filling all the space, and by spinning it draws the particles of Earth into its center and unites with them, creating Form.

Anángi - (Anangke; Gr. Ἀνάγκη, ΑΝΑΓΚΗ. Noun.) Anángi is the force of necessity or need; logical necessity and constraint in the sense of inevitable and unstoppable logical result. Anángi is defined as the excess of inertia. The demiurgic force of Anángi is the most powerful force in the universe. Anángi, together with Khrónos (Χρόνος), Time, causes the potential of the Árritos Arkhí, the primordial state of the Kózmos, to be expressed.

Arkhí - (arche; Gr. ἀρχή, ΑΡΧΗ. Noun. The etym. of English word archaeology is ἀρχή.) beginning, origin..

Árritos - (arretus; Gr. ἄρρητος, ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ. Adjective.) unutterable, in the sense of not to be divulged, or unutterable because it cannot be rationally understood.

Árritos Arkhí - (Arretus Arche; Gr. Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή, ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ ΑΡΧΗ. Def. ἄρρητος "unutterable" + ἀρχή "beginning.") the beginning (ἀρχή) which cannot be expressed (ἄρρητος). The Árritos Arkhí is the primordial state of the universe. It is not able to understood rationally because its constituent parts have yet to be expressed, therefore since there is no relativity, it is incomprehensible.

Diakózmisis - (Diacosmesis; Gr. Διακόσμησις, ΔΙΑΚΟΣΜΗΣΙΣ. Noun.) Diakózmisis (a term often associated with the Pythagoreans) is a description of creation, the natural process by which the Kózmos unfolds and generates itself in an orderly fashion. Cf. Ækpýrohsis.

  • The user can control the concept of Earth which is the cosmogenic substance of Water which is the active and formative nature of this Platonic concept of water as it is continuous since it is the Monad where they then control the Elements on a Platonic level which is the reason why everything exists as earth and water creates the soul of the Cosmos and of every being, as they control physics and the entire universe as Fire gives continuous substance with the user then being able to control Euaesthesia which allows the user to control the concept of sensation where the user can control both the idea of senses and substances where the user can control the idea of Meriste which allows the user to divide anything such as the concepts or the elements with ease where this also includes the infant Ikralis where upon suckling some milk, sprayed it to the point where the entire Milky Way and Galaxy was made by simply spraying milk, meaning the user can do this with nothing more than a thought. The user can then control materials, philosophy as well as the concept of science where they then control the concept of Ousia which is the definition of matter. Furthermore, this idea of Ousia can be compared to the idea of Platonic forms, thus meaning this idea of Ousia is unchanging and completely eternal where they can use this material to control and create forms and shapes that are simultaneously imperfect and perfect as they can create a universe where their control of form is such that none can perceive except by the user’s desire. In addition to all of this, the user can then go on to control the idea of Psauo which is the idea of sense as the user can then control the concept of friendship, attraction and thus divine love since this is apparently the relationship between the false Olympic Gods and man where they can control sentient beings.

Earth - (Yi or Ge; Gr. Γή, ΓΗ. Noun.) Earth is one of the two basic material kozmogonic substances. The other kosmogonic substance is Water (Ὕδωρ). Earth is receptive to the active, formative nature of Water; because of this, Earth is characterized as "female." Earth is divisible (μεριστή); Water is continuous (συνεχής). Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) calls these two substances the One (Monad) and the Other. Cf. Water.

Elements, The Classical - The elements (στοιχεῖα, plural) enumerated by the theologian Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς) are Earth (Γῆ or Γαῖα) and Water (Ὕδωρ); these are the primary material substance of which everything which exists consists. It is the interaction of Earth and Water which creates the soul, both of the Kózmos (Κόσμος) as well as the soul of every being. Earth is a divisible (immobile) substance (Μεριστή Οὐσία) while Water is a continuous (mobile) substance (Συνεχής Οὐσία). Because Fire (Πῦρ) and Aithír (Αἰθήρ) are also continuous substance, they are grouped together with Water. This gives us four elements organized as follows: Earth and Water-Fire-Aithír. To this list, may be added Air (Ἀήρ), comprising the five classical elements of antiquity, an understanding which was viewed as scientific through the medieval era and beyond. While these ideas must be approached as antique, they retain a validity, for they are the foundation of modern physics, a view of the universe as consisting of material substances rather than unknowable "spiritual" elements.

Evaisthisía - (euaesthesia; Gr. εὐαισθησία, ΕΥΑΙΣΘΗΣΙΑ. Noun.) sensitivity, great capacity of sensation. It is through our senses that we can feel others, for they are sensual beings because they consists of substances. See Aisthíseis and Psávo.

Evaisthitos - (euaesthetus; Gr. εὐαίσθητος, ΕΥΑΙΣΘΗΤΟΣ. Adjective.) sensitive. It is through our senses that we can feel others, for they are sensual beings because they consists of substances. Therefore, we strive to become sensitive people. See Aisthíseis and Psávo.

Fifth Element - 1. The fifth element, or Platonic solid, of which all the Kózmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος) is made, is the Dohdækáædron (Dodecahedron; Gr. Δωδεκάεδρον), called quintessence, the kozmic sphere, and later identified with Aithír (Αἰθήρ) [ref. Πλάτων Τίμαιος 58d]. 2. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) called Aithír the fifth element; thus, we have the four classical elements, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, but with Aithír added to make five.

Fire - (Fire; Gr. Πῦρ, ΠΥΡ. Noun.) Fire or in ancient Greek, Pyr, is one of the classical elements. Fire, Water and Aithír are viewed together because they are all continuous (συνεχής) substances. See Elements, The Classical.

Khrónos - (Chronus; Gr. Χρόνος, ΧΡΟΝΟΣ. Noun.) Khrónos is Time, which, together with Anángi (Ἀνάγκη), Necessity, creates the universe.

Mæristí - (meriste; Gr. μεριστή, ΜΕΡΙΣΤΗ. Etym. from μερίς "part, portion." Adjective.) divisible.

Mæristí Ousía - (Meriste Ousia; Gr. Μεριστή Οὐσία, ΜΕΡΙΣΤΗ ΟΥΣΙΑ) The Mæristí Ousía is the divisible kozmogonic substance: Earth or Yi. There is a story from mythology that Ǽrmis (Ἑρμῆς) brought the infant Iraklís (Ἡρακλῆς) to suckle the breast of the sleeping Íra but she awoke and pulled away her breast, spraying milk throughout the universe creating the galaxy of the Milky Way. (Hyginus' Astronomica 2.43.) Gála (γάλα) means "milk"; Galaxías (Γαλαξίας) means "the Milky Way." The Mæristí Ousía in the Kózmos is symbolized by the milk of Íra.

Materialism, Orphic - Orphic materialism refers to the teaching of Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς) that everything which exists consists of material substances, Earth and Water (Δαμάσκιος First Prin.123c bis {i. 317-19 R.}; = Orphic fragment 54). There is no immaterial "spiritual" realm, for something which does not consist of some kind of material cannot exist. The Orphic materialism is the foundation of the natural philosophers (the pre-Socratics) and, therefore, is the root of all science.

Ousía - (Gr. οὐσίἁ, ΟΥΣΙΑ. Plural is οὐσίαι. Noun.) substance, matter, material.

- Cf. ὕλη, a word which can mean "matter" or "material." You can compare εἶδος, "form," to ὕλη, "matter." Εἶδος or ἰδέα are two words which are translated as "form" when discussing the Platonic forms (so in this case, they are equivalents of each other) and it is in this context that you can compare form to matter. This is important because if form is not a type of matter, then we have a conception of the universe which separates material from the shapes which material takes, shapes which are mental constructs, but which the Platonists say are not matter; therefore, the forms or ideas are immaterial. But according to the pre-Platonic Orphism, everything consists of matter. It seems counter-intuitive to think that form or idea could be material, but if form is not material, what is it?

Psávo - (psauo; Gr. ψαύω, ΨΑΥΩ. Verb.) Psávo is to feel. Because everything and everyone consists of material substance, we can feel (ψαύω) others by means of our senses (αἰσθήσεις). When we sense the other, there is the possibility that we can perceive the beauty of the other, and, therefore, we begin to develop attraction (Ἔρως). This is the basis of friendship, empathy (ἐνσυναίσθηση), compassion (ἔλεος), and love between sentient beings. It is, as well, the foundation of interaction between Gods and men.

Pyr - (Fire; Gr. Πῦρ, ΠΥΡ. Noun.) Pyr is the ancient Greek word for fire.

Stoikheion - (stoicheion; Gr. στοιχεῖον, ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΟΝ. Plural is στοιχεῖα.) a fundamental element, such as Earth, Water, Fire, and Aithír. See Elements, The Classical.

Water - (Ýdohr or Hydor; Gr. Ὕδωρ, ΥΔΩΡ. Noun.) Water (Ὕδωρ) is one of the two basic material kosmogonic substances. The other kozmogonic substance is Earth (Γή). Water is active and Earth is receptive to it; because of this, Water is characterized as "male." Water is continuous (συνεχής); Earth is divisible (μεριστή). Plátôn (Πλάτων) calls these two substances the One (Monad) and the Other. In Orphic literature, the word Water usually represents all three types of Synækhís Substance: Water-Fire-Aithír. Cf. Earth.

Water-Fire-Aithír are all Synækhís Ousía, continuous substance (in contrast to Earth, the Mæristí Ousía or divisible substance). In Orphic literature, Water-Fire-Aithír are usually simply called Water (Ὕδωρ). See Ýdohr.

Ýdohr - (Hydor; Gr. Ὕδωρ, ΥΔΩΡ. Noun.) Ýdohr is the Greek word for Water. See Water.

Yaia - (Gaia; Gr. Γαῖα, ΓΑΙΑ = Γή. Noun.) Yaia is the Greek word for Earth. See Earth. Cf. Yi.

Yi - (Ge; Gr. Γή, ΓΗ = Γαῖα. Noun.) Yi is the Greek word for Earth. See Earth. Cf. Yaia.

Ýli – (hyle; Gr. ὕλη, ΥΛΗ. Noun. Literally “forest” or “firewood.”) (originally) Aristotelian word for matter.

Thus, I bless you with my final information:

Ílios - (Hêlios; Gr. Ἥλιος, ΗΛΙΟΣ. Pronounced EE-lee-ohs.)

Ílios is the sun itself, and as such is one of the most important deities in Ællînismόs (Hellênismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. According to Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 371, Ílios is the son of Titans. He is sometimes called Ypærionídîs (Hyperionidês, Ὑπεριονίδης) after his father Ypæríôn (Hyperiôn, Ὑπερίων). His mother is Theia (Θεία). Ílios has numerous offspring. Some are divine, such as the Όrai (Hôrae, Ὧραι), the Kháritæs (Charities, Χάριτες), Pasipháï (Pasiphaë, Πασιφάη), and Sælínî (Selênê, Σελήνη). Other children of Ílios appear to be mortal, such as Aiítîs (Aeêtês, Αἰήτης) and Phaǽthôn (Phaethôn, Φαέθων). In mythology, Ílios emerges in the east every morning from his golden palace in the river Ôkæanόs (Ôceanus, Ὠκεανός). He bursts forth in his four-horsed chariot and flies through the sky to the Æspærídæs (Hesperides or Evenings, Ἑσπερίδες), his destination in the west. All through the night, Ílios sails in a golden vessel through the northern stream of Ôkæanόs where he arrives in the east in time to begin his journey again through the sky. On a larger scale, the apparent path of Ílios in the firmament, as he passes through the constellations through the year, is the zodiac. Ílios sees everything. When Pærsæphónî (Persephonê, Περσεφόνη) was abducted by Ploutôn (Plutô, Πλούτων), this act, which is etiological root of the Ælefsínia Mystíria (Eleusinian Mysteries, Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια), was observed by Ílios, who then related his knowledge to Dîmítîr (Dêmêtêr, Δημήτηρ), the mother of Pærsæphónî. The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the so-called wonders of the ancient world, was a gigantic statue of Ílios. The Sun is not Apóllôn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων) with the exception as a metaphor. The confusion began in antiquity with authors such as Ovid who would depict the two deities as if they were the same. The popularity of Ovid in the mediaeval world solidified this association. The early Christians were very much enamoured of the Neoplatonists. Some Neoplatonists equate the sun with Apóllôn, but this identification is symbolic because the Sun is associated with Platonic ideas such as The Good or The One. Indeed, there is a tie between Apóllôn and the Sun, but they are two entirely separate beings. Apóllôn has dominion over Ílios, the celestial body which is a star. Similarly, his sister Ártæmis (Artemis, Ἄρτεμις) has dominion over Sælíni (Selênê, Σελήνη), the celestial body which is the moon. There are yet more associations of the Sun with other deities which we find in antiquity. From the Neoplatonist Porphýrios (Porphyry, Πορφύριος) we find this passage:

"...they supposed a power of this kind to belong to the sun and called it Apollo, from the pulsation of his beams. There are also nine Muses singing to his lyre, which are the sublunar sphere, and seven spheres of the planets, and one of the fixed stars. And they crowned him with laurel, partly because the plant is full of fire, and therefore hated by daemons; and partly because it crackles in burning, to represent the God's prophetic art. "But inasmuch as the sun wards off the evils of the earth, they called him Heracles (from his clashing against the air) in passing from east to west. And they invented fables of his performing twelve labours, as the symbol of the division of the signs of the zodiac in heaven; and they arrayed him with a club and a lion's skin, the one as an indication of his uneven motion, and the other representative of his strength in "Leo" the sign of the zodiac. "Of the sun's healing power Asclepius is the symbol, and to him they have given the staff as a sign of the support and rest of the sick, and the serpent is wound round it, as significant of his preservation of body and soul: for the animal is most full of spirit, and shuffles off the weakness of the body. It seems also to have a great faculty for healing: for it found the remedy for giving clear sight, and is said in a legend to know a certain plant which restores life. "But the fiery power of his revolving and circling motion, whereby he ripens the crops, is called Dionysus, not in the same sense as the power which produces the juicy fruits, but either from the sun's rotation, or from his completing his orbit in the heaven. "And whereas he revolves round the cosmical seasons and is the maker of "times and tides," the sun is on this account called Horus. "Of his power over agriculture, whereon depend the gifts of wealth, the symbol is Pluto. "He has, however, equally the power of destroying, on which account they make Sarapis share the temple of Pluto: and the purple tunic they make the symbol of the light that has sunk beneath the earth, and the sceptre broken at the top that of his power below, and the posture of the hand the symbol of his departure into the unseen world. Cerberus is represented with three heads, because the positions of the sun above the earth are three, rising, midday, and setting. The sun they indicate sometimes by a man embarked on a ship, the ship set on a crocodile. And the ship indicates the sun's motion in a liquid element: the crocodile potable water in which the sun travels. The figure of the sun thus signified that his revolution takes place through air that is liquid and sweet." (Περὶ ἀγαλμάτων Πορφυρίου (Περὶ ἀγαλμάτων Πορφυρίου Frag. 8 and 10, excerpt, trans. Edwin Hamilton Gifford, died 1905)

Any of these ideas of Porphýrios should be balanced with the knowledge, as stated above, that the sun is a star and that divine things should not be confounded with natural phenomena, except in the most general way, i.e., that all things are divine. In the essay Περὶ Ἴσιδος καὶ Ὀσίριδος in section 66-67 (377b-f), Ploutarkhos (Plutarch, Πλούταρχος) warns about thinking that, for instance, Diónysos (Διόνυσος) is, literally, the beverage wine, or that Íphaistos (Hephaestus, Ἥφαιστος) is fire, or that Zefs (Ζεύς) is thunder, etc. He considers such ideas as foolishness, as if someone were to mistake the sails and ropes of a ship for the pilot, giving several more examples. He calls such thinking atheism.

EPITHETS OF ÍLIOS

Ælefthǽrios - (eleutherius; Gr. ἐλευθέριος, ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ) bountiful one, he who freely gives.

Æpóptîs - (epoptês; Gr. ἐπόπτης, ΕΠΟΠΤΗΣ. Noun.) overseer, watcher.

Antaugês – See Antavyís.

Antavyís - (antaugês; Gr. ἀνταυγής, ΑΝΤΑΥΓΗΣ) sparkling, reflective of light.

Astǽrarkhos – (asterarchus; Gr. ἀστέραρχος, ΑΣΤΕΡΑΡΧΟΣ) sovereign of the stars.

Dadoukhos - (daduchus; Gr. δᾳδοῦχος, ΔΑΔΟΥΧΟΣ) torch-bearer.

Daduchus – See Dadoukhos.

Êlectôr – See Îlǽktôr.

Eleutherius – See Ælefthǽrios.

Epoptês - See Æpóptîs.

Hyperiôn – See Ypæríôn.

Hyperionidês – See Ypærionídîs.

Îlǽktôr - (êlectôr; Gr. ἠλέκτωρ, ΗΛΕΚΤΩΡ) beaming, the beaming sun.

Paeon – See Paián.

Paián - (paeon; Gr. παιάν, ΠΑΙΑΝ. Pronounced pay-AHN.) healer, savior.

Sôtír – (sotêr; Gr. σωτήρ, ΣΩΤΗΡ) savior.

Sôtêr – See Sôtír.

Titán – (Gr. Τιτάν, ΤΙΤΑΝ) Titan.

Ypæríôn – (Hyperiôn; Gr. Ὑπερίων, ΥΠΕΡΙΟΩΝ) Sometimes Ílios is called by his father’s name.

Ypærionídîs - (Hyperionidês; Gr. Ὑπεριονίδης, ΥΠΕΡΙΟΝΙΔΗΣ) son of Ὑπερίων (Hyperion).

And then we speak of Olympus:

In Hellenism, Olympos is the radiant royal palace where the Gods dwell— a fortified hilltop with golden halls which lies just under the peaks of Mount Olympos— under the dominion of King Zeus. Because of misinformation and sophistry, many people are left ignorant and come to believe that the Mount Olympos that is said to be the home of the Gods is the same physical one in Greece which separates Macedonia from Thessaly. And while Olympos is indeed the abode of the Living Immortals, it is not the one in Greece on whose peak the ancients built altars on, knowing full well that it could therefore not be the literal abode of the Gods. This Olympos was just one of at least nineteen other peaks in the ancient world also called Olympos, from other parts of mainland Greece to further off Asia Minor, and all the way to islands like Cyprus and colonies in the far west. Hence it’s easy to infer that the Olympos in southern Macedonia merely was named after the real one due to its awe-inspiring height which towered over the world.

The reality of Olympos’ has already been uttered by the divine Homer, who in the Odyssey describes that Olympos is “never shaken by the wind, or wet with rain or blanketed by snow; A cloudless sky is spread above the mountain, white radiance all around” (Homer Odyssey, VI 42-46) (Philostratus the Elder Imagines, 1. 26). This would not only exclude every mountain on earth, but it would also rule out every landmass too. Therefore, according to the divine Homer, while the Gods rule over our cosmos and all things inhabiting them, their abode isn’t a place in our mundane realm (Aldridge 2016).

The Gods rain down their blessings upon this world and our lives in a plethora of ways constantly (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 399) (Aldridge 2016) yet are without needs, being in no way dependent on neither it nor us (Flavius Claudius Iulianus III, 309) (Sallustius, XV) (Aldridge 2016). If you fire an arrow at a storm cloud, you’re not going to hit King Zeus because Zeus isn’t the skies or clouds. If you whip a cup of wine at a wall, you’re not going to hurt Lord Dionysos because Dionysos isn’t wine. If you declare war on Lord Poseidon and proceed to stab at water with a sword and collect seashells, you’re not going to strike the earth shaker because Poseidon isn’t water (Sallustius, IV) (Aldridge 2016). These things may be dedicated to the Gods, and the Gods may hold domain over and exercise their Activities through them, but the Gods are incorporeal and are in no way bounded to nor enslaved by them (Aldridge 2016) (Sallustius, IV) (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17, 65-67) (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, V.23, 267) (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, VIII.3, 313).

Hence, we are lead into the true question: where is the real Olympos? To understand this, we can look to Homer again, who also said that King Helios bathes this celestial place with His radiant and benevolent light (Homer Odyssey, XII, 380), which shines upon and perfects the Gods’ Ousia, or Being (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 372-373). In fact, the word Olympos itself derives from the primary verb λαμπο, “lampo,” meaning “to shine.”

There is only one place we know of where there are no winds, rains, snows nor clouds, but where the all-ruling sun is still present, bestowing radiance upon the Gods to perfect them, and this place is far beyond our mundane realm. It’s given notice by Agamemnon in his prayer to Zeus: “Zeus, most glorious, supreme, that dwells in the sky [aither], and rides upon the storm-cloud” (Homer Iliad, II, 412 ff).

Aither, the fifth element that is connected to the dodekahedron, is written by Plato to be what “God [Zeus-Helios, the Demiurge] used in the delineation of the universe” (Plato Timaeus, 55c). In short, the Demiurge used this element for binding the whole together and arranging the heavens. And that’s just where Olympos sits: the heavens.

And while we as mortals may never step into the golden halls of Olympos, the benevolent Gods will always be there, and they will know where this world and the things in it lie. For from their seats in Olympos the Gods can direct their divine gaze— which is more powerful than any light— towards us, even as far as our hidden thoughts.

OLYMPOS (Olympus) was the home of the gods who dwelt in fabulous palaces of marble and gold. Olympos is clearly described in Homer's Iliad. It was essentially an ancient akropolis--a fortified hill-top and palace complex--located just below the peaks of Mount Olympos. The golden gates of the heavenly fortress were guarded by the three Horai (Horae) and it contained the palace of Zeus, lesser palaces for the other gods, and stables for the immortal horses. The buildings were built of stone with bronze foundations and were surrounded by cloistered courtyards with golden pavements. The main structure was the palace of Zeus. It had a fairly simple layout--as was typical of ancient Greek palaces--with a central hall, private bedchambers and storage rooms. The golden-floored hall served as both a council chamber and feast-hall for the Olympian gods and provided them an expansive view of the world below allowing them to observe mankind from the heights. The golden tables and tripods of the feast were automatons animated by the divine smith Hephaistos (Hephaestus), and trundled in and out of the hall as required. Before the palace of Zeus was a large, cloistered courtyard where the full assembly of the gods would gather--including all of the earth-, river- and sea-deities as well as nymphs.

The peak of Olympos functioned as the secondary seat or throne of Zeus, apart from the rest of other gods. The Olympian akropolis lay above the clouds and the paths of the stars, near the apex of the solid bronze-dome of the sky. It existed in the zone known as the aither--the bright upper-air of heaven or shining blue of the sky. The gods feasted on ambrosia and nectar, substances collected from the meadows of the earth-encircling river Okeanos or the smoke of sacrificial offerings wafting to heaven. It is Ουλυμπος

Homer, Iliad 1. 43 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.):

"So he [the Trojan priest Khryseus (Chryseus)] spoke in prayer, and Phoibos (Phoebus) Apollon heard him, and strode down along the pinnacles of Olympos, angered in his heart, carrying across his shoulders the bow and the hooded quiver."

Homer, Iliad 1. 221 ff:

"And she [Athena] went back again to Olympos to the house of Zeus of the aigis with the other divinities (daimones)."

Homer, Iliad 1. 390 ff:

"[Akhilleus (Achilles) beseeches his mother Thetis:] ‘You then, if you have power to, protect your own son, going to Olympos and supplicating Zeus, if ever before now either by word you comforted Zeus' heart or by action . . . You said you only among the immortals beat aside shameful destruction from Kronos' son the dark-misted, that time when all the other Olympians sought to bind him, Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. Then you, goddess, went and set him free from his shackles, summoning in speed the creature of the hundred hands [the Hekatonkheir Briareus] to tall Olympos . . . He rejoicing in the glory of it sat down by Kronion (Cronion), and the rest of the blessed gods were frightened and gave up binding him. Sit beside him and take his knees and remind him of these things now . . .’

Thetis answered him then . . . ‘I will go to cloud-dark Olympos and ask this thing of Zeus who delights in thunder (terpikeraunos) . . . Zeus went to the blameless Aithiopes (Ethiopians) at the Okeanos (Oceanus) yesterday to feast, and the rest of the gods went with him. On the twelfth day he will be coming back to Olympos, and then I will go for your sake to the house of Zeus, bronze-founded, and take him by the knees and I think I can persuade him.’"

Homer, Iliad 1. 493 ff:

"But when the twelfth dawn after this day appeared, the gods who live forever came back to Olympos all in a body and Zeus led them; nor did Thetis forget the entreaties of her son [Akhilleus (Achilles)], but she emerged from the sea's waves early in the morning and went up to the tall sky and Olympos. She found Kronos' (Cronus') broad-browed son (euryopa Kronides) apart from the others sitting upon the highest peak of rugged Olympos. She came and sat beside him with her left hand embracing his knees, but took him underneath the chin with her right hand and spoke in supplication to lord Zeus son of Kronos: ‘Father Zeus . . . Zeus of the counsels, lord of Olympos . . .’

. . . He [Zeus] spoke, the son of Kronos, and nodded his head with the dark brows, and the immortally anointed hair of the great god swept from his divine head, and all Olympos was shaken.

So these two who had made their plans separated, and Thetis leapt down again from shining Olympos into the sea's depth, but Zeus went back to his own house, and all the gods rose up from their chairs to greet the coming of their father, not one had courage to keep his place as the father advanced, but stood up to greet him. Thus he took his place on the throne; yet Hera was not ignorant, having seen how he had been plotting counsels with Thetis the silver-footed, the daughter of the sea's ancient, and at once she spoke revilingly to Zeus the son Kronos . . .

He [Zeus] spoke [reprimanding her], and the goddess the ox-eyed lady Hera was frightened and went and sat down in silence wrenching her heart to obedience, and all the Ouranian (Heavenly) gods in the house of Zeus were troubled. Hephaistos (Hephaestus) . . . springing to his feet put a two-handled goblet into his mother's hands and spoke again to her once more: ‘. . . It is too hard to fight against the Olympian. There was a time once before now I was minded to help you, and he caught me by the foot and threw me from the magic threshold, and all day long I dropped helpless, and about sunset I landed in Lemnos, and there was not much life left in me. After that fall it was the Sintian men who took care of me.’

He spoke, and the goddess of the white arms Hera smiled at him, and smiling she accepted the goblet out of her son's hand. Thereafter beginning fro the left he poured drinks for the other gods, dipping up from the mixing bowl the sweet nectar. But among the blessed immortals uncontrollable laughter went up as they saw Hephaistos bustling about the palace. Thus thereafter the whole day long until the sun went under they feasted, nor was anyone's hunger denied a fair portion, nor denied the beautifully wrought lyre in the hands of Apollon nor the antiphonal sweet sound of the Mousai (Muses) singing.

Afterwards when the light of the flaming sun went under they went away each one to sleep in his home where for each one the far-renowned strong-handed Hephaistos had built a house by means of his craftsmanship and cunning. Zeus the Olympian and lord of the lightning went to his own bed, where always he lay when sweet sleep came on him. Going up the bed he slept and Hera of the gold throne (khrysothronos) beside him."

Homer, Iliad 2. 1 ff:

"Now the rest of the gods, and men who were lords of chariots, slept night long, but the ease of sleep came not upon Zeus who was pondering in his heart how he might bring honour to Akhilleus (Achilles) . . . He cried out to the dream and addressed him in winged words: ‘Go forth, evil Dream . . . no longer are the gods who live on Olympos arguing the matter, since Hera forced them all over by her supplication.’"

Homer, Iliad 2. 48 ff:

"Now the goddess Eos (Dawn) drew close to tall Olympos with her message of light to Zeus and the other immortals."

Homer, Iliad 2. 166 ff:

"Nor did the goddess grey-eyed Athene disobey her [Hera], but went in speed down the peaks of Olympos, and lightly she arrived beside the fast ships of the Akhaians (Achaeans)."

Homer, Iliad 2. 412 ff:

"Powerful Agamemnon spoke in prayer: ‘Zeus, exalted and mightiest, sky-dwelling (aither) in the dark mist (kelainephes) . . .’"

Homer, Iliad 2. 447 ff:

"From the magnificent bronze the gleam went dazzling all about through the upper air (aither) to the heaven (ouranos)."

Homer, Iliad 2. 484 ff:

"You Mousai (Muses) who have your homes on Olympos."

Homer, Iliad 4. 1 ff:

"Now the gods at the side of Zeus were sitting in council over the golden floor, and among them the goddess Hebe poured them nectar as wine, while they in the golden drinking-cups drank to each other, gazing down on the city of the Trojans. Presently the son of Kronos (Cronus) was minded to anger Hera, if he could, with words offensive, speaking to cross her . . . So he spoke; and Athene and Hera muttered, since they were sitting close to each other, devising evil for the Trojans."

Homer, Iliad 3. 407 ff:

"[Helene rebukes the goddess Aphrodite:] ‘Abandon the gods'way, turn your feet back never again to the path of Olympos.’"

Homer, Iliad 4. 75 ff:

"Speaking so he [Zeus] stirred up Athene, who was eager before this, and she went in a flash of speed down the pinnacles of Olympos. As when the son of devious-devising Kronos (Cronus) casts down a star, portent to sailors or to widespread armies of peoples glittering, and thickly the sparks of fire break from it, in such a likeness Pallas Athene swept flashing earthward and plunged between the two hosts [of Greeks and Trojans]."

Homer, Iliad 5. 355 ff:

"There to the left of the fighting [at Troy] she [the wounded goddess Aphrodite] found Ares the violent sitting . . . Dropping on one knee before her beloved brother in deep supplication she asked for his gold-bridled horses: ‘Beloved brother, rescue me and give me your horses so I may come to Olympos where is the place (hedos) of the immortals. I am in too much pain from the wound of a mortal's spear-stroke, Tydeus' son's, who would fight now even against Zeus father.’

So she spoke, and Ares gave her the gold-bridled horses, and, still grieved in the inward heart, she mounted he chariot and beside her entering Iris gathered the reins up and whipped them into a run, and they winged their way unreluctant.

Now as they came to sheer Olympos, the place of the immortals, there swift Iris the wind-footed reined in her horses and slipped them from the yoke and threw fodder immortal before them, and now bright Aphrodite fell at the knees of her mother, Dione."

Homer, Iliad 5. 398 ff:

"[Dione addresses Aphrodite:] ‘Many of us who have our homes on Olympos endure things from men, when ourselves we inflict hard pain on each other . . . Aides (Hades) the gigantic had to endure with the rest the flying arrow when this self-same man [Herakles], the son of Zeus of the aigis, struck him among the dead men at Pylos, and gave him to agony; but he went up to the house of Zeus and to tall Olympos heavy at heart, stabbed through and through with pain, for the arrow was driven into his heavy shoulder, and his spirit was suffering. But Paiëon, scattering medicines that still pain, healed him, since he was not made to be one of the mortals. Brute, heavy-handed, who thought nothing of the bad he was doing, who with his archery hurt the gods that dwell on Olympos!’"

Homer, Iliad 5. 709 ff:

"Now as the goddess Hera of the white arms [seated on Olympos] perceived how the Argives were perishing in the strong encounter [with the Trojans led by the god Ares], immediately she spoke to Pallas Athene . . . [and urged they travel to Troy to aid the Greeks.]

So she spoke, nor did the goddess grey eyed Athene disobey her. But Hera, high goddess, daughter of Kronos (Cronus) the mighty, went away to harness the gold-bridled horses. Then Hebe in speed set about the chariot the curved wheels eight-spoked and brazen, with an axle of iron both ways. Golden is the wheel's felly imperishable, and outside it is joined, a wonder to look upon, the brazen running-rim, and the silver naves revolve on either side of the chariot, whereas the car itself is lashed fast with plaiting of gold and silver, with double chariot rails that circle about it, and the pole of he chariot is silver, to whose extremity Hebe made fast the golden and splendid yoke, and fastened the harness, golden and splendid, and underneath the yoke Hera, furious for hate and battle, led the swift-running horses.

Now in turn Athene, daughter of Zeus of the aigis, beside the threshold of her father slipped off her elaborate dress which she herself had wrought with her hands' patience, and now assuming the war tunic of Zeus who gathers the clouds . . . She set her feet in the blazing chariot and took up a spear heavy, huge, thick, wherewith she beats down the battalions of fighting men, against whom she of the mighty father is angered.

Hera laid the lash swifty on the horses; and moving of themselves groaned the gates of he sky that the Horai (Horae, Hours) guarded, those Horai to whose charge is give the huge sky and Olympos, to open up the dense darkness or again to close it. Through the way between they held the speed of their goaded horses. They found [Zeus] the son of Kronos (Cronus) sitting apart from the other gods, upon the highest peak of rugged Olympos. There the goddess of the white arms, Hera, stopping her horses, spoke to Zeus, high son of Kronos, and asked him a question: ‘Father Zeus, are you not angry with Ares for his violent acts . . .?’

Then in turn the father of gods and men made answer: ‘Go to it then, and set against him the spoiler Athene, who beyond all others is the one to visit harsh pains upon him.’

So he spoke, nor did the goddess of the white arms, Hera, disobey, but lashed on the horses, and they winged their way unreluctant through the space between the earth and the starry heaven. As far as into the hazing distance a man can see with his eyes, who sits in his eyrie gazing on the wine-blue water, as far as this is the stride of the gods' proud neighing horses."

Homer, Iliad 5. 855 ff:

"Then Ares the brazen [wounded by Diomedes and the goddess Athena at Troy] bellowed with a sound as great as nine thousand men make, or ten thousand . . . As when out of the thunderhead the air shows darkening after a day's heat when the stormy wind uprises, thus to Tydeus' son Diomedes Ares the brazen showed as he went up with the clouds into the wide heaven. Lightly he came to the gods' citadel, headlong Olympos, and sat down beside Zeus Kronion (Cronion), grieving in his spirit, and showed him the immortal blood dripping from the spear cut."

Homer, Iliad 5. 907 ff:

"Meanwhile, the two [goddesses] went back again to the house of great Zeus, Hera of Argos, with Athene who stands by her people, after they stopped the murderous work of manslaughtering Ares."

Homer, Iliad 7.17 ff:

"Now as the goddess grey-eyed Athene [on Olympos] was aware of these two [the Trojan princes Hektor (Hector) and Paris] destroying the men of Argos in the strong encounter, she went down in a flash of speed from the peaks of Olympos to sacred Ilion [Troy], where Apollon stirred forth to meet her from his seat on Pergamos, where he planned that the Trojans should conquer. These two then encountered each other beside the oak tree, and speaking first the son of Zeus, lord Apollon, addressed her: ‘What can be your desire this time, o daughter of great Zeus, that you came down from Olympos at the urge of your mighty spirit? To give the Danaans victory in battle, turning it back? . . .’

Then in answer the goddess grey-eyed Athene spoke to him: ‘Worker from afar, thus let it be. These were my thoughts also as I came down from Olympos among the Akhaians (Achaeans) and Trojans.’"

Homer, Iliad 7.443 ff:

"The flowing-haired Akhaians (Achaeans) laboured [building a defensive fortification around their ships], and meanwhile the gods in session [on Olympos] at the side of Zeus who handles the lightning watched the huge endeavour of the bronze-armoured Akhaians; and the god Poseidon who shakes the earth (Ennosikhthon) began speaking among them."

Homer, Iliad 8.1 ff:

"Now Eos (Dawn) the yellow-robed scattered over all the earth. Zeus who joys in the thunder made an assembly of all the immortals upon the highest peak of rugged Olympos. There he spoke to them himself, and the other divinities listened: ‘Hear me, all you gods and all you goddesses: hear me while I speak forth what the heart within my breast urges. Now let no female divinity, nor male god either, presume to cut across the way of my word, but consent to it all of you, so that I can make an end in speed of these matters. And any one I perceive against the gods' will attempting to go among the Trojans and help them, or among the Danaans, he shall go whipped against his dignity back to Olympos; or I shall take him and dash him down to the murk of Tartaros, far below, where the uttermost depth of the pit lies under earth, where there are gates of iron and a brazen doorstone, as far beneath the house of Aides (Hades) as from earth the sky lies. Then he will see how far I am strongest of all the immortals. Come, you gods, make this endeavour, that you all may learn this. Let down out of the sky a cord of gold; lay hold of it all you who are gods and all who are goddesses, yet not even so can you drag down Zeus from the sky to the ground, not Zeus the high lord of counsel, though you try until you grow weary. Yet whenever I might strongly be minded to pull you, I could drag you up, earth and all and sea and all with you, then fetch the golden rope about the horn of Olympos and make it fast, so that all once more should dangle in mid air. So much stronger am I than the gods, and stronger than mortals.’

So he spoke, and all of them stayed stricken to silence, stunned at his word, for indeed he had spoken to them very strongly."

Homer, Iliad 8.198 ff:

"So he [Hektor] spoke, boasting [that he would slay Diomedes and Nestor who were routed in battle by the lightning-bolt of Zeus], and the lady Hera was angry, and started upon her throne, and tall Olympos was shaken, and she spoke straight out to the great god Poseidon . . ."

Homer, Iliad 8.341 & 8.361 ff:

"Hektor (Hector) followed close on the heels of the flowing-haired Akhaians (Achaeans), killing ever the last of the men . . . Now seeing them the goddess of the white arms, Hera [on Olympos], took pity and immediately she spoke to Pallas Athene her winged words . . .

Then in turn the goddess grey-eyed Athene answered her: ‘. . . So then: do you put under their harness our single-foot horses while I go back into the house of Zeus, the lord of the aigis, and arm me in my weapons of war . . .’

She spoke, nor failed to persuade the goddess Hera of the white arms. And she, Hera, exalted goddess, daughter of Kronos (Cronus) the mighty, went away to harness the gold-bridle horses. Now in turn Athene, daughter of Zeus of the aigis, beside the threshold of her father slipped off her elaborate dress which she herself had wrought with her hands' patience, and now assuming the war tunic of Zeus who gathers the clouds, she armed herself in her gear for the dismal fighting. She set her feet in the blazing chariot, and took up a spear, heavy, huge, thick, wherewith she beats down the battalions of fighting men, against whom she of the mighty father is angered. Hera laid the lash swiftly on the horses; and moving of themselves groaned the gates of the sky that the Horai (Horae, Hours) guarded, those Horai to whose charge is given the huge sky and Olympos to open up the dense darkness or again to close it. Through the way between they held the speed of their goaded horses."

Homer, Iliad 8.409:

"He [Zeus] spoke, and Iris, storm-footed, rose with his message and took her way from the peaks of Ida to tall Olympos, and at the utmost gates of many-folded Olympos met and stayed them [Hera and Athene], and spoke the word that Zeus had given her: ‘Where so furious? Hoe can your hearts so storm within you? The son of Kronos (Cronus) will not let you stand by the Argives. Since Zeus has uttered this threat and will make it a thing accomplished: that he will lame beneath the harness your fast-running horses, and hurl yourselves from the driver's place, and smash your chariot; and not in the circle of ten returning years would you be whole of the wounds where the stroke of the lightning this you; so that you may know, grey-eyed goddess, when it is your father you fight with . . .’

So Iris the swift-footed spoke and went away from them, and now Hera spoke a word to Pallas Athene: ‘Alas, daughter of Zeus of the aigis: I can no longer let us fight in the face of Zeus for the sake of mortals. Let one of them perish then, let another live, as their fortune wills; let him, as is his right and as his heart pleases, work out whatever decrees he will on Danaans and Trojans.’

So she spoke, and turned back again her single-foot horses, and the Horai (Hours) set free their flowing-maned horses from the harness, and tethered them at their mangers that were piled with ambrosia and leaned the chariot against the shining inward wall. Meanwhile the goddesses themselves took their place on the golden couches among the other immortals, their hearts deep grieving within them."

Homer, Iliad 8.438 ff:

"Now father Zeus steered back from Ida his strong-wheeled chariot and horses to Olympos, and came among the gods' sessions, while for him the famed shaker of the earth [Poseidon] set free his horses, and put the chariot on its stand, with a cloth spread over it. Then Zeus himself of the wide brows took his place on the golden throne, as underneath his feet tall Olympos was shaken. These two alone, Hera and Athene, stayed seated apart aside from Zeus, and would not speak to him, nor ask him a question; but he knew the whole matter within his heart, and spoke to them: ‘Why then are you two sorrowful, Athene and Hera? Surely in the battle where men win glory you were not wearied out, destroying those Trojans on whom you have set your grim wrath. In the whole account, such is my strength and my hand so invincible, not all the gods who are on Olympos could turn me backward, but before this the trembling took hold of your shining bodies, before you could look upon the fighting and war's work of sorrow for I will say straight out, and it would now be a thing accomplished: once hit in your car by the lightning stroke you could never have come back to Olympos, where is the place of the immortals.’"

Homer, Iliad 11.72 ff:

"The pressure held their heads on a line [the Greek soliders], and they whirled and fought like wolves, and Eris (Hate), the Lady of Sorrow, was gladdened to watch them. She alone of all the immortals (theoi) attended this action but the other immortals were not there, but sat quietly remote and apart in their palaces (dômata), where for each one of them a house had been built in splendour along the folds of Olympos. All were blaming the son of Kronos, Zeus of the dark mists, because his will was to give glory to the Trojans. To these gods the father gave no attention at all, but withdrawn from them and rejoicing in the pride of his strength sat apart from the others looking out over the city of Troy and the ships of the Akhaians (Achaeans), watching the flash of bronze, and men killing and men killed."

Homer, Iliad 11.218:

"You Mousai (Muses) who have your homes (dômata) on Olympos."

Homer, Iliad 13.242:

"As a thunderbolt, which [Zeus] the son of Kronos (Cronus) catching up in his hand shakes from the shining edge of Olympos, flashes as a portent to men and the bright glints shine from it."

Homer, Iliad 13.521:

"[Ares] sheltered under the golden clouds on utmost Olympos, was sitting, held fast by command of Zeus, where the rest of the immortal gods were sitting still, in restraint from battle."

Homer, Iliad 14.153 & 14.225 ff:

"Now Hera, she of the golden throne (khrysothronos), standing on Olympos' horn, looked out with her eyes, and saw at once how Poseidon, who was her very brother and her lord's brother, was bustling about the battle where men win glory, and her heart was happy. Then she saw Zeus, sitting along the loftiest summit on Ida of the springs, and in her eyes he was hateful. And now the lady ox-eyed Hera was divided in purpose as to who she could beguile the brain of Zeus of the aigis. And to her mind this thing appeared to the best counsel, to array herself in loveliness, and go down to Ida, and perhaps he might be taken with desire to lie in love with her next her skin, and she might be taken with desire to lie in love with her next her skin, and she might be able to drift an innocent warm sleep across his eyelids, and seal his crafty perceptions. She went into her chamber, which her beloved son Hephaistos had built for her, and closed the leaves in the door-posts snugly with a secret door-bar, and no other of the gods could open it. There entering she drew shut the leaves of the shining door, then first from her adorable body washed away all stains with ambrosia, and next anointed herself with ambrosial sweet olive oil, which stood there in its fragrance beside her, and from which, stirred in the house of Zeus by the golden pavement, a fragrance was shaken forever forth, on earth and in heaven. When with this he had anointed her delicate body and combed her hair, next with her hands she arranged her shining and lovely and ambrosial curls along her immortal head, and dressed in an ambrosial robe that Athene had made her carefully, smooth, and with many figures upon it, and pinned it across her breast with a golden brooch, and circled her waist about with a zone that floated a hundred tassels, and in the lobes of her carefully pierced ears she put rings and triple drops in mulberry clusters, radiant with beauty, and, lovely among goddesses, she veiled her head downward with a sweet fresh veil that glimmered pale like the sunlight. Underneath her shining feet she bound on the fair sandals. Now, when she had clothed her body in all this loveliness, she went out from the chamber, and called aside Aphrodite to come away from the rest of the gods, and spoke a word to her: ‘Would you do something for me, dear child, if I were to ask you? Or would you refuse it? Are you forever angered against me because I defend the Danaans, while you help the Trojans?’

Then the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, answered her: ‘Hera, honoured goddess, daughter to mighty Kronos (Cronus), speak forth whatever is in your mind. My heart is urgent to do it if I can, and if it is a thing that can be accomplished.’ . . .

So Aphrodite went back into the house, Zeus' daughter, while Hera in a flash of speed left the horn of Olympos and crossed over Pieria and Emathia the lovely and overswept the snowy hills of the Thrakian riders and their uttermost pinnacles, nor touched the ground with her feet. Then from Athos she crossed over the heaving main sea and came to Lemnos, and to the city of godlike Thoas. There she encountered Hypnos (Sleep), the brother of Thanatos (Death)."

Homer, Iliad 14.337 ff:

"Then with false lying purpose the lady Hera answered him [Zeus]: ‘Most honoured son of Kronos (Cronus), what sort of thing have you spoken? If now your great desire is to lie in love together here on the peaks of Ida, everything can be seen. Then what would happen if some one of the gods everlasting saw us sleeping, and went and told all the other immortals of it? I would not simply rise out of bed and go back again, into your house, and such a thing would be shameful. No, if this is your heart's desire, if this is your wish, then there is my chamber, which my beloved son Hephaisto (Hephaestus) s has built for me, and closed the leaves in the door-posts snugly. We can go back there and lie down, since bed is your pleasure.’"

Homer, Iliad 15.4 ff:

"[Zeus waking upon Mount Ida] looked scowling terribly at Hera, and spoke a word to her: ‘Hopeless one, it was your evil design, your treachery, Hera . . . perhaps for this contrivance of evil and pain you will win first reward when I lash you with whip strokes. Do you not remember that time you hung from high and on your feet I slung two anvils, and about your hands drove a golden chain, unbreakable. You among the clouds and the bright sky hung, nor could the gods about tall Olympos endure it and stood about, but could not set you free. If I caught one I would seize and throw him from the threshold, until he landed stunned on the earth, yet even so the weariless agony for Herakles the godlike would not let go my spirit . . .’"

Homer, Iliad 15.78 ff:

"He [Zeus on Mount Ida] spoke, and the goddess of the white arms Hera did not disobey him but went back to tall Olympos from the mountains of Ida. As the thought flashes in the mind of a man who, traversing much territory, thinks of things in the mind's awareness, ‘I wish I were this place, or this,’ and imagines many things; so rapidly in her eagerness winged Hera, a goddess. She came to sheer Olympos and entered among the assembled immortal gods in the house of Zeus, and they seeing her rose all to swarm about her and lifted their cups in greeting. But Hera passed by the others and accepted a cup from Themis of the fair cheeks, since she had first come running to greet her and had spoken to her and addressed her in winged words: ‘Hera, why have you come? You seem like one who has been terrified. I know, it was the son of Kronos (Cronus), your husband, frightened you.’

In turn the goddess Hera of the white arms answered her: ‘Ask me nothing of this, divine Themis. You yourself know what his spirit is, how it is stubborn and arrogant. Preside still over the gods in their house, the feast's fair division. Yet so much may you hear, and with you all the other immortals, how Zeus discloses evil actions, and I do not think the heart of all will be pleasured alike, neither among mortals nor gods either, although one now still feasts at his pleasure.’

The lady Hera spoke so and sat down, and the gods about the house of Zeus were troubled. Hera was smiling with her lips, but above the dark brows her forehead was not at peace. She spoke before them all in vexation: ‘Fools, we who try to work against Zeus, thoughtlessly. Still we are thinking in our anger to go near, and stop him by argument or force. He sits apart and cares nothing nor thinks of us, and says that among the other immortals he is pre-eminently the greatest in power and strength. Therefore each of you must take whatever evil he sends you. Since I think already a sorrow has been wrought against Ares. His son has been killed in the fighting, dearest of all men to him, Askalaphos, whom stark Ares calls his own son.’

So she spoke. Then Ares struck against both his big things with the flats of his hands, and spoke a word of anger and sorrow: ‘Now, you who have your homes on Olympos, you must not blame me for going among the ships of the Akhaians, and avenging my son's slaughter, even though it be my fate to be struck by Zeus' thunderbolt, and sprawl in the blood and dust by the dead men.’

So he spoke, and ordered Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror) to harness his horses and himself got into his shining armour. And there might have been wrought another anger, and bitterness from Zeus, still greater, more wearisome among the immortals, had not Athene, in her fear for the sake of all gods, sprung up and out through the forecourt, left her chair where she was sitting, and taken the helmet off from his head, the shield from his shoulders, and snatched out of his heavy hand the bronze spear, and fixed it apart, and then in speech reasoned with violent Ares: ‘Madman, mazed of your wits, this is ruin! Your ears can listen still to reality, but your mind is gone and your discipline. Do you not hear what the goddess Hera of the white arms tells us, and she coming back even now from Zeus of Olympos? Do you wish, after running the course of many misfortunes yourself, still to come back to Olympos under compulsion though reluctant, and plant seed of great sorrow among the rest of us? Since he will at once leave the Akhaians (Achaeans) and the high-hearted Trojans, and come back to batter us on Olympos and will catch up as they come the guilty one and the guiltless. Therefore I ask of you to give up your anger for your son. By now some other, better of his strength and hands than your son was, has been killed, or will soon be killed; and it is a hard thing to rescue all the generation and seed of all mortals.’

So she spoke, and seated on a chair violent Ares. But Hera called to come with her outside the house Apollon and Iris, who is messenger among the immortal gods, and spoke to them and addressed them in winged words: ‘Zeus wishes both of you to go to him with all speed, at Ida; but when you have come there and looked upon Zeus' countenance, then you must do whatever he urges you, and his orders.’

So the lady Hera spoke, and once more returning sat on her throne. They in a flash of speed winged their way onward. They came to Ida with all her springs, the mother of wild beasts, and found the wide-browed son of Kronos on the height of Gargaron, sitting still, and fragrant cloud gathered in a circle about him. These two came into the presence of Zeus the cloud gatherer and stood, nor was his heart angry when he looked upon them, seeing they had promptly obeyed the message of his dear lady."

Homer, Iliad 15.186 ff:

"Then deeply vexed [Poseidon] the famed shaker of the earth spoke to her [the messenger-goddess Iris]: ‘. . . We are three brothers born by Rhea to Kronos (Cronus), Zeus, and I, and the third is Haides, lord of the dead men. All was divided among us three ways, each given his domain. I when the lots were shaken drew the grey sea to live in forever; Haides drew the lot of the mists and the darkness, and Zeus was allotted the wide sky, in the cloud and the bright air. But earth and high Olympos are common to all three.’"

Homer, Iliad 18.165 ff:

"And now he [Hektor (Hector)] would have dragged it [the body of Patroklos (Patroclus)] away and won glory forever had not swift wind-footed Iris come running from Olympos with a message for [Akhilleus (Achilles)] Peleus' son to arm. She came secretly from Zeus and the other gods, since it was Hera who sent her . . .

Then in turn Akhilleus of the swift feet answered her: ‘Divine Iris, what god sent you to me with a message?’

Then in turn swift wind-footed Iris spoke to him: ‘Hera sent me, the honoured wife of Zeus; but the son of Kronos, who sits on high, does not know this, nor any other immortal, of all those who dwell by the snows of Olympos.’"

Homer, Iliad 18.369:

"Thetis of the silver feet came to the house of Hephaistos (Hephaestus), imperishable, starry, and shining among the immortals, built in bronze for himself by the god of the dragging footsteps."

Homer, Iliad 19.126 ff:

"He [Zeus] caught by the shining hair of her head the goddess Ate (Delusion) in the anger of his heart, and swore a great oath, that never after this might Ate, who deludes all, come back to Olympos and the starry sky. So speaking, he whirled her about in his hand and slung her out of the starry heaven, and presently she came to men's establishments."

Homer, Iliad 20.4 ff:

"Zeus, from the many-folded peak of Olympos, told Themis to summon all the gods into assembly. She went everywhere, and told them to make their way to Zeus' house. There was no Potamos (River) who was not there, only Okeanos (Oceanus), there was not any one of the Nymphai (Nymphs) who live in the lovely groves, and the springs of the rivers and grass of the meadows, who came not. These all assembling into the house of Zeus cloud gathering took places among the smooth-stone cloister walks which Hephaistos (Hephaestus) had built for Zeus the father by his craftsmanship and contrivance.

So they were assembled within Zeus' house; and the shaker of the earth did not fail to hear the goddess, but came up among them from the sea, and sat in the midst of them, and asked Zeus of his counsel: ‘Why, lord of the shining bolt, have you called the gods to assembly once more? Are you deliberating Akhaians (Achaeans) and Trojans? For the onset of battle is almost broken to flame between them.’

In turn Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him in answer: ‘You have seen, shaker of the earth, the counsel within me, and why I gathered you. I think of these men though they are dying. Even so, I shall stay here upon the fold of Olympos sitting still, watching, to pleasure my heart. Meanwhile all you others go down, wherever you may go among the Akhaians and Trojans and give help to either side, as your own pleasure directs you.’"

Homer, Iliad 20.141:

"In turn Poseidon the shaker of the earth answered her [Hera]: ‘Hera, do not be angry without purpose . . . But soon, I think, when they [the gods allied with the Trojans] have fought with us they will get back to Olympos and the throng of the other gods beaten back by the overmastering strength of our hands.’"

Homer, Iliad 21.385 ff:

"But upon the gods descended the wearisome burden of hatred [i.e. the gods allied with the Greeks against the gods allied with the Trojans], and the wind of their fury blew from division, and they collided with a grand crash, the broad earth echoing and the huge sky sounded as with trumpets. Zeus heard it from where he sat on Olympos, and was amused in his deep heart for pleasure, as he watched the gods' collision in conflict."

Homer, Iliad 21.438 ff:

"But now the powerful shaker of the earth spoke to Apollon: ‘Phoibos (Phoebus), why do you and I stand yet apart. It does not suit when the others have begun, and it were too shameful if without fighting we go back to the brazen house of Zeus on Olympos (Oulumpon de Dios poti khalkobates).’"

Homer, Iliad 21.505 ff:

"Leto picked up the curved bow and the arrows [of Artemis] which had fallen in the turn of the dust one way and another. When she had taken up the bow she went back to her daughter. But the maiden [Artemis] came to the bronze-founded house on Olympos of Zeus, and took her place kneeling at the knees of her father and the ambrosial veil trembled about her. Her father Kronides (Cronides) caught her against him, and laughed softly, and questioned her."

Homer, Iliad 21.518:

"The rest of the gods who live forever went back to Olympos, some in anger and others glorying greatly, and sat down at the side of their father the dark-misted."

Homer, Iliad 22.165 ff:

"These two [Akhilleus (Achilles) and Hektor (Hector)] swept whirling about the city of Priamos in the speed of their feet, while all the gods were looking upon them [from Olympos] . . . Then Zeus the gatherer of the clouds spoke: ‘Tritogeneia [Athene], dear daughter, do not loose heart; for I say this not in outright anger, and my meaning toward you is kindly. Act as your purpose would have you do, and hold back no longer.’

So he spoke, and stirred on Athene, who was eager before this, and she went in a flash of speed down the pinnacles of Olympos."

Homer, Iliad 24.95 & 120 ff:

"So she [the sea-goddess Thetis] spoke, and shining among divinities took up her black veil, and there is no darker garment. She went on her way [from the bottom of the sea to Olympos], and in front of her rapid wind-footed Iris guided her, and the wave of the water opened about them. They stepped out on the dry land and swept to the sky. There they found [Zeus] the son of Kronos of the wide brows, and gathered about him sat all the rest of the gods, the blessed, who live forever. She sat down beside Zeus father, and Athene made a place for her. Hera put into her hand a beautiful golden goblet and spoke to her to comfort her, and Thetis accepting drank from it. The father of gods and men [Zeus] began the discourse among them: ‘You have come to Olympos, divine Thetis, for all your sorrow, with an unforgotten grief in your heart. I myself know this. But even so I will tell you why I summoned you hither.’ . . .

He spoke and the goddess silver-foot Thetis did not disobey him but descended in a flash of speed from the peaks of Olympos and made her way to the shelter of her son.’"

Homer, Iliad 24.425:

"Surely it is good to give the immortals their due gifts because my own son, if ever I had one, never forgot in his halls the gods who live on Olympos. Therefore they remembered him even in death's stage."

Homer, Iliad 24.467:

"Hermes spoke, and went away to the height (makros) of Olympos."

Homer, Iliad 24.692:

"Hermes left them [the Trojans] and went away to the height of Olympos, and Eos (Dawn), she of the yellow robe, scattered over all earth."

OTHER SOURCES[]

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 170 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.):

"For thee [Artemis] the Amnisiades rub down the hinds [the golden horned deer that draw the chariot of Artemis] loosed from the yoke, and from the mead of Hera they gather and carry for them to feed on much swift-springing clover, which also the horses of Zeus eat; and golden troughs they fill with water to be for the deer a pleasant draught . . .

But when the Nymphai encircle thee in the dance, near the springs of Aigyptian Inopos or Pitane - for Pitane too is thine - or in Limnai or where, goddess, thou camest from Skythia to dwell, in Alai . . . for the god Helios never passes by that beauteous dance, but stays his car to gaze upon the sight, and lights of day are lengthened."

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 26 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.):

"[From a description of an ancient Greek painting at Neapolis (Naples):] Birth of Hermes . . . He is born on the crest of Olympos, at the very top, the abode of the gods. There, as Homer says, one feels no rain and hears no wind, nor is it ever beaten by snow, it is so high; but it is absolutely divine and free from the ills that pertain to the mountains which belong to men. There the Horai (Seasons) care for Hermes at his birth. The painter has depicted these also, each according to her time, and they wrap him in swaddling clothes, sprinkling over him the most beautiful flowers, that he may have swaddling clothes not without distinction. While they turn to [Maia] the mother of Hermes lying on her couch of travail, he slips out of his swaddling clothes and begins to walk at once and descends from Olympos. The mountain rejoices in him--for its smile is like that of a man--and you are to assume that Olympos rejoices because Hermes was born there.

Now what of the theft? Cattle grazing on the foothills of Olympos, yonder cattle with golden horns and whiter than snow--for they are sacred to Apollon--he leads over a winding course into a cleft of the earth."

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 21:

"[From a description of an ancient Greek painting depicting the wrestling match of Herakles and Antaios:] Do not look carelessly at the top of the mountain, but assume that gods have there a place from which to view the contest; for, observe, a golden cloud is painted, which serves, I fancy, as a canopy for them."

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 27:

"[From a description of an ancient Greek painting at Neapolis (Naples):] The Birth of Athena. These, wonder-struck beings are gods and goddesses, for the decree has gone forth that not even the Nymphai may leave the heavens, but that they, as well as the Potamoi (Rivers) from which they are sprung, must be at hand; and they shudder at the sight of Athena, who at this moment has just burst forth fully armed from the head of Zeus."

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 34 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.):

"That the gates of heaven (ouranos) are in charge of the Horai (Seasons) we may leave to the special knowledge and prerogative of Homer, for very likely he became an intimate of the Horai when he inherited the skies."

One of the earliest known references to the cosmic egg is in Ancient Greek times, which was known as the Orphic Egg. The Orphic Egg in the Ancient Greek Orphic tradition is the cosmic egg from which hatched the primordial hermaphroditic deity Phanes/Protogonus (variously equated also with Zeus, Pan, Metis, Eros, Erikepaios and Bromius) who in turn created the other gods. The egg is often depicted with a serpent wound around it.

Within this egg typically resides a divine being who literally creates himself from nothing (AKA The ex nihilo). This creator then goes on to form the material universe. This ‘ex nihilo’ creator either uses the material within the cosmic egg shell, or the substance of chaos to bring shape and order to the world. The tricky question is however, what came first, the god or the egg. In some myths, this egg has a maker, often a woman, who brings the creator god into existence.

Cosmic Egg Stories[]

In the Pelasgian myth of creation, Eurynome (a version of the Greek Gaia) lays the world egg on the waters of chaos and orders a cosmic snake Ophion to encircle it until it hatched the world itself. The Greeks had their own Cosmic Egg called the Orphic Egg, which was warmed by a snake until the first Deity known as the Protogonus hatched from it. The later Orphic cult in Greece preached that in the beginning there was a silver cosmic egg, created by Time that hatched the androgynous being who contained the seeds of creation.

Phanes was believed to have been hatched from the World-Egg of Chronos (Time) and Ananke (Necessity). His older sister Nyx (Night) called him Protogenus. As she created nighttime, he created daytime. He also created the method of creation by mingling. He was made the ruler of the deities and passed the scepter to Nyx. This new Orphic tradition states that Nyx later gave the scepter to her son Ouranos before it passed to Cronus and then to Zeus, who retained it.

In the Finnish creation epic, the Kalevala, the world is created from the fragments of an egg laid by a duck on the knee of Ilmatar, the primordial sea goddess. The bird laid six golden eggs and one iron one. When Ilmatar moved her leg, the eggs fell into the sea and broke, the pieces becoming land, sky, stars, and sun.

In Zoroastrian tradition, Ohrmazd (the almighty god) created the world from chaos. He gathered the turbulent material and formed it into a great egg. From the upper part of its shell he formed the sky, and from the lower half he forged the earth. He then filled the lower part of the shell with primeval waters and set a flat earthen disk on top of it.

In Slavic mythology, Rod, the supreme being, created a divine egg from the void, inside of which rested Svarog, god of fire. As his life force grew, the egg cracked open. The lower shell became the earth and sea, out of which grew a world tree, pushing the upper shell skyward, creating the firmament.

One Chinese creation myth describes a huge primordial egg containing the primal being Pangu. The egg broke and Pangu then separated chaos into the many opposites of the yin and the yang, that is, into creation itself.

Ancient Egyptians saw the cosmic egg as the soul of the primeval waters out of which creation arose. In one story the sun god Ra emerged from the primeval mound, itself a version of the cosmic egg resting in the original sea.

The Polynesian Tahitians have a myth in which the god Ta’aroa began existence in an egg and eventually broke out to make part of the egg the sky. Ta’aroa, himself, became the earth.

The earliest records of one such egg is the Brahmanda from Hinduism. There is a story primordial maternal waters of the pre-creation, which desired to reproduce. Through a series of prolonged rituals, the waters became so hot that they gave birth to a golden egg. Eventually, the creator, Prajapati, emerged from the egg and creation took place.

In Africa, a Dogon myth says that in the beginning, a world egg divided into two birth sacs, containing sets of twins fathered by the creator god, Amma, on the maternal egg. Some say that Amma was the cosmic egg and fertilized himself.

In Japanese mythology, creation begins with the world as a chaotic, formless mass. Then an indefinable sound filled the void, setting the particles in motion which form into an egg. The lighter particles rose upward forming Heaven, while the heavier particles coalesced into a heavy, dense mass and became the Earth.

In Bantu Mythology, the earth was said to have derived from an egg. The upper half of the shell became heaven, including the god on high who presided over it, while the lower coalesced into the earth and its primordial mother. From both halves developed the sun, stars, trees and animals.

In Celtic myths, the goddess Ilmatar sat in the sea and stretched out her leg for an eagle to land on her, because it was clear that the eagle was looking for a place to nest and lay eggs. The eagle descended on Ilmatar's leg and laid the cosmic eggs on the goddess's leg. However, the virgin goddess ended up dropping the eggs, and as the eggs fell, they formed the world as we know it; The broken shells of the eggs formed the heavens and the earth; the yolks became the sun, and the chalaza became the moon; and the fragments of the eggs became the stars.

"One egg's lower half transformed And became the earth below, And its upper half transmuted. And became the sky above; From the yolk the sun was made, Light of day to shine upon us; From the white the moon was formed, Light of night to gleam above us; All the colored brighter bits. Rose to be the stars of heaven. And the darker crumbs changed into. Clouds and cloudlets in the sky." - Finnish Mythology.”

From a Platonic view:

Apollo is an immensely important and wide-ruling god that can be described with a few abstract through-lines: Distance, harmony, and vision. His associations range from wolves, hunting, and shepherding to prophecy, medicine, and philosophy. Throughout all of these activities he remains the far-shooting archer, the purifier, and the all-seeing one. Such a position makes sense given his associations with healing (injured animals) and vision (spotting predators). It even fits with his association with music, which he shares with Pan and Hermes. Apollo is the god of all light, not just that of the sun. Light is the cause of both vision and life itself - according to the ancients, the distinction is extremely minor. Apollo’s light illumines the sensible world just as Zeus illumines the numinous world. Thus Apollo is lord of prophecy; just as he makes divine aither into visible light, he makes the motions of the higher worlds understandable to those below. In Philosophical terms Apollo can be seen as the intellective power held remote from its objects, seeing, judging, and forming “from afar,” thus his silver bow. He is the predecessor of Soul, or at least the point at which Soul, ruled by Hermes, proceeds far enough into the divisible world to experience itself independently from the Intellect that sustains it. This distance accounts for why his myths frequently involve lost love; he is too transcendent to “grasp,” to be bound to, the things he witnesses. Apollo is always depicted as a beardless youth because he stands directly above the point at which space-time begins. This doesn’t have to be a one-way trip. Part of why Apollo is so important to us is that he accords the ascent or descent of the soul according to its virtue. He is the god of both music and medicine for a single reason: he is the great harmonizer, a role he shares with Aphrodite and Hermes. Medicine is the art of harmonizing the body with itself, its environment, and its source, to which end Apollo sends his son Asclepius. Music is a little more complicated. The structure of music can teach us much about metaphysics; pitch corresponds to space and tempo to time. A song occurs in-between its lowest note and its highest, forming various different “shapes” as it travels along its course. Harmony is considered holy because harmony is the way unity expresses itself in a divided realm. Thus Apollo, who translates divine light into sensible light, imposes harmony upon the lower world. This is his slaying of Python, which then enables him to speak his oracles. Similarly Apollo enables the existence of Time, which we measure by the motions of the Sun, and Space, which we perceive because of the presence of light within it. This is because these two things are actually no less than the particular way in which infinity and eternity expresses themselves when they proceed into generation and into matter. Apollo is the voice of Zeus and the leader of the Muses, goddesses of the arts and sciences who are daughters of the Titaness Mnemosyne, Memory. The arts rely on Apollo as the great beholder and bringer of divine beauty, which it is the job of art to emulate. Mnemosyne is dear to Apollo because memory is the human faculty that most resists the shifting sands of time, attempting to imitate the atemporal omniscience of a god. This connection grows more involved in light of Plato’s idea of memory and recollection, which is that all learning is simply the remembrance of information that our soul, by means of its communion with the united cosmos, has inherent access to.

WHO IS DIONYSUS? Double-natured, thrice-born, the spitting image of his father Zeus, Dionysus is the ruler of the incarnate world. He is also the great separator, releaser, conqueror, and liberator. Dionysus' first birth is as Zagreus, son of Zeus and Persephone. Zeus was so pleased that he gave his new son a throne and thunderbolts, declaring him co-ruler over all the Gods. These toys were: A golden apple representing immortality, a pinecone representing creative force and endurance, a ball representing the sphere of the cosmos, a spinning top which represents cyclical time and entropy, A tuft of hair signifying growth and wildness, knuckle-bone dice signifying boyhood and playfulness, and finally a mirror said to be crafted by Hephaistos. This is the most important of the toys.

"A mirror was a symbol of... the intellectual completion of the universe. Hence they say, Vulcan (Ἥφαιστος) made a mirror for Dionysus, into which the God looking, and beholding the image of himself, proceeded into the whole particible fabrication of things." In other words, the moment at which Dionysus perceives himself in the mirror, the moment at which the Titans snatch him, is the moment at which he descends into the incarnate realm to become its master, as the incarnate realm is a mirror through which the divine perceives itself. Semele is representative of the entirety of human contact with the divine. She demonstrates both the possibility of intimacy with divine reality and the inaccessibility of that reality's infinite entirety to a human's bodily mind. Her death is an apotheosis. For the Greeks, there is no better way to go. Death at the pinnacle is preferable to slow decay, a mindset that is much easier to grasp when you accept that death is only a transformation. Dionysus heightens & sharpens our experience of the physical world because he wants us to confront & surpass it. As a God he is actually closer to an ascetic than a hedonist; all that he does & moves in us is towards the ends of peace and freedom from discursive fear and desire. As such, he is not a patient God. He is irrepressible, he is undeniable, and he is already working in all of your lives tirelessly. At every moment when you encounter something beyond yourself, something that strikes you and forces you to commit yourself fully to an experience, That is the God reaching through the mirror to grab you by the collar & pull you as close as you will let him. At every point at which your life changes forever, at which you slide between entire modes of being, that is Dionysus pouring you a new cup & reminding you of one thing: Your body, your environment, your people, even your mind, these are all extensions of you but they are not your entirety. You are not the seven toys, you are not the reflection in the mirror, you are the child. It is through Dionysus from his throne atop this world that we approach Zeus' throne atop Heaven. Only once Dionysus teaches us that we *are our souls* do we become able to understand that our souls are expressions of the Gods themselves refracting through the prism of forms. Like Hermes, Dionysus is often paired with Aphrodite; Love requires recognition, a clear vision of the Other. Dionysus as the great revealer helps us to recognize our true selves, selves whose division and alienation from each other is actually ultimately temporary and illusory. Dionysian Love is the self-love of an egoless self sprawling itself out to its true size, encompassing all around it like the explosive shoots of ivy that sprout wherever the God steps. It was those shoots of ivy that destroyed his prison in Thebes and overthrew the rapacious pirates that threatened him on his journey westward. The irrepressible bloom of life is the God's weapon. Jupiter is the source of all things and instills the inborn strength of a soul. He is the model of total selfhood, strength, and virtue. He is the Father, and he is One-ness. Now we come to Juno. She's the most underappreciated and sparsely understood of the three Gods, but She is the lynchpin of the triad. Juno, Goddess of Births and Queen of Heaven, is responsible for the refinement of one-ful "Being" into the multitude of Beings in the cosmos. She is the beginning of all Identity that is not simply Zeus. In a Campbellian sense, She rends us from the cozy, idyllic home. Zeus carelessly creates life, and Hera offers the opposition which forges that life into something powerful & independent once it has. Her blessing of wisdom and understanding is what enables the Hero to finally become a synthesized, complete, independent soul, which was the design of Jupiter in the first place for he is perfect.

One: In Jupiter, a connection to their source, their ideal, and their goal of perfection and sovereignty.

Hermes, as you can all guess, is extremely active in the modern world, seemingly to our detriment when we examine the empty, psychopathic chatter of liberal corporate capitalism. Our societies have become inept at balancing and properly channelling Mercurial energies; This is nothing to blame the God and shrink from him for, but all the more reason to engage him and to look for what parts of his teachings we may be neglecting. A glaring example is his relationship with death, which our society has grown dangerously childish about. Like magnifies like; no wonder a culture so unreceptive to Hermes' all-important work preparing us for death would be unable to receive him well in other ways. Another lesson we may be neglecting is a lot more obvious; our connections have become faster and faster and more and more voluminous, but have they become more *connective*? The loneliness epidemic in the youth suggests not. The other end of the line is just as important to Hermes' work. Cultivating more respect for it, more intimacy even when that entails vulnerability, and more truth-telling even when that entails stubbed toes, is necessary. Moreover, it's an act of devotion to Hermes, the swiftest and gentlest of all the Gods, the friend of mankind, the Evangelos. As with any deity, we connect by sharing in their activities. For Artemis & Hekate this can mean babysitting, diving deep into a subject you're interested in, or exercising as much intention & control in your life as you can - even extending into "magical" practice if you want to. Real hunting may not be possible for most of us anymore, but there are lots of activities that share its essence. Exercise, especially running, sprinting, and high-impact workouts. Chasing goals, career or otherwise. Even chasing mates - courtship is supposed to be intense! And as with all deities, Artemis is also pleased when we connect with the gods she is connected to, Zeus and Apollo being the foremost of these. She is also dear to Dionysus and to her fellow animators, Hera and Demeter.” Helios explained as Zidine was still amazed, but readied himself for what would happen. “You must humble thy brother… redeem him. If you don’t kill him, then you have done me proud. Truthfully, no matter my power, I was unable to see the darkness that Helena had. No matter how perfect her beauty was, she had truly miserable intentions and as such, got pregnant with George as the second-born child. As a result, she was deeply hating of me and you, by extension and because of this, she never forgave you for your sheer existence. Thus, killing her could be a goal but redemption of one of them is genuinely necessary.” Helios said as Zidine glanced at him. “So I really do have no choice, huh?” Zidine asked as Helios nodded disapprovingly. “Yea. I shalt train thee with no regrets.” Helios said as he laughed, creating a huge boom that shattered the entirety of Greece. “What is Hesperia?” Zidine asked to which Helios calmly responded with “Hesperia is a kingdom… that of Norway mixed with Greece… Greco-Roman architecture and capacities, hence the Roman soldiers within the Royals’ ranks. It was thus formed away from Akaria’s control some thousands of years ago in the early 10th century since Akaria is thus older.” Helios explained, teleporting Abram, himself and Zidine onto Olympus. Zidine instinctively grabbed Mjolnir and fought Helios who barely lifted a finger, sending him flying back. “You beat Typhon but ye cannot even graze a finger of mine?” Helios asked as sunlight shot from his finger, leading to Zidine to use Mjolnir to dodge it. “I am the bearer of Tablets of Phanes: Oracular tablets written by the primordial god Phanes that describe the fate of the cosmos and the movements of the universe, kept by Helios and the Aureole: The shining crown which you were going to inherit.” Helios explained as he summoned an egg so bright that neither Zidine nor Abram could bear witness to it only for Zidine to howl, summoning Fenrir and his children. “A pet wolf? How mighty.” Helios said, laughing softly, ultimately grabbing Fenrir’s back and burning him up with one hit, ultimately having his light-based attack reflected by the Aegis.

"Ere land and sea and the all-covering sky were made, in the whole world the countenance of nature was the same, all one, well named Chaos, a raw and undivided mass, naught but a lifeless bulk, with warring seeds of ill-joined elements compressed together. No Titan [Helios the Sun] as yet poured light upon the world, no waxing Phoebe [Selene the Moon] her crescent filled anew, nor in the ambient air yet hung the earth, self-balanced, equipoised, nor Amphitrite's [the Sea's] arms embraced the long far margin of the land. Though there were land and sea and air, the land no foot could tread, no creature swim the sea, the air was lightless; nothing kept its form, all objects were at odds, since in one mass cold essence fought with hot, and moist with dry, and hard with soft and light with things of weight. This strife a God (Deus) [probably Phanes], with nature's blessing, solved; who severed land from sky and sea from land, and from the denser vapours set apart the ethereal sky; and, each from the blind heap resolved and freed, he fastened in its place appropriate in peace and harmony. The fiery weightless force of heaven's vault flashed up and claimed the topmost citadel; next came the air in lightness and in place; the thicker earth with grosser elements sank burdened by its weight; lowest and last the girdling waters pent the solid globe. So into shape whatever god it was reduced the primal matter and prescribed its several parts. Then first, to make the earth even on every side, he rounded it into a mighty disc, then bade the sea extend and rise under the rushing winds, and gird the shores of the encircled earth. Springs too he made and boundless fens and lakes, and rivers hemmed in winding banks to flow, which, in their diverse journeyings, sometimes the earth absorbs, sometimes they reach the sea and in its broad domain, instead of banks, with new-found freedom beat upon the shores. He bade the plains spread wide, the valleys sink, the craggy mountains rise, the forest trees don their green leaves; and as the vault of heaven has five divisions, two zones on the right, two on the left, and hottest burns the fifth, with that same number Providence divine parcelled in zones the solid earth below. The midmost uninhabitable heat claims for its own; two lie clothed deep in snow; two, in between, were given a temperate clime where warmth and cold combine in harmony. The air hangs high above them, weightier than the empyrean in the same degree as earth than water. There he bade the mists and there the clouds to have their dwelling-place, and thunder that should shake the hearts of men, and lightning flashing through the freezing gales. The World's Creator (Fabricator Mundi) [probably Phanes] did not grant the Venti (Winds) [Anemoi] full freedom of the sky; who, even so, though each in separate regions rules his blasts, can well nigh tear the world apart, so fierce is brother's strife . . . Scarce had he thus all things in finite bounds divided when the Sidera (Stars) [Astra], in darkness blind long buried, over all the spangled sky began to gleam; and, that no part or place should lack fit forms of life, the firmament he made the home of gods and goddesses and the bright constellations; in the sea he set the shining fish to swim; the land received the beasts, the gusty air the birds. A holier creature, of a loftier mind, fit master of the rest, was lacking still. Then man was made, perhaps from seed divine formed by the great World's Creator (Origo Mundi) [probably Phanes], so to found a better world, perhaps the new-made earth, so lately parted from the ethereal heavens, kept still some essence of the kindred sky--earth that son of Iapetus [Prometheus] moulded, mixed with water, in likeness of the gods that govern the world, to which Zidine could do nothing but watch in sheer awe. The entirety of Olympus shook and shuddered in sheer terror as its true King showed his power. “You are not bad but you are lacking.” Helios said as Zidine instinctively used Berserker Mode alongside Fenrir literally bumrushing Helios. “Come, Abram.” Helios said to Abram who was literally too fear-struck to do anything only for Zidine to fire a red thunderbolt as Helios’ chest. “Cloak of the Sun.” Helios thought to himself, immediately summoning the power of the cosmos itself to heal from the attack. “So you still have the Berserker Mode, eh? The form that amplifies your power by hundreds to thousands of times? It thus appears that you need the second-to-last form of it.” Helios expressed, allowing Zidine to even have time to summon the breast-plated Aegis only for him to be sent flying away with one attack from Helios’ pinky finger. “Solaris.” Helios then said, immediately forcing a cancer-like effect onto Zidine’s body, which was clearly a spiritual or conceptual disease. “Did he use solar radiation on me?” Zidine asked himself, only to be blitzed by an invisible attack. “Given that he has a Staff-like ability to control the sun, I suspect he has the power to create weapons from solar energy.” Zidine thought to himself, instinctively using his Eye to see the future and tried to dodge Helios’ next attack; and despite failing, he managed to somehow teleport behind his father and use Mjolnir only for him to turn into sunlight and fire a huge beam of sunlight from the sky. “That Staff your brother has was the Sceptre of Phanes. I crafted it for your “mother”. She misuses it even now.” Helios said with a grave expression as the sun continually blinded Zidine. “You destroyed this place before, eh?” Helios asked, recreating the entirety of Olympos with a finger snap as well as summoning a thunderbolt to which Zidine swiftly used his Runes. Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength. From Heaven and from Olympos he came forthwith, hurling his lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Okeanos' streams and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round the Titenes Khthonios (Earthly): flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air (aither): the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized air (khaos): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth (Gaia) and wide Heaven (Ouranos) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth (Gaia) were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven (Ouranos) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war, to which Zidine smiled, only for Helios to appear behind him and in front of him all the same. “Titanfall.” He said, grabbing Zidine’s face, sending him upwards and stabbing him with his Sword. “You were a universal King? That’s why all the Olympians revered you?” Zidine asked as the sword somehow bypassed his rune related to it. “Indeed. I am the strongest. Zeus is a mere fraction of my power after all. Think of it like the State of the One compared to thy brother, Satoshi.” Helios calmly said, sending Zidine into Olympus head-first, seemingly cracking his skull as Berserker Mode was clearly not working. “The boy whose name was sunlight. My son…” Helios said with regret in his words. “Your son… is alive.” Zidine said, an illusion surely wast he before only for Helios to smile. “All you must do is cut me down, releasing ichor.” Helios said as Zidine immediately summoned the Harpe. “I have to touch his heart once and then this battle will be over. His cancer will spread once more. That lung cancer back then… that was due to solar radiation.” Zidine thought to himself as he realised that, whilst his father was a God, he can’t have been the most powerful. This fight continued for a month by a way of time stopping within Olympus as time itself became Helios’ finger. “I shalt throw Chaos at thee.” Helios spoke, carrying the entirety of the “sky” on one hand and throwing it straight at Zidine. “He’s throwing Chaos?!” Zidine thought to himself, only to use the full power of his 8th form of the Lightning of Elding, using the lightning of Jove’s full power to end Chaos for good, removing the very concept of the Void from all of existence, only for Helios to smile. “He destroyed the very void of this Omniverse? He is slowly becoming the hero of Hope that was predicted and doing so without the amplification of permanency in relation to Prometheus… his growth is incredible. He really will one day get the Gift.” Helios thought to himself, only to rethink Chaos into existence casually as Zidine used his full speed, using red orbs to surround Helios (who was the Sun) and destroy it… only for him to teleport directly in front of Helios and just as he teleported it, Zidine used the full power of the Berserker Mode’s 8th form in the form of his Keravnós (Thunderbolt, Κεραυνός) which was on the tip of the Harpe, firing his thunderbolt into Helios’ chest, causing him to vomit golden blood. “He reinflicted my lung cancer caused thus by my solar radiation in life?!” Helios thought to himself with actual fear. “In the beginning, there was nothing, nothing but a swirling primordial chaos. Powerful embodiments of cosmic forces sprung forth from the void and from them descended a race of divine beings. Thus begins the story of a line of fathers and sons, ultimate rulers of all of creation. First, there was Uranus, the representation of the vast starry sky. He was born from Gaia, the primordial Earth, and with his own mother he had many children. First there were the twelve Titans, then the one-eyed Cyclopes, and finally the hundred-handed Hecatoncheires. Uranus despised the latter two groups for their monstrous appearances and had them all locked away in the Underworld. Sickened at the treatment of her children, Gaia created a jagged sickle and rallied the Titans against their father. Only Cronos, the wiliest of the twelve, was willing to take up the blade. He attacked Uranus, slicing off his genitals and casting them into the sea. And so Cronos claimed his father’s place as highest of all. Exulting in his newfound power, he took his own sister Rhea as a wife. She bore him children, but learning nothing from the fate of his father, Cronos treated his sons and daughters cruelly. He swallowed each one as they were born so that none could overthrow him someday. By the time she gave birth to their sixth child, Rhea had grown sick of Cronos’s deranged, abusive behavior. Instead of handing the baby over to Cronos, she swaddled a rock in infant’s clothing and gave him that instead. The stout-hearted young god was passed on to his grandmother Gaia, who whisked him away to a faraway cave. This child was Zeus, destined king of god and man… but for now he was just a boy, being raised in secrecy. Attended by nymphs and nursed by the goat Amaltheia, the young prince grew up fast. Soon, the time came for him to continue the family tradition and challenge his father. Zeus allied himself with his cousin Metis, who slipped Cronos an emetic that caused him to vomit up all of his kids he had swallowed. Being immortals, they had survived inside his stomach for all those years, and the five quickly teamed up with their brother Zeus. Together, the young gods clashed against the Titans in an epic series of battles that would be recorded in legend as the Titanomachy. The war stretched on for ten long years, the shockwaves of their combat felt through all of existence. Zeus managed to get the upper hand by freeing his imprisoned uncles, the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires. With their assistance, the Titans were swiftly defeated and imprisoned in the darkest pit of the Underworld, Tartarus. After ascending to the throne, Zeus had a few orders of business to attend to. First was divvying up the universe. He and his brothers Hades and Poseidon drew lots to decide who would reign over what. Hades got the Underworld, Poseidon got the oceans, and Zeus got the sky… pretty much the best out of the three. It fit him well, as the Cyclopes had armed him with an arsenal of powerful thunderbolts, with which he could swiftly smite just about any being he wished. Next was finding himself a queen. He first married Metis, but this didn’t last for long. Zeus’s grandparents told him of a prophecy which said his second child with Metis would be a son even stronger than he was. Not wanting history to repeat itself yet again, Zeus did the only rational thing he could and ate his own wife. She was pregnant at the time with their first child, and eventually Zeus gave birth to that baby through his own head – this was Athena, goddess of war and wisdom. This was his first child of what would be many. And I mean many, as in, triple digits. After Metis, Zeus bounced from lover to lover, more than a few of them being his relatives. He eventually settled on his sister Hera as his queen, though he wasn’t exactly the most faithful husband. Even after tying the knot with Hera, he basically just kept doing whatever (and whoever) he pleased. These dalliances would lead to various conflicts with his wife, most notably over his bastard son Heracles. But you probably know all about him already. Zeus’s life as the king of everything wasn’t all sunshine and incest. More cosmos-quaking battles were on the horizon. There was the Gigantomachy, a battle between gods and giants that nearly reached the scale of their first war with the Titans. Then came Typhon, a monstrous, hundred-headed serpentine being so enormous he brushed against the stars. Zeus took him on alone while the other gods fled, and after a hard-fought battle, the king of the Olympians managed to imprison him beneath a mountain. No matter what threat besieged Olympus, Zeus was always there to take it down. When the other gods stepped out of line, he was quick to put them back in their place. And if an uppity mortal ever dared to defy him, things never ended happily for them. Uranus and Cronos may have reigned before him, but Zeus was the true ruler of the endless universe, and he was never ashamed to let that immeasurable power go to his head. Plato (427-348/47) was born into a distinguished Athenian family, active in affairs of state; he was undoubtedly a close observer of the political events that led up to Socrates’ execution. After Socrates’ death, Plato left Athens and visited Italy and Sicily, where he seems to have come into contact with Pythagorean philosophers. In 388 Plato returned to Athens and founded a school of his own, the Academy, where young men could pursue advanced studies. He spoke:

C. The carpenter replicates the mental idea as closely as possible in each table he makes, but always imperfectly.

D. There is a divine craftsman who bears the same relationship to the cosmos as the carpenter bears to his tables. The divine craftsman (the Demiurge) constructed the cosmos according to an idea or plan, so that the cosmos and everything in it are replicas of eternal ideas or forms—but always imperfect replicas because of limitations inherent in the materials available to the Demiurge. In short, there are two realms: a realm of forms or ideas, containing the perfect form of everything; and the material realm in which these forms or ideas are imperfectly replicated.

E. Plato illustrated this conception of reality in his famous “allegory of the cave,” found in book VII of the Republic. Men are imprisoned within a deep cave, chained so as to be incapable of moving their heads. Behind them is a wall, and beyond that a fire. People walk back and forth behind the wall, holding above it various objects, including statues of humans and animals; the objects cast shadows on the wall that is visible to he prisoners. The prisoners see only the shadows cast by these objects; and, having lived in the cave from childhood, they no longer recall any other reality. They do not suspect that these shadows are but imperfect images of objects that they cannot see; and consequently they mistake the shadows for the real.

F. One of its most striking characteristics is Plato’s vehement opposition to certain features of pre-Socratic thought. According to these philosophers, things behave according to their inherent natures, and this alone accounts for the order and regularity of the cosmos. Order, then, is intrinsic, rather than extrinsic; it is not imposed by an outside agent but arises form within.

G. Now Plato found such an opinion not only foolish but dangerous. He had no intention of restoring the gods of Mount Olympus, who interfered in the day-to-day operation of the universe, but he was convinced that the order and rationality of the cosmos could be explained only as the imposition of an outside mind. If the physikoi found the source of order in physis (nature), he would locate it in psyche (mind). Plato depicted the cosmos as the handiwork of a divine craftsman, the Demiurge.

H. Besides being a rational craftsman, the Demiurge is a mathematician, for he constructed the cosmos on geometrical principles. Plato’s account borrowed the four roots or elements of Empedocles: earth, water, air, and fire. But (probably under Pythagorean influence) he reduced them to mathematical ingredients or components. Plato made these the basis of a “geometrical atomism”—associating each of the elements with one of the geometrical solids. Fire is the tetrahedron, air is the octahedron, water the icosahedron, and earth the cube. Plato also found a function for the docedahedron by identifying it with the cosmos as a whole.” He explained as Zidine was visibly exhausted, with the end of the month coming. Abram sat in the blood of the dragon he slew, giving him complete invulnerability to all dragons outside of this World and the ability to fully damage Dragons yet thus he could lose to those of ancient times, including Typhon and his ancestors therein! “The thing I wanted to say earlier… is that I… am your brother… and Helena’s son.” Abram said, to Zidine’s visible shock, however they steadied themselves. “No matter.” Zidine said bluntly as Helios laughed, causing the entirety of Chaos to tremble.

“Now then… it is time for you two to leave and complete thy destiny.” Helios said. Zidine remembered his school days, having thought about his own personal values. He thought about himself. He admired his father, King Helio the most. He remembered his words. 'In life, everything is about honour. When a man loses his honour, he is nothing. And honour comes from success. We must be successful, so we can provide honour for our family'. Zidine wrote this down. "Uh... what? You're King Helios' son?" Asked Satoshi. Zidine nodded, "Yes I am. So I should be treated with a certain level of respect, do you not think?" He said, arrogantly. Masaru then laughed, "You'll be treated exactly equally to the rest of us. King or not, I don't give a damn, we're all brothers after all." Xiaoyu nodded in agreement, while Satoshi was still stunned. Zidine glared into Masaru's eyes, with anger, "I am the son of King Helios! I demand respect from you peasants!" Masaru stared straight back at Zidine, "I hope this school isn't full of people like you! Anyway, who are you kidding, you're adopted! Don't you think we know!? King Helios picked you up out of pity!" As they embraced, the heavens shook. The guards of heaven blew their trumpets in relief. "THE BROTHER'S HAVE RETURNED! THE SONS SHALL SAVE US!" They cheered. Back on Earth, the four brothers no longer felt they were alone. They felt unstoppable. A new energy had emerged from their reunion. Zidine looked around, slightly frustrated. "I cannot believe that they are my brothers. They're all... Common!" He thought. Masaru then interrupted Zidine's thoughts, and with a smiling face asked "Hey uh Zidine? Were you and Xiaoyu living together since birth? You two seem to have met before. I just met Satoshi about an hour ago." Zidine jumped and impulsively said, "No no no, of course we haven't met! Look at him and me! I'm a royal! I'm King Helios' son. He then remembered his father’s death. Upon hearing the commotion, the rest of the family came upstairs to the room, and they were shocked to see Zidine and the King dancing about. But, just as the family came in, the King felt a piercing pain in his stomach, as he immediately dropped to the ground, unconscious. In the next hours, the King was rushed to the hospital, but it was too late. He was dead. However, Zidine was not upset, he knew what he had to do to make his father proud. He had to become a hero. Outside the room where the father lay to rest. The Queen and Zidine embraced each other, tearfully. “I understand what he told you then” said the Queen. “Yes, mother. Father did tell me” Zidine said solemnly. “Well then son. What are you here for? Go! Go be the Hero you were destined to be! Make your father proud!” the Queen exclaimed. “But my brother and sister, what about them? And the kingdom?” Zidine questioned. “I will rule the kingdom now. Do not worry, I will be as great a ruler as your father,” she smiled, “and your siblings, well, what are you waiting for? Go say goodbye to them!” as well as remembering his past actions, staring down at his bloodied hand. "Who killed King Helios?" Himari asked suddenly in a sharp attempt to change the subject. "He wasn't killed. He was-" Zidine was about to say, before he was cut off as Himari said, "Yeah yeah, he had cancer or something, but cancer doesn't progress or take lives that fast. The papers said he had a lung cancer or something, but he wasn't a smoker, nor did his servants recognise any pain. And also, one of his maids let loose that 4 weeks before his death, he had a meeting with a dark and brooding figure. My question is, was the late great Helios of Hesperia, a corrupt scumbag connected to organised crime? Or other nefarious organisations?" As she said that a large fist connected with her cheek, as Zidine recoiled his hand and angrily shouted, "YOU KNOW NOTHING OF ME, PEASANT!" Zidine would then leave the classroom, as Kage ignored this and continued the class. Masaru was about to chase after Zidine but Kage told him to return to his place, as he said, "Give him some time, he'll return" Masaru then turned back towards his partner, Hajime as he readied himself into a fighting stance.

“Be the very best hero you can be! The very best! Be a beacon of hope, when people in the darkness see you, be like the light, guiding them to safety, guiding them forward. If ever you find yourself stuck, believe in yourself. Remember who you are. YOU ARE ZIDINE! ZIDINE HELIO LUMIERE! SON OF KING HELIO! WIELDER OF LIGHTNING! BRINGER OF STORMS! BEACON OF HOPE! THE LIGHT IN THE DARK! THE FURY OF THE SKIES! THE WRATH OF UTOPIA! YOU ARE ZIDINE! YOU ARE MY SON! YOU ARE THE HERO OF HOPE!” the King exclaimed with all his strength . Zidine’s veins were filled with energy, filled with a new power. A new belief in himself. He was the Hero of Hope. “Thank you father! I promise, the people will be singing your name when me and my brothers will save the Omniverse, ‘there he goes, there he is! The Pride of Helio’ they will say!” Zidine exclaimed with a loud cheer, as he embraced his father. “Thy family may not be the best… but thy final form, that of the 9th form… could’ve killed me for it is transcendent… bypassing all obstacles and powers. God-negating properties… it is the most powerful form of lightning and power ever. In comparison, thy universal power with physicality and Mjolnir are irrelevant in comparison to it… you could destroy the entire Omniverse. Your mother will likely curse thee… but thy brother is the goal. Go, my child.” Helios said as he hugged Zidine, his true successor. “I never hated thee… love be thy name… boy of Sunlight. My boy.” He spoke as Zidine walked away, now taking the Helm of Invisibility and becoming fully invisible. “He truly has surpassed me.” Helios thought to himself.

George’s Palace in the Present

“George, it will be time. Pandora’s Box hath been released and thus… your fate will be yours. You will gain the ultimate, transcendent power your father had. You will become Zagreus! The King of the Universe, no, of Chaos, Heaven and Tartaros!” Helena said, as she smiled. “Close thy eyes. This is your gift.” Helena said as she smiled menacingly. Her eyes grew redder as the Palace shook; its sandstone formation visibly shuddered in true fear. She grabbed two sickles and sliced her wrists. “In Heimskringla, Ynglinga Saga, Chapter 7: Óðinn knew, and practised himself, the art which is accompanied by greatest power, called seiðr (‘black magic’), and from it he could predict the fates of men and things that had not yet happened, and also cause men death or disaster or disease, and also take wit or strength from some and give it to others. But this magic, when it is practised, is accompanied by such great perversion that it was not considered without shame for a man to perform it, and the skill was taught to the goddesses. Óðinn knew about all the treasure of the earth, where it was hidden, and he knew songs which would make the earth and cliffs and rocks and grave-mounds open up before him, and with words alone he would bind those who were in them and go in and take from there whatever he wanted. He became very famous because of these powers. His enemies feared him, but his friends trusted him and believed in his power and in him. And he taught most of his skills to his sacrificial priests. They were next to him in all lore and magic. And yet many others learned much of it, and from there heathendom spread widely and lasted for a long time. And people worshipped Óðinn and the twelve rulers and called them their gods and believed in them long afterwards. The name Auðunn comes from Óðinn, and people called their sons this, and from Þórr’s name come the names Þórir and Þórarinn, or it is combined with other elements, as in Steinþórr or Hafþórr, or changed further in other ways." Let the Lord of Hell and Fire come and bless my child with the power needed to slay his ultimate enemy. Even if he bears his father’s stave and youthful form, bless him with his true power and potential. Let Zidine Helios’ end come. Replenish my beloved with the skill of the Asura even if he is powerful enough to upturn trees and countries through the power of the Staff of the Cosmos and the Bow of Apollo.

O Powerful Victory [Nike], by men desir'd, with adverse breasts to dreadful fury fir'd,

Thee I invoke, whose might alone can quell contending rage, and molestation fell:

'Tis thine in battle to confer the crown, the victor's prize, the mark of sweet renown;

For thou rul'st all things, Victory [Nike] divine! And glorious strife, and joyful shouts are thine.

Come, mighty Goddess, and thy suppliant bless, with sparkling eye, elated with success;

May deeds illustrious thy protection claim, and find, led on by thee immortal Fame.

O Father Jove [Zeus], who shak'st with fiery light the world deep-sounding from thy lofty height:

From thee, proceeds th' ætherial lightning's blaze, flashing around intolerable rays.

Thy sacred thunders shake the blest abodes, the shining regions of th' immortal Gods:

Thy pow'r divine, the flaming lightning shrouds, with dark investiture, in fluid clouds.

'Tis thine to brandish thunders strong and dire, to scatter storms, and dreadful darts of fire;

With roaring flames involving all around, and bolts of thunder of tremendous sound.

Thy rapid dart can raise the hair upright, and shake the heart of man with wild afright.

Sudden, unconquer'd, holy, thund'ring God, 'with noise unbounded, flying all abroad;

With all-devouring force, entire and strong, horrid, untam'd, thou roll'st the flames along.

Rapid, ætherial bolt, descending fire, the earth all-parent, trembles at thy ire;

The sea all-shining; and each beast that hears the sound terrific, with dread horror fears:

When Nature's face is bright with flashing fire, and in the heavens resound thy thunders dire.

Thy thunders white, the azure garments tear, and burst the veil of all surrounding air.

O Jove [Zeus], all-blessed, may thy wrath severe, hurl'd in the bosom of the deep appear,

And on the tops of mountains be reveal'd, for thy strong arm is not from us conceal'd.

Propitious to these sacred rites incline, and crown my wishes with a life divine:

Add royal health, and gentle peace beside, with equal reason, for my constant guide.

The Fumigation from Frankincense and Manna.

I Call the mighty, holy, splendid light, aerial, dreadful-sounding, fiery-bright;

Flaming, aerial-light, with angry voice, lightning thro' lucid clouds with horrid noise.

Untam'd, to whom resentments dire belong, pure, holy pow'r, all-parent, great and strong:

Come, and benevolent these rites attend, and grant my days a peaceful, blessed end.

O Jove much-honor'd, Jove [Zeus] supremely great, to thee our holy rites we consecrate,

Our pray'rs and expiations, king divine, for all things round thy head exalted shine.

The earth is thine, and mountains swelling high, the sea profound, and all within the sky.

Saturnian [Kronion] king, descending from above, magnanimous, commanding, sceptred Jove [Zeus];

All-parent, principle and end of all, whose pow'r almighty, shakes this earthly ball;

Ev'n Nature trembles at thy mighty nod, loud-sounding, arm'd with light'ning, thund'ring God.

Source of abundance, purifying king, O various-form'd from whom all natures spring;

Propitious hear my pray'r, give blameless health, with peace divine, and necessary wealth.

Blest Pæan, come, propitious to my pray'r, illustrious pow'r, whom Memphian tribes revere,

Slayer of Tityus, and the God of health, Lycorian Phœbus, fruitful source of wealth .

Spermatic, golden-lyr'd, the field from thee receives it's constant, rich fertility.

Titanic, Grunian, Smynthian, thee I sing, Python-destroying, hallow'd, Delphian king:

Rural, light-bearer, and the Muse's head, noble and lovely, arm'd with arrows dread:

Far-darting, Bacchian, two-fold, and divine, pow'r far diffused, and course oblique is thine.

O, Delian king, whose light-producing eye views all within, and all beneath the sky:

Whose locks are gold, whose oracles are sure, who, omens good reveal'st, and precepts pure:

Hear me entreating for the human kind, hear, and be present with benignant mind;

For thou survey'st this boundless æther all, and ev'ry part of this terrestrial ball

Abundant, blessed; and thy piercing sight, extends beneath the gloomy, silent night;

Beyond the darkness, starry-ey'd, profound, the stable roots, deep fix'd by thee are found.

The world's wide bounds, all-flourishing are thine, thyself all the source and end divine:

'Tis thine all Nature's music to inspire, with various-sounding, harmonising lyre;

Now the last string thou tun'ft to sweet accord, divinely warbling now the highest chord;

Th' immortal golden lyre, now touch'd by thee, responsive yields a Dorian melody.

All Nature's tribes to thee their diff'rence owe, and changing seasons from thy music flow

Hence, mix'd by thee in equal parts, advance Summer and Winter in alternate dance;

This claims the highest, that the lowest string, the Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring .

Hence by mankind, Pan-royal, two-horn'd nam'd, emitting whistling winds thro' Syrinx fam'd;

Since to thy care, the figur'd seal's consign'd, which stamps the world with forms of ev'ry kind.

Hear me, blest pow'r, and in these rites rejoice, and save thy mystics with a suppliant voice.

The King of All. In Orphic Hymn 37: "From Jove [Zeus] descended;

whose immortal breath sustains the soul,

and wafts her back from death;

Aerial-form'd, much-fam'd, in heav'n ye shine two-fold,

in heav'n all-lucid and divine:

Blowing, serene, from whom abundance springs, nurses of seasons, fruit-producing kings."

I bless thee with the fullest of power your father bore with my magic therein… in thy arrows and flames… and then, my lord… the ferocity of the Asuras: O my lord, O best of the givers of benediction, if you will kindly grant me the benediction I desire, please let me not meet death from any of the living entities created by you. Grant me that I not die within any residence or outside any residence, during the daytime or at night, nor on the ground or in the sky. Grant me that my death not be brought by any being other than those created by you, nor by any weapon, nor by any human being or animal. Grant me that I not meet death from any entity, living or nonliving. Grant me, further, that I not be killed by any demigod or demon or by any great snake from the lower planets. Since no one can kill you in the battlefield, you have no competitor. Therefore, grant me the benediction that I too may have no rival. Give me sole lordship over all the living entities and presiding deities, and give me all the glories obtained by that position. Furthermore, give me all the mystic powers attained by long austerities and the practice of yoga, for these cannot be lost at any time. Neither the deva-s, nor the demons, gandharva-s, yakSha-s, serpents, rAkShasa-s, nor the men, demons who prefer flesh, shall never ever kill me. O the grandfather of all the worlds! The sages shall never get angry with me and curse me. This is the boon I want, suitable for my penance. No one shall never ever kill me with a weapon, arrow, mountain or tree, dry or wet or any other things. No one shall never ever kill me in heaven, netherworld, sky, any place on earth, inside, outside, night or day. The one who is capable of killing me, along with my servants, army and vehicles with a single strike of hand, may become my death. I shall be the sun, moon, wind, fire and water, atmosphere, stars, all the ten directions. This the first boon I choose. I should not be killed by any of these things—weapons, missiles, mountains, trees whether dry or wet. I should not be killed above or below. He who is able to kill me at one blow of his band along with my servants, armies and vehicles shall cause my death. I shall be all these: sun, moon, wind, fire, water, atmosphere, firmament, everything. I must be anger, love, Varuṇa, Indra, Yama, Kubera, the presiding deity of riches as well as the over-lord of Yakṣas and Kimpuruṣas. Bless him with the power of true Runic nullification. He beareth the arrows of harm and healing; bless him with the ultimate power of Viking-slayer!” Helena thought to herself, using the Devil’s power and her own seiðr (‘black magic’)’s powers to bless her son with the accuracy of Apollo, the wits of Athena and ultimately eternal luck thanks to her ritual as a voice appeared in her mind. “Very well, girl… I shall bless him with the powers you seek… in the end, all will return to Chaos…Form of the Queen; as he be thy sacred Virgin-bound Son. Cursed be he in goodness for himself with undue love as he beareth his Chaos-bound strength which goeth above the Boundless Earth.” The Devil spoke as she smiled with a bright light devouring all of Hesperia. “Open your eyes, my beloved. Your true power has awakened.” Helena said, quickly healing her wound as George peacefully smiled with an egg in his hand that came from his sceptre. “Mother, I feel something in the air… it is time for the final showdown. The fight that was always to be.” George spoke as Helena cried.

“So… Zidine is back… and has somehow murdered his father.” Helena said to George who smiled without mercy; as she ignored memories of her love with Helios. “My boy… I love you so.” She said to her son, with happiness and fear clashing in her hardened and rock-hard eyes and heart only to look out to the outskirts of the city as she saw two goats flying in the sky above with her noticing the goats landing in the castle ground with no captain. “So he has truly returned. That bastardised Berserker. No matter… when I am through with him… he will learn who the rightful monarch of this damned place is.” George said, who now bore his father’s crown and sceptre fully manifested. Tears dripped down Helena’s face and cheeks, warming her cold-blooded heart as she smiled calmly, finally realising that her dreams of seeing Zidine falling and grovelling to her knees would be real. “Your Majesty, what is the news concerning?” Hadeil, her favourite general who bore a Roman-esque helmet, asked as she smiled. “This is the end.” Helena said, as she knew things would be good. However… by this, she would be sacrificing her “son” for her “first-born”. George then left the Staff with his mother, relieving the flow of time; unaware this would lead to his downfall in the long run.

Battle of Brothers[]

“Goats?” George asked as he immediately summoned Apollo’s bow and destroyed them as he saw Abram Willis with a black suit and red bowtie alongside neatly combed hair and a short stubble that befit his age. “Who are you?” Zidine asked with a slight air of arrogance. “Your brother.” Abram said in quick retort with a sly look on his face as George looked absolutely disgusted and repulsed. “Where is Zidine, the traitor?” George asked as he readied his bow. “Where is he?” He asked once again only for Abram to glare at him. “Stop asking, you sly little-!” Abram was about to say as an arrow fired into his throat… only for no damage to be incurred. “You want to know where he is? I am right here.” Zidine said, taking off his Helm of Invisibility. “Zidine, you traitor to the kingdom. Mother and I have been waiting for this for 3 years!” George said, with a clear sense of pomp being derived from his every word as they immediately readied themselves. The two combatants used their respective powers, firing one arrow and using the Drigo Axe respectively, to which the arrow mysteriously bypassed the Axe and struck Zidine in the throat, seemingly stripping him of his ability to speak. “Thou art a loser of the highest form, gratuitous twit.” George spoke as Zidine swiftly ripped out the arrow and then immediately summoned a beautiful mist, combining that with red lightning that went from his bosom to his hands and fired it at George who swiftly summoned fire from the ground to counter the red lightning in a beautiful display of the elements, to which his fire spread around the entirety of the Palace grounds without much, if any, effort as Zidine remained emotionless, remembering his father’s words and twisting his foot, warping the direction of the flames away from himself and Abram, causing the flames to surround him alone only for thunder itself to roar violently and shatter the sky itself, clouds parting their ways to witness the battle of the brothers; his fingers twisting with sadness and firing the red thunderbolts straight at George who swiftly responded by turning the fire he summoned out of the ground into a limestone-like substance, creating a wall of ashen lava to stop the thunderbolts from striking his very bosom and adding a huge moon of flame from his bitter mouth. Cracked lips strewn themselves unto his youthful face as Zidine swiftly blew a stream of wind, but as we all know, wind only amplifies fire’s stroke and intensity and with that, he ripped out the arrow from his throat, using it as a tool ‘gainst the flames of revenge and vengeance, ultimately snapping his fingers to turn that into a cube, countering the flames utterly that were a moon in amount; the Sun itself watched as disease spread into the air thanks to the flames. Geysers of fire erupted from the solemn and sorrowful ground below, causing devastation yet a sense of warmth to those who deserved them both; fanning themselves to create valleys of molten lava, the watchers of history and fate itself were these very fanners of the flaming valleys with people looking horrified as the elements themselves were battling against them. “Are the gods cursing us?!” Many a villager remarked with absolute fear in their human eyes, for their eyes could not, or perhaps did not want to perceive the battle of the gods playing out in the castle ahead. Flames continued to rip apart the area as Zidine knew he had no choice to not hold back, but at the same time, he promised his father redemption for his brother. “I don’t want to fight you, brother!” Zidine spoke as George simply ignored it, launching a volleys of disease-ridden arrows at Zidine who turned himself into the wind but the arrow still struck its target regardless and thus George stomped his foot into the ground, controlling a small piece of the ground of the castle, setting it alight with enough fury to cause eruptions of the highest calibre without doubt; although what George failed to realise is that Zidine… was not unwilling to use meagre options of attacking to kill with George glancing at Abram and breathing fire from his mouth to attack him, causing Abram to swiftly run away as Zidine then shut this down by using his runes although George turned that into an arrow and attacked him straight in the stomach. “You cannot kill me!” George spoke with slight arrogance in his heart, ultimately firing a plume of solar energy from his right eye and then setting Zidine alight with it via using his left however Zidine swiftly turned the flames into lightning and let the flames douse themselves in the form of an armoured body with his hand taking the full brunt of the solar flames to which George was shocked but maintained his cool, switching to let the “sky do the firing”, pointing his hand in the air to force arrows down at such a speed where the villagers and all those in Hesperia called it “faster than speeding bullets… faster than a jet!” only for Zidine to be forced to constantly use his armour to handle the arrows, stopping their motion; yet George countered this by stopping Zidine’s motion and pushing him away as he got up and used Mjolnir to push himself forward and fired it at George however he simply tanked it and threw it back, increasing its motion and speed to such a degree where Zidine could only react by using his body to survive the throw as George then fired one more arrow at Abram but as Zidine caught it, it exploded in his face in a pool of blood with which George used that timing to inflict the disease of welts on Zidine’s body and added blood poisoning to the list too and then kicked the ground, causing a tile to fire at his elder brother which was immediately set alight, but a mere wimp was heard with him punching the ground, releasing diseases and flames in sync with one another. “Shalt I heal you, Brother?” George asked mockingly as Zidine remained silent, instead allowing the fire to consume him only to then use that split-second to call down lightning in one straight stream of bolts. “What on earth?” George thought to himself as Zidine coldly smiled. “I didn’t want to fight you, but alas, you and our beloved Mother left me no other choice.” Zidine simply said, punching George so hard that he was sent flying back but no damage was dealt. “Does your arrogance know no bounds?” George asked as he used his bow and continually fired a volley of arrows from the sky although this time, Zidine used his physical force and not his runes to counter the flight of the arrows to stagnate them. “So he can bypass my runic protections.” Zidine thought to himself as George smiled, appearing as though he read his brother’s thoughts, continuing to use disease-based powers to kill Zidine, combining that near-constantly with flames which Zidine used by firing the flames into the air, unironically ionising the sky. “Your thunderous nature really will be your undoing, brother.” George spoke as he knew he would be alright by way of the gifts his Mother bestowed unto his very being, mind and soul, continually firing what would appear to be legions of arrows at Zidine who could do nothing but dodge them since redirecting them would yield hardly any results with all villagers of Hesperia watching in sheer awe as the skies parted themselves. “WHY DID YOU BETRAY AND KILL FATHER, NO, KING HELIOS?!” George asked in rage as Zidine continued to remain silent, treating this as a play of court where all the world was a stage, with him ultimately being forced to use Mjolnir to smash the ground, therefore causing the arrows to careen downwards into oblivion as George was visibly stunned, clapping his hands as fire still erupted without mercy, now in the form of a defensive wall. “Art of Apollo: Law of Giving Land.” George spoke, decreeing the entire country as his singular domain as beams of light surrounded Zidine and Abram in the form of a cage. “What is he doing?” Abram asked, to which Zidine could not answer. Was it fear? The unending silence mawed at them both however George simply laughed, remaining emotional and gleeful, summoning the Egg in hand as the very stars began to align above him and thereby causing the entire country to shake in fear however the Sun shone ‘pon the villagers of Hesperia, summoning a barrier that could protect against the mightiest of men and beings alike. “Your idea of reigning was false. Me giving my position to you was a sham!” Zidine said in pure disgust, questioning just what George’s idea of “protection” consisted of, be it absolute or incomplete in nature. “Oh? You gave it to me because you and I knew that I would be better than you as King! With my power as King of the Cosmos, I can rule all of Creation. The Omniverse is already mine to behold! I have surpassed even Father in terms of power.” George spoke; as though drunk with power, the Egg he beheld in hand was simply an artefact of some wild renown to his hand. “You have become arrogant!” Zidine screamed in utter sadness as he knew or sensed that whilst George was correct in terms of what he could do… he failed to observe the fact that his boons… had an exploitable weakness, to which Odin’s Eye revealed itself. “Thus… his power can likely be taken down at the form of twilight thus but fighting him until Morning in Berserker Mode is dangerous since it is eternally day here thanks to the effects of the Scepter although time itself is passing by, so through attacking him until twilight or even the sunset and dusk therein should allow me the chance to attack him. Because of my eye’s absolute sight, it is perhaps clear that he may need to set off-world [above the ground] and he should attacked with my hands and with enough force to rue even the biggest of trees. Abram will likely lose given George’s maximisation of his full power and potential and given Father’s performance against me, I will inevitably lose. But… Mother is the catalyst behind all this action of an invasive nature.” Zidine thought to himself, clearly questioning himself as he knew that fighting him until Twilight would be pointless and just as the blood devoured his sight, he summoned Mjolnir and forced the entirety of the Sky to bow to his command. “I have no choice. Even if I am bleeding… this fight has to end now… otherwise the entire country, no, this boundless earth would likely end. Because he has Father’s power as though he is in a youthful and perfect body.” Zidine thought to himself, since his Runes would not be effective whatsoever. “Let’s end this, Brother. Why don’t we end this and take down Mother together?” Zidine asked George, to which his eyes dilated in sheer, unadulterated rage. “Why would I take down the one who gave me these gifts? And especially with you!?” George screamed in glee and disgust as Helena watched, holding the Sceptre tightly. “DIE!” George screamed, using the full power of Apollo’s bow to strike Zidine with enough power to end the Sun, with Zidine forcing Time itself to move forward to Twilight, ultimately sending the makeshift Sun flying back at George who had no choice but to become sunlight and dodge as disease spread throughout the Kingdom thanks to George. “Forgive me, brother.” Zidine said, holding onto George as if for dear life. Second Form of the Lightning of Elding: Vortex of Death” Zidine whispered, forcing a vortex to rise around the two, sending George into the air as Zidine then punched him in the face briefly before stopping and smiling. “Why did you sto-?!” George’s bloodied face spoke, only to see just how far they were above ground (above many hills) and then sent him headfirst, making sure to take most of the damage instead by keeping Mjolnir secretly invisible behind George’s head and next to his cheek. George looked so horrified as he felt himself being crushed into the ground. “A second I know, which the son of men must sing, who would heal the sick. Or I know a second that the sons of men” Zidine thought to himself, only for George to smile, realising that he was still immune… only to be kicked in the stomach and sent flying and then… stabbed… to both of their shock. “You failed me.” Helena said, her hands trembling as with fear and shock, she had just stabbed her favourite son. “George. You failed me… even with my gift.” Helena said as Zidine glared at her. “You wretched murderer.” He simply said as she began laughing, with George beginning to lose blood and sight of the situation, remembering when his mother pampered him to no end. When his mother crowned him king and Zidine gave him literally everything he wanted. “Why would you do this, Mother?” George asked, to which Helena’s hands still trembled. “Because… you failed. You failed me. Even with your full power, you would lose to the traitor.” Helena said as George tried to remove the sceptre. “By doing this… you condemn the entire kingdom, as well as myself and thee to suicide.” George said, realising his time was short, ultimately smashed the Egg once in his hand, causing a huge amount of energy to devour the entirety of Hesperia. “You’re making a black hole?! WHY WOULD YOU DO THIS TO YOUR BELOVED MOTHER?!” Helena screamed as this was a black hole… but… instead… a worldwide disaster as the Sun started to suffer from solar flares and firing raw energy beams at the world, damaging significant parts of it as the Solar Barrier that protected the country meant nothing. “Die, bitch Zidine… was right.” George said as his eyes softened upon looking at Zidine. “I am sorry, brother… forgive me, Father.” He said as tears streamed down his eyes, sacrificing himself for Zidine as Helena’s scream was drowned by the end of George’s life. “How sad… George… your sacrifice meant naught.” Abram said as he felt his neck twisting itself in inhumane ways to which Zidine tried to protect him by using Mjolnir… however, upon hearing Helena laughing, he realised just how bad this situation was. “Indeed it had. That is unfortunate. Die.” Helena said as Abram’s neck snapped immediately, killing him, only for him to be turned into a pool of blood. “What the-?!” Zidine thought to himself, hearing nothing for he was too late to prevent anything bad from happening. He had failed. “Yes. Abram, your brother is dead. Let’s just say… getting on with Fenrir… was a truly interesting time. But… now that he is dead, you leave me no choice.” Helena said, only for Zidine to respond by throwing Mjolnir into her at full speed, sending her flying into the throne that she so desired, killing her. “Gullveig.” She said, appearing exactly where she was a mere moment ago. “You see… you haven’t met Heimdallr, have you?” She asked as Zidine still observed her, holding Mjolnir with enough of a grip strength to shatter it. “You see… I have the power of Gullveig which is to reincarnate thrice and upon me reincarnating three times, I become completely invincible. That power was given to me by the Devil and Haakon; moreso the latter as I invoked myself in rituals of the satanic type, hence the power and boon that you noticed with much intelligence. However… it is also thus that George’s power came from Helios himself, who I am sure you had met and murdered. But still… I have no choice but to summon my ultimate pawn.” Helena said as she fully let Pandora’s Box go into her, only for Hadeil to appear in front of her. A sly smile appeared on her face, etched.on it as Hadeil’s fate was now in her hands. “Lady Helena, I shall-!” Hadeil spoke… only to be beaten to death by crushing his helmet whilst it was still on his head. Inevitably, he became a pile of flesh. “You do not get in my way.” Helena coldly said, stomping over her most loyal soldier’s dead body, to Zidine’s absolute disgust. “Never forget this was your fault.” Helena spoke, still holding the Sceptre in her left hand as she was thus at her full power. “You bore Pandora’s Box?” Zidine asked to Helena merely nodding. “Trapped inside that box there is a stronger power than us two. It has been missing from the world. It all began when Zeus triumphed over the titans in the great war. Zeus understood that the evils born from that battle, if left free would destroy the world of man and gods. To contain these evils, Zeus commissioned Hephaestus to build a vessel strong enough to hold them. Fear. Greed. He locked them all away in the box in hopes that they would never again infect his reign. When you opened the box to kill Ares. You drew from the forbidden powers. After witnessing your victory, fear gripped Zeus.” Helena explained as she felt herself becoming the Platonic concept of the ultimate being as well as the ultimate entity. With that, she teleported a mountain called Eldgjá which appeared behind her, summoning a massive flaming giant. “See, Surtr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Surtr is foretold as being a major figure during the events of Ragnarök; carrying his bright sword, he will go to battle against the Æsir, he will battle the major god Freyr, and afterward the flames that he brings forth will engulf the Earth. I wish you all the best.” Helena said mockingly as Zidine immediately summoned his two “goats” and Fenrir. “Die.” Fenrir said, firing the star-level once again but as this was about to occur, Helena used her sceptre to fully counter the wolf. “Betrayer! SCUM!” Fenrir screamed as he immediately ran towards Surtur at full speed; the two giants clashing in the fight that would determine the fate of the world as Heimdall’s horn, the Gjallarhorn could be heard from Valhalla, heralding the beginning of Ragnarök, the sound of which will be heard in all corners of the World. “In Norse mythology, Sköll (Old Norse: Skǫll, "Treachery" or "Mockery") is a wolf that, according to Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, chases the Sun (personified as a goddess, Sól) riding her chariot across the sky. Hati Hróðvitnisson chases the Moon (personified, as Máni) during the night. Skӧll and Hati are the sons of the wolf Fenrir, and an unnamed giantess. It is foretold the wolves will chase the Sun and Moon across the skies until Ragnarök, at which point the wolves catch up and devour the celestial beings. In Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, the mention of Sköll appears when describing the story of Sol, who drives the chariot of the Sun in Norse Mythology. The wolf is seen chasing her after she receives her chariot to carry the Sun. "[Sun] goes at a great pace; her pursuer is close behind her and there is nothing she can do but flee. … There are two wolves and the one pursuing her is called Skoll [Treachery] is the one she fears; he will catch her [at the end of the world]." Hati Hróðvitnisson (first name meaning "He Who Hates", or "Enemy") is also my child. You will suffer, miserable imp. Even if you have ripped me from thy sinews, I hath gained such control over this situation that your loss is inevitable.” Fenrir said as Helena did not look terrified in the slightest, only for Zidine to immediately attack her with Mjolnir, knowing that he could use his Blades of Demphaus to fight off Surtur when that time came. “You betrayed me, Fenrir. KILL HIM!” Helena immediately screamed, only for her true power to make itself casually manifest, sending the entire kingdom into a frenzy. “Do you want me to succeed in what I should’ve back then?” Zidine asked as Helena smiled, knowing he wouldn’t… or at least this is what she thought of him. “You’ve’nt the mercilessness.” Helena said as red lightning devoured from the skies above, threatening all life and when combined with Helena’s usage of Pandora’s Box… the entirety of Hesperia became a barren landscape. “Your sister will rule upon thy death. She is your father’s greatest treasure. A box. Once opened, she will reign well.” Helena whispered into Zidine’s very soul, searing it but also scarring it with great relief and undue peace as he felt his sister’s spirit moving beside him. “I saw you do it. Unless… Of course. When you opened the box you released the evils to the gods. Infected them. Changed them. Zeus himself fell prey to the dark evils. This is why he became so enraged and obsessed with your death. He was consumed by the evil, fear. I thought the power I placed in the box was never released all these years I assumed you drew from the evils inside to destroy Ares. But I was wrong… the power you took from the box is mine. From it you gained the strength that Zeus could never destroy. A strength great enough to overcome fear. Locked deep inside of you Kratos, is hope. It has remained buried, trapped by your guilt and the failures of your past. When you kill Zeus, you must have allowed something to awaken it. What was it, Brother? Remember, as Father spoke before his death: Hope is what makes us strong. This is why we are here. It is what we fight with when all else is lost.” She spoke for her name was Pandora of Helios. “Has the realisation come, Zidine? The gods you fought betrayed you, cursed you and swore oaths against you. They loved me. My beauty…. Was so much that even Aphrodite, the embodiment of love… couldn’t help but fawn over me. Your father even fell for me with his power to affect Chaos and Olympus. You see… when I came here, after its construction several thousands of years ago… I was a mere lady and thy father, a man of immense stature in the world of politics and power, swooned me from great Olympus. He was a good man. That was who I thought Helios was… but then, I realised he wanted me to continue a legacy. His own and that of his Olympians. He had complete control of existence. Even surpassing that of the Jade Emperor’s of the Red Lane [that which I know of, surely], which was many years older than Hesperia… America… California and its brothels and the like came into being, we annexed it. Time was good… until 19 years ago, we had you. Your original mother… a woman of the English… your soul was reincarnated from a sarcophagus in the form of a baby. You were Helios’ beauty, such that he named you Lumiere. And then, not even 1 year after, I went behind thy father’s back and sired a child with Fenrir in the land of California. That being… Abram. And then, a few years later, I had George with Helios himself. Apollo blessed him with his bow. Things were good as Pandora came before George, 2 years after Abram himself, bearing her with Hephaestus… as I sealed her into a box to prevent. Pandora (Greek: Πανδώρα, derived from πᾶν, pān, i.e. "all" and δῶρον, dōron, i.e. "gift", thus "the all-endowed", "all-gifted" or "all-giving". Your father knew this but maintained an air of kindness. Power swallowed me up as the marriage before thy birth became nothing more than words to the freshest air. And so… I won… at the cost of everything.” Helena said as she began to laugh maniacally, releasing her pent-up tears. “BUT YOU… YOU… WERE THE BIGGEST FAILURE I HAVE EVER SEEN! YOU MURDERED YOUR OWN FATHER, BROTHERS AND SISTER BY YOUR EXISTENCE!” Helena said to Zidine who remained emotionless on the surface. “Compared to you who murdered your sons and daughter? A whor*?” Zidine asked, holding his thunderbolt, ready to just be done with her however his sister’s spirit saved him. In the darkness the fires of hope will set us free. You can see the light. It is changing you.” She spoke as Zidine knew he was to blame. She was right. Helena… was right. Reality struck him as he realised he had to kill the one he called Mother and at least that way, redeem his father’s torn legacy as the Moon shone above them. It was night. “NO! Do not kill her. It is time to lay your fears to rest. The light reveals the truth. The power of forgiveness comes from within. To be forgiven, you must find the power to forgive yourself.” Pandora spoke to Zidine, a warm light in the darkness that was the current situation. The storm of the Berserker was brewing from within and out… the Moon’s luminous, crystalline shine became dark. Fury ripped through its every part, every crack exuded a sense of primal fear. Fear and anger that ripped Zidine’s very concept and soul apart. She hugs him. Know that fear drove Zeus to kill his father, Cronos. The same fear that brought the great war. A fear that drove Zeus to kill you, his own son. Zeus uses fear to keep you in the dark. Confront your demons and lay them to rest.” Pandora spake with wisdom that was of her father but the beauty of her mother constantly shone through her. “You are… a worthy Queen, sister. Indeed, if she be right on one thing, that is the truth of absolutism. Verily, it is to be said. If I live to see the end of this day… become thy birthright.” Zidine spoke with an intense calmness as Pandora looked frightened for her eldest brother. “ The gods of Olympus have abandoned me. Now there is…” Zidine thought to himself, reminding himself of words that weren’t spoken, at least by mouth. Was this trickery?

BARBARIAN: Do you remember that day Spartan?

HEPHAESTUS: I won’t allow you to hurt her.

HERA: Good luck with that little whor* you call Pandora!

SISTER OF FATE: You cannot change your destiny, mortal!

SPIRIT: I gave you everything!

SPIRIT: Please don’t do it Spartan!

CRONOS: You have what you came for! Let me be!

SPIRIT: Die, Spartan!

HERMES: Today you may defeat me, but in the end, Zidine, in the end you’ll betray only yourself.

One eagle flew over the land and spoke one phrase: “Valour is better than might of sword, when foes embittered fight; for a brave man I have ever seen gain victory with a dull sword. For the brave 'tis better than for the timid to join in the game of war; for the joyous it is better than for the sad, let come whatever may. There lies Regin communing with himself; he will beguile the youth, who in him trusts: in rage he brings malicious words together, the framer of evil will avenge his brother. By the head shorter, let him the hoary babbler send hence to Hel; then can he all the gold possess alone, the mass that under Fafnir lay.”

Helena then spoke: Don’t listen to her, Zidine. For once in your pathetic life, don’t fail. Don’t fail her like you failed your family.” to which Pandora herself swiftly retorted with “It’s alright, Brother. You know this is the only way. As the fear in the gods rose, mine was replaced by hope.” As Zidine’s eye, the Eye of Odin, shone with a great blue energy whereas his right eye was glowing darker by the second. Remember Father’s final Maxim: Hope is what makes us strong. This is why we are here. It is what we fight with when all else is lost.” as Zidine manifested two crimson thunderbolts in his hands. “You, Helena, will not see the end of this day!” as she immediately knew exactly what was going to happen. “YOU CAN’T KILL A PLATONIC FORM, WRETCHED BOY!” She screamed as he combined his thunderbolts with the Blades of Demphaus, mercilessly attacking her only for the blades to “break”. “How foppish.” Zidine then said as he teleported in front of her and smiled. “I killed Heracles’ Platonic form. What makes you think… you… a betrayer of sons… can’t die?” He whispered as she looked rightfully terrified and choked him out. “Why won’t you die! Die! Tremble in fear. I AM THE FORM OF THE GOOD!” She screamed. “I grew weary of you, my son. I’ll put an end to this chaos. Die! Insolent fool! I will break you! Helios should have chosen wisely.” She spoke with absolute arrogance as Zidine felt his power draining itself as Pandora tried to fight her off… failing miserably as she was crushed. “Your eye… is unique.” She spoke to Zidine as he felt himself dying. Blood spilled down his throat. “ Empty? After all you have sought. After all you have sacrificed. It ends in another stunning failure. Such chaos… I will have much to do after I kill you. Nothing but darkness lies ahead.” She spoke as Zidine grabbed her arm but it was no use. “LIGHTNING OF JOVE! FULL POWER!!” Zidine screamed, summoning the full power of his thunderbolts in tandem with all the runes he knew… “I created you and I will be your end! Let the fear inside!” She continued to scream with blood-curdling as the skies finally made themselves. “BERSERKER HAMUR (MODE) - ACTIVATE!” Zidine screamed as Helena’s beautiful hand burned. “This construction of Hephaestus with your own flesh and blood. But perhaps you already have, Spartan. Your quest for Pandora, your pathetic attempt for atonement from the family you slaughtered has caused nothing but havoc on Olympus. Look around at what you have done! Taking pity on you has been my greatest mistake, Kratos. Just as taking pity on this thing will prove to be your greatest mistake.” Helena screamed as Zidine finally felt himself dying, for his eyes dilated. “He felt the spirit of George, Abram and Pandora moving his tarnished and shattered soul forward. The hands of his actions guiding him to his future. “Die not!” They all said as he knew that living had to occur. But… as he died… Berserker Mode’s power knocked him back into life as red lightning devoured his mother’s body. “DIE!” Zidine screamed as he used the full power of his thunderbolts, aiming it straight at her face. Zidine simply said “9th form of the Lightning of Elding!”, fully manifesting the true power of the Algiz rune in tandem with Thusarz alongside his true power [in tandem with all other runes] for the briefest of moments… causing Helena to look so fearful that she felt she could not fight anymore as Zidine used the full power of his thunderbolts and struck Heracles’ form, shattering and annihilating it fully. “You have won… let Typhon lose.” Heracles said to Zidine, smiling as Zidine looked genuinely amazed, only to hear a mountain shatter as a massive beast showed itself. “Little do I care for Zeus, with only a few lightnings to arm him! Ah, but my swords are the maddened waves of the sea, the tors of the land, the island glens; my shields are the hills, the cliffs are my breastplates unbreakable, my halberts are the rocks, and the rivers which will quench the contemptible thunderbolt. I will keep the chains of Iapetos (Iapetus) for Poseidon; and the soaring round Kaukasos (Caucasus), another and better eagle shall tear the bleeding liver, growing for ever anew, of Hephaistos the fiery: since fire was the for which Prometheus has been suffering the ravages of his self-growing liver. I will take a shape the counterpart of the sons [the Aloadai giants] of Iphimedeia, and I will shut up the intriguing son of Maia [Hermes] in a brazen jar, prisoned with galling bonds, that people may say, "Hermes freed Ares from prison, and he was put in prison himself!" Let Artemis break the untouched seal of her maidenhood, and become enforced consort of [the giant] Orion; Leto shall spread her old bedding for [the giant] Tityos, dragged to wedlock by force. I will make more weapons of fire; for I need many thunderbolts, because I have two hundred hands to fight with, not only a pair like Kronides [Zeus]. I will forge a newer and better brand of lightning, with more fire and flashes. I will build another heaven up aloft, the eight, broader and higher than the rest, and furnish it with brighter stars; for the vault which we see so close beside us is not enough to cover the whole of Typhon. And after those girl children and the male progeny of prolific Zeus, I will beget another multiparous generation of new Blessed Ones with multitudinous necks. I will not leave the company of the stars useless and unwedded, but I will join male to female, that the winged Virgin [constellation Virgo] may sleep with the Oxherd [Bootes] and breed me slave-children.” Kronides [Zeus] heard, and laughed aloud, causing much damage to the wider Chaos and Tartaros alike, only for him to fire thunderbolt after thunderbolt. Helena felt herself dying as her soul parted itself in absolute fear as thunderstorms could be heard around the boundless world and earth itself. The whole circuit of the universe with its four sides was buffeted. The four Winds, allied with Kronion, raised in their air columns of sombre dust; they swelled the arching waves, they flogged the sea until Sikelia (Sicily) quaked; the Pelorid shores resounded and the ridges of Aitna (Etna), the Lilybaian rocks bellowed prophetic things to come, the Pakhynian (Pachynian) promontory crashed under the western wave. Near the Bear, the Nymphe of Athos wailed about her Thrakian glen, the forest of Makedon (Macedonia) roared on the Pierian ridge; the foundations of the east were shaken, there was crashing in the fragrant valleys of Assyrian Libanos (Lebanon). Aye, and from Typhaon's hands were showered volleys against the unwearied thunderbolts of Zeus. Some shots went past Selene's (the Moon's) car, and scored through the invisible footprints of her moving bulls; others whirling through the air with sharp whiz, the Winds blew away by counterblast. Many a stray shot from the invulnerable thunderbolts of Zeus fell into the welcoming hand of Poseidon, unsparing of his earthpiercing trident's point; old Nereus brought the brine-soaked bolts to the ford of the Kronion Sea, and dedicated them as an offering to Zeus.

Now Zeus armed the two grim sons of Enyalios [Ares], his own grandsons, Phobos (Rout) and Deimos (Terror) his servant, the inseparable guardsmen of the sky: Phobos he set up with the lightning, Deimos he made strong with the thunderbolt, terrifying Typhon. Nike (Victory) lifted her shield and held it before Zeus: Enyo [the war-goddess] countered with a shout, and Ares made a din. Zeus breasting the tempests with his aigis-breastplate swooped down from the air on high, seated in Khronos's (Time's) chariot with four winged steeds, for the horses that drew Kronion were the team of the Winds. “COME!” Zidine screamed in his Berserker Mode, having now fully activated the true power of his 8th Lightning of Elding, summoning the Aegis fully. Now he battled with lightnings, now with Levin; now he attacked with thunders, now poured out petrified masses of frozen hail in volleying showers. Waterspouts burst thick upon the Gigante's head with sharp blows, and hands were cut off from the monster by the frozen volleys of the air as by a knife. One hand rolled in the dust, struck off by the icy cut of the hail; it did not drop the crag which it held, but fought on even while it fell, and shot rolling over the ground in self-propelled leaps, a hand gone mad! As if it still wished to strike the vault of Olympos. She knew not that the fire-flaming thunderbolts and lightnings are the offspring of the clouds from whence the rain-showers come! “You can never harm me, wretched one!” Zidine screamed as his roar caused huge natural disasters on a universal scale as even the Olympus was being shattered. Again, he cut straight off sections of the torrent-beds, and designed to crush the breast of Zeus which no iron can wound; the mass of rock came hurtling at Zeus, but Zeus blew a light puff from the edge of his lips, and that gentle breath turned the whirling rock aside with all its towering crags. The monster with his hand broke off a rounded promontory from an island, and rising for the attack circled it round his head again and again, and cast it at the invincible face of Zeus; then Zeus moved his head aside, and dodged the jagged rock which came at him; but Typhon hit the lightning as it passed on its hot zigzag path, and at once the rock was white-patched at the tip and blackened with smoke--there was no mistake about it. A third rock he cast; but Kronion caught it in full career with the flat of his infinite open hand, and by a playful turn of the wrist sent it back like a bouncing ball to Typhon. The crag returned with many an airy twist along its homeward path, and of itself shot the shooter. A fourth shot he sent, higher than before: the rock touched the tassel-tips of the aigis-cape, and split asunder. Another he let fly: storm-swift the rock flew, but a thunderbolt struck it, and half-consumed, it blazed. The crags could not pierce the raincloud; but the stricken hills were broken to pieces by the rainclouds. Thus impartial Enyo held equal balance between the two sides, between Zeus and Typhon, while the thunderbolts with booming shots revel like dancers in the sky. Kronides fought fully armed: in the fray, the thunder was his shield, the cloud his breastplate, he cast the lightning for a spear; Zeus let fly his thunderbolts from the air, his arrows barbed with fire. For already from the underground abyss a dry vapour diffused around rose from the earth on high, and compressed within the cloud was stifled in the fiery gullet, heating the pregnant cloud. For the lurking flame crushed within rushed about struggling to find a passage through; over the smoke the fire-breeding clouds rumble in their agony seeking the middle path; the fire dares not go upwards; for the lightning leaping up is kept back by the moist air bathed in rainy drops, which condenses the seething cloud above, but the lower part is parched and gapes and the fire runs through with a bound. As the female stone is struck by the male stone, one stone on another brings lame to birth, while crushed and beaten it produces from itself a shower of sparks: so the heavenly fire is kindled in clouds and murk crushed and beaten, but from earthly smoke, which is naturally thin, the winds are brought forth. There is another floating vapour, drawn form the waters, which the sun shining full on them with fiery rays milks out and draws up dewy through the boiling track of air. This thickens and produces the cloudy veil; then shaking the thick mass by means of the thinner vapour, it dissolves the fine cloud again into a fall of rain, and returns to its natural condition of water. Such is the character of the fiery clouds, with their twin birth of lightnings and thunders together. Now his thunder bolts would Jove wide scatter, but he feared the flames, unnumbered, sacred ether might ignite and burn the axle of the universe: and he remembered in the scroll of fate, there is a time appointed when the sea and earth and Heavens shall melt, and fire destroy the universe of mighty labour wrought. Such weapons by the skill of Cyclops forged, for different punishment he laid aside—for straightway he preferred to overwhelm the mortal race beneath deep waves and storms from every raining sky. As is said in Hesiod’s Theogony lines 630-820: "The hot vapour lapped round the Titenes Khthonios (Earthly): flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air (aither): the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized air (khaos): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth (Gaia) and wide Heaven (Ouranos) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth (Gaia) were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven (Ouranos) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war... And great Olympos was shaken under the immortal feet of the master as he moved, and the earth groaned beneath him, and the heat and blaze from both of them was on the dark-faced sea, from the thunder and lightning of Zeus and from the flame of the monster, from his blazing bolts and from the scorch and breath of his stormwinds, and all the ground and the sky and the sea boiled, and towering waves were tossing and beating all up and down the promontories in the wind of these immortals, and a great shaking of the earth. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Okeanos' streams and the unfruitful sea and even in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Book 8, Fable 2-3 and lines 229-264: “The everlasting universe contains four elementary bodies. Two of these, namely, earth and water, are heavy, and are borne downwards by their weight; and as many are devoid of weight, and air, and fire still purer than air, nothing pressing them, seek the higher regions. Although these are separated in space, yet all things are made from them, and are resolved into them. Both the earth dissolving distils into flowing water; the water, too, evaporating, departs in the breezes and the air; its weight being removed again, the most subtle air shoots upwards into the fires of the æther on high. Thence do they return back again, and the same order is unravelled; for fire becoming gross, passes into dense air; this changes into water, and earth is formed of the water made dense. Nor does its own form remain to each; and nature, the renewer of all things, re-forms one shape from another. And, believe me, in this universe so vast, nothing perishes; but it varies and changes its appearance; and to begin to be something different from what it was before, is called being born; and to cease to be the same thing, is to be said to die. Whereas, perhaps, those things are transferred hither, and these things thither; yet, in the whole, all things ever exist." as Helena was horrified, realising her plan would fail. Her Platonic Form and full power over the Omniverse was reduced to dust as Zidine stood over her. “You will suffer… woman.” Zidine said as he noticed Fenrir and Surtur’s battle had clearly wiped away stars and mountains alike, with the Aegis ringing in her ears. “Please… spare me.” Helena said as Zidine smiled coldly. “As for Eros (Love), who bewitched your mind by delusive hopes of victory, chain him with golden Aphrodite in chains of gold, and clamp with chains of bronze Ares the governor or iron!” Helena spake to which Zidine swiftly said “f*ck thee!” as he then stated and gloated “the lightnings try to escape, and will now abide Enyo! How was it you could not escape a harmless little flash of lightning? How was it with all those innumerable ears you were afraid to hear a little rainy thud of thunder? Who made you so big a coward? Where are your weapons? Where are your puppyheads? Where are those gaping lions, where is the heavy bellowing of your throats like a rumbling earthquake? Where is the far-flung poison of your snaky mane? Do not you hiss any more with that coronet of serpentine bristles? Where are the bellowings of your bull-mouths? Where are your hands and their volleys of precipitous crags? Do you flog no longer the mazy circles of the stars? Do the jutting tusks of your boards no longer whiten their chins, wet with a frill of foamy drippings? Come now, where are the bristling grinning jaws of the mad bear?” with him summoning Helios himself to deal with her; her bosom ensnared in chains of gold; the very same chains that Hephaestus used to ensnare Hera. “Forgive me, Mother… whilst you were stronger than I in the power of rawness… your punishment is deserved.” as he immediately saw Surtur himself, teleporting Fenrir away and roaring, using the Blades of Demphaus. “Ragnarok will be thy end!” Surtur screamed as the entirety of the universe and all of Creation (the Omniverse) was being consumed by flames… however this was contained by Helios’ mere existence in the country (even if in its primordiality, the entirety of the universe and that which were Olympos was, surely an otherworldly space) to the courtyard alone as the two raging beasts fought. “You think you can stop the end of Existence?” Surtur asked as all the Nine Worlds were already smouldering to ash. Valhalla was all that remained. Haakon watched as he knew just how bad things were. “I am something of an Existence stopper myself.” Zidine said (:D) as he used his Blades of Demphaus’ full power to stab into Surtur who laughed. “Yggdrasil is gone. Burned to its roots.

In each multiverse, there are nine universes (6 multiverses with 9 universes in each, making 54) The only universes named are in Magna (as it is where most of the story takes place).

These nine universes may also be called realms. These realms makeup Yggdrasil Minora, the World Tree in Norse mythology with these universes being pocket dimensions in the universe, with them simply being universal in size.

These include: JOTUNHEIM: the home of the Ice Giants.

VANAHEIM: the home of the Vanir, the family of Norse gods who are associated with fertility and magic.

ALFHEIM: the home of the Good Elves.

ASGARD: the home of the Aesir (Odin, Thor, Loki, etc.) NIFLHEIM: the primordial land of ice.

MIDGARD: another name for the Mortal Realm.

PLANET ALDAN: at the edge of Midgard, exists Planet Aldan, a planet which was once full of life and vegetation, but Aldan burned it so he could use it as his personal training ground and for his successors.

THE NEUTRON STAR: The Neutron Star is a star, which exists somewhere in the Mortal Realm. The Neutron Star is a star created by Masudala which was meant to serve as a training ground for him and his future successors.

MUSPELHEIM: the primordial land whose flames melted the ice of Niflheim making the Nine Realms.

SVARTÁLFAR/NIĐAVELLIR: home of the Dark Elves, also known as Dwarves. HELHEIM: the land of the dead.

VALHALLA/ELYSIUM: where the warriors who died in battle go to drink mead.

That said, the Omniverse is infinitely above all 6 Multiverses without doubt. Within the Nothing there are four omniverses. These omniverses are connected together by the Major World Tree, otherwise known as Yggdrasil Majora. Three are visible, and one is hidden. They transcend infinite-dimensionality as a concept and transcend all definitions of dimensionality, logic and language.

As mentioned, these are:

  1. MINORA - the smallest of the omniverses
  2. MAXIMA - the largest of the omniverses
  3. AKITERA - the medial omniverse, it's size is in-between Maxima and Minora.
  4. AKASHA - this omniverse is hidden because it contains the Library of Babel, an infinite library containing all knowledge in the omniverse. The Library also contains the Akashic Records an infinite book which also contains all knowledge. The Library of Babel contains an infinite amount of books each of which contain an infinite number of pages.

Outer Realms[]

The Outer Realms consist of Heaven, Hell, Underworld, and Mortis. Heaven, the land of immortals, Hell, the land of demons, Underworld, land of souls/afterlife, and Mortis, land of reapers. The heaven and hell referenced here are different to the heaven and hell in the underworld. The heaven and hell here are Jigoku and Tengoku, these are where immortal beings exist. Tengoku is where the immortal beings live, and Jigoku is where the demons live.

Additionally, there are two other realms, Heaven and Hell which are the highest and lowest, respectively.

HEAVEN: Heaven is above Yggdrasil, and is home of the Immortals and was once home of the Angels. Heaven is a realm that once belonged to the Angels as they created it as a home and base in the war against the Demons. Now, Heaven has three galaxies, these are:

THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN: a galaxy which contains all the territories of the Kingdom of Heaven which include planets and stars and solar systems, etc. At the centre of the galaxy is the White City, the capital city of the Kingdom of Heaven. It is where the Immortals live and where the Father rules the Kingdom. It is the size of an entire solar system. It is a beautiful utopia. There is the great Palace of Heaven, where the Father rules from. It is in the very centre, a blue marble palace, with domes, and towers, lit by torches that burn eternally. The people of heaven dress in silk, and the colours red and black are avoided since it reminds them of hell. People learn and speak every language in the multiverse. Men’s fashion is silk robes, often green and blue, and hats of all kinds are worn. Women’s fashion includes lavender, lotus, pink, indigo and purple dresses, and long flowing hair that is rarely tied up.

TENGOKU: the literal Heaven. It is the place where good souls who have passed away go to rest for eternity. It is a place where there is no work, no plain, only eternal bliss and pleasure. The skies over Heaven are blue and beautiful, and their are passing clouds that provide a beautiful shade. The trees are beautiful, and there is never an ugly tree. There is one city in Heaven, the Kingdom of Okami. It is lined with beautiful marble houses, each house the size of a regular palace. Then, in the centre, it is the Okami Square. The Okami Square is a huge shopping area, where there is a mall, restaurants, and many shops. There is no crime, and no poverty. No homeless people. Everything is for free, and everyone is rich. It’s perfect. Outside the city are just the rural areas. These are beautiful areas ranging from beautiful glaciers and icy mountains, to sunny beaches, or tropical rainforests. There is no death, no pain, nothing that can harm you. The snakes play with the children, and the wolves play with the sheep. You are given 2 options when living in heaven:

  • Living in your own desired place.
  • Or living in the city.

The Father rules over Heaven, all of it. It was created by the Father, as his home, and gradually, more of his friends came to live there as well. Soon there was a race of immortals, born in heaven. Also, warriors who die doing heroic things and other heroes become immortals and live here. There have been invasions in the past, but Heaven has remained very peaceful with it’s neighbours. The reason why there are so many invasions and potential conquerors, is because of the treasure which lies in Heaven. The Key That Shall Open Nothing. This Key is said to be among the most powerful objects in the multiverse. No one apart from only 5 people know it’s purpose. These people are Masaru, Xiaoyu, Zidine, Satoshi and the Father.

KAKURETA: this realm is unknown. Even the Angels did not know it's purpose and they themselves could not enter.

Utopia is a realm that once belonged to the Guardians as they created it as a home and base in the war against the Demons. Now, Utopia has two galaxies, these are:

THE KINGDOM OF UTOPIA: a galaxy which contains all the territories of the Kingdom of Utopia which include planets and stars and solar systems, etc. At the centre of the galaxy is the White City, the capital city of the Kingdom of Utopia. It is where the Utopians live and where the Minister rules the Kingdom from. It is the size of an entire solar system. It is a beautiful utopia.

ELYSIUM: This gate leads to a cave. The Cave of Four. The cave has four entrances. The gate on the right leads to Elysium, the heaven where souls who did good in their life go. The gate on the left leads to Gehenna, the hell where souls who did bad in their life go. The gate in the middle, leads to A’aru. The Field of Reeds, a purgatory, where souls who’s lives were peaceful and balanced went, to live a peaceful eternity of farming, with those they loved, and there was no death or pain. Then the gate in the ground, leads to the Land of Forgotten, where those who were forgotten by the living cease to exist, and remain as ashes in an endless cold realm. Elysium is a plain where, those who lived good remain for eternity. The soul who is good remains with their family, living in an eternal realm of pleasure. The realm takes the place of where the family collectively decides to be. For example, if a family decides they want to live in a jungle, they will live in a jungle. If they want to live in a beach, they can live in a beach. However, the family has to choose where they live when they are alive. They do this by asking a wizard or priest to sign their letter, a ‘Letter of Insurance for Elysium’, a ‘L.I.E.’

HELL: Hell is home of the Demons and situated beneath Yggdrasil. Hell is a truly dark realm. Hell was first created by Lucifer and the Demons when they needed a home and base in their war against the Angels. Also called Dystopia. Hell contains 9 circles and 7 gates, each of which are transcendentally higher per every lower gate. Each gate contains many galaxies and 100,000 planets that are said to span several galaxies in size, but only three galaxies are of any importance:

THE KINGDOM OF HELL: a galaxy first created by Azazel when he united all the Devil tribes and kingdoms and territories. It contains the planets and stars and solar systems owned by the Kingdom of Hell. Despite its location, the Kingdom of Hell is infinite in size and is at the 8th Layer of Hell where the Devil, Naar and his family resided. At it's centre is the Black City, a city which was first established to almost mock the White City. It too is as big as a solar system. The city block itself is a tall, and big castle, with maroon bricks, and blue candles. Stone gargoyles are put on every tower. A huge moat of poisonous water is around the castle, and a huge drawbridge is in the side of the castle. The devil would live in the huge keep in the centre of the Bailey, protected by four curtain walls, connected by huge towers, mostly used for archery. Outside the city, are mountains of red sand to the east, a great river to the north, a wall of fire in the west, and an army of a million demon soldiers in the south. All of these measures are to protect the main kingdom from demon terrorists and other warlords. Also, deep underground the castle, exists the portal to the Shahis Dimension (the portal to a realm of demons). The portal exists in a massive underground basem*nt, and many stairs from the basem*nt lead overground. The underworld is actually just a great palace. This great palace acts as a gate, a gate to the Quantis Dimension. When entering the underworld, there is a gate, a drawbridge which opens onto a bridge, a great stone bridge, in the middle of a green sea. The green sea is the Sea of Sins. The Sea of Sins has every sin committed by every mortal in it. The stone bridge leads to a platform, a platform where Charon, the ferryman of the underworld awaits. He sails travellers across the next sea. The Sea of Souls. This sea is blue, and has lost souls swimming in it. Once crossing the sea, you enter the throne room of the Judge. The Judge rules over the Underworld, but he/she doesn’t spend a lot of time in the underworld, instead working from the Court of Justice, so he/she appoints Hades to rule over for them, but Hades answers to the Judge.

QUANTIS: To go to the Quantis dimension, one must please the King of the Underworld. If they don’t please him, they die, but if they do, the King let’s them go to an entrance behind the throne. The entrance leads to a great mountain in a stormy weather. One must climb the mountain, to the next gate. Yomi.

ARTASH: a realm which contains the Helhearth, a great fire which powers Hell, and if it is destroyed, Hell is destroyed.

JIGOKU: this is the real Hell. This is where the wicked souls go after they die as they are punished for eternity which is also called Naraka by Ashoka.

GEHENNA — A place where those who commit evil acts dwell therein forever and possesses a lake of black fire that burns eternally. The soul remains suffocating, drowning in this black fire, for eternity.” Surtur explained to Zidine’s sheer horror as he used the full power of Berserker Mode (including some, say, anywhere from 5 or 20% to 50% of the 9th Form’s power) to end Surtur, causing a huge explosion that destroyed the entirety of Existence which only destroyed Hesperia with Surtur’s body becoming stone by way of the Aegis, finally allowing Zidine to end him conceptually by way of his thunderbolts. All logic, space, time and existence was annihilated in Hesperia thenceforth as Surtur’s screams ripped everything apart barring the castle thanks to Helios. “BURN IN HELL, SON OF A BITCH!” Zidine screamed as he noticed all of Surtur and Ragnarok’s flames, destructive power and intensity going into both his blades in that instant, ultimately causing him to jump down in a bowing position to his father. “You erased him from all of time-space, boy. Good on you. Thou hast removed the concept of absolute annihilation and true Armageddon. A concept is an abstract or law that is superior to all aspects of a particular notion. It is what makes a thing that it is about even possible. Say, for example, the concept of a tree would be superior to all possible trees. It is the very thing that makes those trees "being" even possible. Should someone or something, in this case a very powerful God were to remove that (conceptually erase it), then it wouldn't be possible for trees to even "be".” Helios said to Zidine, visibly impressed with him as Helios then unsealed Pandora, hugging her tightly. “Indeed, I sense he is stronger than a Spanish man of his senior year [by 3] in his school and perhaps an Englishman is weaker than he in physicality and power therein. Yet in terms of tools, he is superior to my boy but Satoshi himself… is indeed strong but weaker than Zidine in physicality and raw power however in his transcendent State of the One… he is superior in all formations as his sword of the Night and Day and all such powers are relative in strength to Mjolnir. This Flaming Sword is superior to all of the universe as a power of flame. I know my boy shalt be superior to him and all of us in this world in perhaps a year.” Helios said to his wife who knelt and cried at his feet. “SPARE ME! PLEASE! I LOVE THEE!” Helena screamed as he saw her actions. “Thou art a killer of children and a sealer of my daughter.” Helios said as a beam of sunlight devoured itself from his Sceptre. Time briefly stopped throughout all of Creation except Zidine and Surtur casually fought. “Farewell, wife. May Tartaros be the hell which awaits thee. You are a true wretch and my mercy was much my downfall.” He swiftly said, judging her. Now as the earth was scourged with frozen volleys of jagged hailstones, her mother dry Gaia (the Earth) was beaten too; and seeing the stone bullets and icy points embedded in the Gigante's flesh, the witness of his fate, she prayed to Titan Helios with submissive voice: she begged of him one red hot ray, that with its heating fire she might melt the petrified water of Zeus as he gave no sway and teleported her to Tartaros where all of the Olympians were waiting. “End her.” They all said as Hera glared at her. “Your vow broke, celibate whor*.” Hera swiftly said as she drowned her insides and soul with water, releasing her cloth, body, mind, soul, concept, heart, story, life, death, name, meaning and existence infinitely as she screamed for repentance but this was no time for mercy. She was drowned in water, burned alive, snakes ripped her apart, Heracles tore her up, Artemis burned her with moonlight, every punishment in existence was hers, to which Zidine walked away. The entire land he once called home was gone as everyone in Tartaros heard a finger snap. “Even in defeat… your son calleth for mercy.” Helios spoke as Zidine appeared in Tartaros. “Goodbye, Mother. I feel nothing but empathy for you… but… this is it. Farewell. Tell George… his death was not in vain. And also… Abram is laughing at you.” Zidine spoke as he grabbed Mjolnir and simply pressed its head unto his mother’s forehead and knocked her out. “True humility cometh from the heart… of which thy son has attained.” Athena spoke as Zidine coldly touched her with his fingers, gently… erasing her from existence. “Let death be her end… she is forever erased from history.” Zidine spoke, glaring at everyone as he teleported away as he sensed Demeter willing back into existence the land of Hesperia. “Come… Pandora.” Helios said as he took her to the throne room with Zidine watching on peacefully as he was gestured in. “I bless thee with the Crown of Night.” Helios said, as from his fingers, sprouted a crown that was the literal idea and ideal form of the Night; black in colour yet utterly beautiful. Her clothing was the Sky, her feet were the Moon and Sun. Platonic Forms couldn’t even be a fraction of her. Aphrodite and the other deities blessed with a bow, swords, flaming beasts, water, earth, air, true beauty. The Form of the Good was she yet still these all held a candle in the wind to the final gift. “This… is yours.” Helios said, imbuing the Staff of Phánîs with the full power of Aether, as well as forcing the staff to resemble a beautiful moon and sun all the same; as Olympus was a mere iota of her being and power anyhow. “Thus, you are Dîmiourgόs of this land for I shalt bless you with my power [all or not, infinite is it].” Helios spoke as Zidine watched on with no anger but sadness and grief which tormented his heart. “It is thus: The Aithír cannot "create" without Earth. A universe comes about of its own accord, by Necessity (Ἀνάγκη) through Time (Χρόνος), and develops through natural processes, natural laws. This is told mythologically in the theogony with the emergence of the Golden Age [4] of Phánis (Φάνης) and Nyx (Νύξ) and then continuing with the birth of Ouranós (Οὐρανός) and Yaia (Γαῖα), and then progressing to the Silver Age of Krónos (Κρόνος) and Rǽa (Ῥέα). Like Phanes (or perhaps it is Phanes) it is a primordial entity that personifies the act of creation and the ultimate state of perfection. The gods and goddesses as we know them still exist in this model, and still deserve worship. To put it in my own terms, “God” in the singular is the Absolute, and gods and goddesses — while they are all divine, and none inferior — are too limited in their scope to be the Absolute.” I’d say to thee in a simplified form that Khronos is the fabric of Space-Time, Ananke is Force (all/any force), Phanes is Heat and Light (or all/any energy), and Nyx and Erebus are the corresponding lack thereof (the cold and dark vacuum of space). In Orphic theogonies, the Orphic Egg is a cosmic egg from which hatched the primordial hermaphroditic deity Phanes/Protogonos.” Helios explained as Zidine kindly and genuinely smiled in what seemed like forever. “Zidine, my boy… Do you want to take the position as King instead?” Helios asked as Zidine’s hands wrung with guilt. He closed his eyes and simply said “No… I am not worthy of it. She is truly your right successor. I have one more task to complete for I hath bathed in my arrogance for too long. It is now time I cleanse myself of the Final Sins.” Zidine said; his left eye itching for its final goal. He then gave his sister Poseidon’s trident and Hades’ dog-skin cap (Helm of Invisibility). “Always remember: A true hero isn't measured by the size of his strength, but by the strength of his heart.” Helios said as Zidine bowed down to Helios and his sister, ultimately walking away. “Zidine… please stay.” Pandora asked, practically begging him only for him to say “I cannot stay. Burdening thee, I will not. Instead I shall focus on my innards and chaos-bound sinews, letting myself ruminate in perhaps true calmness. He then teleported over to Greece and sat in the Acropolis, allowing himself to do exactly as he said, meditating for a year. He felt a sense of peace with Helios sitting down with him. “Boy… eventually, time itself will run thee dry and yet must let thyself be at peace. Both Berserker and human.” Helios spoke from within Zidine’s mind. He saw Heimdall, Loki, Thor, Frigga, Odin, Tyr, Freyr and all the other Norse gods appearing in the Acropolis; with Tyr, Freyr and Thor fighting him at the same time, immediately using their respective powers only for Zidine to match Thor in lightning with extreme difficulty; the former’s Berserker Mode’s power being more than enough to counter Thor’s runic power. “Thy family is a lie, boy.” Heimdall said, smiling, knowing that Zidine stopped Ragnarok. “How?” Zidine asked to which Thor simply said “Thy mother bore intimacy with Father too, brother… in order to have thy Berserker Mode.” as Zidine’s eyes glared at him, sending him flying back with one kick only for Tyr to casually restrain him with his hand. “Heimdall keeps watch for invaders and the onset of Ragnarök from his dwelling Himinbjörg, where the burning rainbow bridge Bifröst meets the sky. He is attested as possessing foreknowledge and keen senses, particularly eyesight and hearing. The god and his possessions are described in enigmatic manners. For example, Heimdall is emerald-toothed, "the head is called his sword," and he is "the whitest of the gods." Heimdall possesses the resounding horn Gjallarhorn and the golden-maned horse Gulltoppr, along with a store of mead at his dwelling. He is the son of Nine Mothers, and he is said to be the originator of social classes among humanity. Other notable stories include the recovery of Freyja's treasured possession Brísingamen while doing battle in the shape of a seal with Loki. The antagonistic relationship between Heimdall and Loki is notable, as they are foretold to kill one another during the events of Ragnarök. Heimdallr is also known as Rig, Hallinskiði, Gullintanni, and Vindlér or Vindhlér. The etymology of the name is obscure, but 'the one who illuminates the world' has been proposed. Heimdallr may be connected to Mardöll, one of Freyja's names. Heimdallr and its variants are usually anglicized as Heimdall (/ˈheɪmdɑːl/; with the nominative -r dropped). Heimdall is attested as having three other names; Hallinskiði, Gullintanni, and Vindlér or Vindhlér. The name Hallinskiði is obscure, but has resulted in a series of attempts at deciphering it. Gullintanni literally means 'the one with the golden teeth'. Vindlér (or Vindhlér) translates as either 'the one protecting against the wind' or 'wind-sea'. All three have resulted in numerous theories about the god.” Tyr explained only for Zidine to walk away as he then saw a man of ashen skin. He is very tall, being 7 feet 8 inches (2.34 metres). Due to his long lifetime as a warrior, he is in peak physical condition of a large, athletic frame with a well-defined and muscular build. Since adulthood, he sported a red tattoo going down the majority of his upper body and up to his face, a tattoo he wore in honour of his brother, Deimos. On his face, besides the aforementioned tattoo, he has a scar on his right eye and a black goatee and hazel brown eyes. With him being older, middle-aged, he has some wrinkles on his face looking to be in his mid to late-50's. His goatee has grown into a bushy, full beard which covers half his face and has several grey hairs. His skin is still pale and covered with the ashes of his Spartan family, and his tattoos have faded slightly.. Also from the same wound, he now has a long scar covering almost all of his lower back. He wears black leather pants and shoes, also present are faded scars from where the chains from the blades were attached to his forearms, which he prefers to keep covered beneath with what appears to be fur-lined leather, secured with thongs of leather. “Who are yo-?!” Zidine asked as his soul was sent flying back, only for him to use Mjolnir to fight against the man, silent he was, as he used an axe similar to the Drigo Axe with Zidine then immediately using his Runic powers to stop this man from reaching him and then adding his thunderbolts whilst further using his 8th form, sending the man flying away. “Who are you?!” Zidine asked as the man simply stated “Cratus” to which Zidine coldly smiled, using the power of the Aegis to freeze him in stasis. “Very well, god of strength… goodbye.” Zidine said, using the power of Jove to end him for good with Tyr and the others looking amazed. Needless to say, they fought for a year (Zidine against the Norse pantheon) as Haakon watched from Valhalla in slight amazement and perhaps… fear. As the year passed in the Acropolis… his attacks both alone and with the deities, helped annihilate the otherworldly and extradimensional Olympus, surely transcendent of time, space and all such words [for he thus attacked and destroyed solar systems or galaxies therein, holding back against the Norse deities with the exclusion of Thor and Tyr however this was perhaps illusory] only for Zidine’s physical body to finally be done with that… now finally tired as the deities bowed down to him. “It it time…” Thor said to Zidine himself as he had already accepted that his family were liars. “Thus, my lineage may be full of glory-hunters… but I will be his end. Farewell.” Zidine said, finally teleporting to Iceland.

The Final Training[]

He had thus appeared on the Mountain of Ancalagor where he looked at the view of eternal whiteness that hummed with a sound of silence, with snow crunching underneath his withered boots. “Mikros Keraunos!” He called aloud; with dark light as a thunderbolt summoned itself onto him, causing his blades to be illuminated in a blue hue, grabbing them as they were on the ground; the sky having shattered itself with the sudden command of the thunderbolt he summoned, he felt the sky harbouring no sense of revenge against him for doing such an act. “Fyrsta Rún Óðins: Hjálp! (First Rune of Odin: Help!)” Zidine thought to himself, seeing his hands that were somewhat burnt; damaged by his summoning the great thunderbolt, yet his body was mostly undamaged, as he took off his cloak and armour, fully facing the bitter and loud chill of the winds of silence. The winds of silence then cheered with noise Soon, red thunderbolts shot downwards, scarring the land permanently, having now fired themselves onto him with immense speed and precision. “Ever dance with the devil in the pale moonlight?” He felt himself thinking in his head that was now clouded with thoughts of nothing but rage and the thirst for blood. “Mikros Keraunos!” He then shot from his throat; his Algiz rune becoming three sticks as though to protect him from a future danger of some kind with red thunderbolts soon striking him in that same instant as he laughed violently like a true demon would. “This feeling is marvellous! This force! This power!” He shouted to the land that slowly withered in the embers of hatred, smelling every bit of smoke that came from the land underneath, letting it singe into his nostrils as his chest hair was slowly burning away yet no pain could truly be felt. He saw one of his hands slowly release themselves from his well of thoughts with the red thunder that unleashed itself forming into a small, red, long-lost hammer.

He reached a large hall where Zidine saw tables full of drunken women and men, where the men bore big bellies. “Well, yea, I heard thy wife had slept with me!” A man said with golden horns and cold green eyes to a man as he was about to punch him. “Damn ye, Loki for if Baldr were here… ye wouldst have been paste!” Frigg said to him with sadness as they all stared at Zidine, feeling no true fear. “Where is Haakon?!” Zidine asked with absolute rage. He revealed himself. The chief Haakon, who had one eye slashed out with a rough, white beard and a dwarven helmet, as well as some type of axe on his back. “Why hast thou come over to this land of non-knowledge and isolation?” He asked as he put his axe on the ground, causing a small crack. “I need to speak to you, child-bearer!” Zidine said, as Haakon laughed. He showed an ice-blue eye with runic symbols around the sclera. “WHY?!” Haakon asked as Zidine glared at him, fully threatening to throw his hammer, revealing all of the Norse gods who were at his feet and beaten; for those within the hall of Valhalla; itself an otherworldly hall looked horrified and fearful. “Well… that man you saw was Wotan… he was revived after the End of Times with his memories majorly revoked.” Haakon explained. “Thou art the bearer of Odin’s Eye!” He said with slight shock. Zidine’s mouth laughed, whilst his mind was in a bitter battle with itself, thinking both thoughts of violence and self-preservation simultaneously only to see the red thunderbolt shoot itself on the land in front of him in the form of Haakon. “So this is what the Berserker form grants in the form of training!” Zidine said as he instantly observed this form of Haakon rushing towards him with his great axe as he made a face of coldness. “You will die.” Zidine screamed as his Berserker Mode maintained itself. “Face thy pelts of training.” Haakon then said, with each blow of his axe came blood from Zidine’s chest and neck yet the blow of thunder and lightning struck him on his body and hands, where he casually grabbed the thunderbolts, throwing them back at Haakon to his amazement. “So you wed yourself with my mother?” Zidine asked Haakon with absolute disgust as he smashed the entire mountain with Mjolnir, willing it to return by using the hammer. “Wretched boy, you know not the truth!” He said as Zidine used the thunder of Jove only for Haakon to use the fifth rune, stopping this in front of him. “You make me sick.” Zidine said as Haakon looked absolutely terrified. “Önnur Rún Óðins: Heilun (Second Rune of Odin: Healing)!” He screamed in a vain attempt to fight back in any way he could, his body slowly healing itself with every injury that befell him, sensing the very crackles of the thunderbolts simmering themselves into his very being and soul. “Protect… body…” He also thought in this moment, attempting to emblazon his hammer into Haakon, only for him to use Gungnir. “Aiming at his eye will cause him clear detriments.” Haakon thought to himself. “Thunderous Reiði Af Asgardian Gæti (Thunderous Rage of Asgardian Might)!” Haakon responded with, his axe and spear primed for its final moves on such a weak enemy as the red thunder from the sky devoured it in a dark atmosphere that was fit for a hellish landscape; the embers of the previous strikes showed themselves as both combatants soon primed themselves for their final strikes. “Berserk - Thunderous Barrier.” Zidine spoke as no crackles were heard, but instead an attack only worthy of the divine, showed itself in the fury of Haakon’s overwhelming power that rendered the once famous Norse deities into submission; as 20 thunderbolts struck Zidine with great fury and immense power with his body appearing to take intense amounts of damage but this was new. A new damage that he had never felt before as he screamed violently with Haakon having then noticed the Algiz rune merge with something else, another rune that resembled three sticks. “As if that’d work, old man.” Zidine said coldly but with no arrogance. “I will summon him.” Zidine said as Haakon smiled. “Just because you stopped Ragnarok doesn’t mean you can win against me.” He said as he observed the rune in Zidine’s eyeball. “So he has also manifested the Eihwaz for defence from weaponry. “Fjórða Og Fimmta Rún Óðins: Ógæfan Sem Splundraði Sjón Bogmanns! (Fourth and Fifth Rune of Odin: Manacle Shattering of Archer's Sight)!” Zidine screamed aloud, seeing the sky beckoning to his semi-divine command in that one, singular minute as he used his full strength to strike Haakon, reverting both Haakon and his runes to nothingness, noticing nothing more than the bitter winds of silence that once cheered for him, now jeering in dread as his ice and fire-like eyes glinted in the moonlight, his hands and body burnt with Haakon looking horrified as the entire world and universe felt absolute fear brimming from Haakon. “YOUR MOTHER WAS A whor*! SHE WANTED ME AND I GAVE HER ALL OF ME!” Haakon screamed. Zidine felt angered as he immediately used Berserker Mode to try and damage Haakon only for him to use Gungnir and thrust it into him, causing true damage only for Zidine to rip it out of himself. “I am an old man--foolish and fond, and quick with my temper. There are times I show little wisdom. And yet...here there is wisdom. The strange wisdom of the world-tree I gave this eye to. The tree that is everything. That has its roots and branches in all that is. There are ten realms in this reality--ten spheres, ten universes, and the tree winds through them all. Through every star and planet. Every hero and villain. Every life. Every story. I am Odin Borson, who built the world from corpse-meat. I am Odin One-Eye, and sometimes my one eye is open. But above all, I am Odin All-Father. I am the one who speaks for the tree. I am the king of all stories...and you are my child.” Haakon then stated as Zidine scoffed, gloating at this usage of words and self-praise. “You actual f*ckwad!” Zidine said as he used the full power of Mjolnir to slam the mountain and attempt to crush Haakon who looked visibly enraged and simply tried to push him away, only for the 2nd form of the Lightning of Elding to manifest as all that was heard was “Vortex of Death” Zidine whispered, forcing a vortex to rise around the two, sending Haakon flying upwards, allowing Zidine to rush towards him like a wolf and mercilessly attack him. “I know a fifteenth spell; the dwarf Thjothreyrir cast it upon Delling’s doors. He conjured power for the gods, and courage for the elves; they knew Odin” Haakon spoke, amplifying his power infinitely only for Zidine to use “I know a tenth spell; if I see witches at play in the air, I can cast this spell so that they get lost, so they can’t find their skins, so they can’t find their minds”, allowing them both to attack each other as he fired Mjolnir into Haakon who instinctively countered by using “A fifth I know: when I see, by foes shot, speeding a shaft through the host, flies it never so strongly I still can stay it, if I get but a glimpse of its flight”, causing Mjolnir to remain stagnant with Haakon firing Gungnir into Zidine once again and unleashing what appeared to a slew of red orbs to damage him. “This battle of runes is meaningless.” Zidine exclaimed, still with rage in his eyes as he teleported behind Haakon and called his hammer to appear before him, ultimately doing no damage to Haakon. “Die, old man. And if you are wondering, yes, I can speak runes.” Zidine said, to which he used Berserker Mode to continually bypass Haakon’s axe and runes to which his anger boiled over. “You will get no winnings here!” Haakon spoke, still annoyed as to why Zidine would seemingly come here uninvited. “Oh yeah? If I can’t… he can.” Zidine spoke and decided enough was enough and summoned Fenrir, knowing that fate would catch up to him. “Why would you summon him?” Haakon asked, with true fear bulging in his eye as Fenrir roared at him, to which he immediately used the true power of Runes to bind Fenrir. “Achilles + Zeno.” Zidine thought to himself as this attack never touched Fenrir. “You can never reach him, old Man. Your knowledge is surely low as I could implant the knowledge of the entirety of the universe and Ragnarok within thy mind. A paradox, yes… but this is your fault and ultimate sin.” Zidine said with utter hatred in his eyes, ultimately standing there as he let himself be attacked by the full power of Haakon that could end solar systems and galaxies with a mere thought and perhaps was enough to damage Olympos… patiently waiting for Fenrir to get his needed revenge, to which he teleported the giant wolf above Haakon, using 45% of his 9th form of the Lightning of Elding power to kill Haakon by stabbing him in the chest with his Blades of Demphaus. “If you defeat me, you will kill the entirety of Valhalla and this otherworld.” Haakon said in visible desperation as Zidine smiled. “Just die.” Zidine whispered to him, with Fenrir eating him, spitting out his staff. “Why should I care? I will rule anyway. You rued your sins.” Zidine said, taking the spear for him